Foreign relations of Albania

The foreign relations of Albania are its relations with other governments and peoples. Foreign relations are conducted through the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Tirana. The current minister is Olta Xhaçka. Albania is a sovereign country in Southern Europe, and the Mediterranean that declared its independence on 28 November 1912. Its foreign policy, has maintained a policy of complementarism by trying to have friendly relations with all countries. Since the collapse of Communism in 1990, Albania has extended its responsibilities and position in European and international affairs, supporting and establishing friendly relations with other nations around the world.

The main factors defining Albanian foreign policy consist of geopolitical location, population, economic crisis, and ties with Albanian diaspora throughout the world. It also maintains strong diplomatic relations with the Balkan countries, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, Israel, Portugal, South Korea, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

The main objectives of the Albanian foreign policy are, the Accession of Albania to the European Union, the International recognition of Kosovo, the recognition of Expulsion of Cham Albanians,[1] helping and protecting of the rights the Albanians in Montenegro, Macedonia, Greece, southern Serbia, Italy, and the Albanian diaspora.

OverviewEdit

The government of Albania was concerned with the developments in neighboring Kosovo, particularly in the post-Dayton agreement period. During the Kosovo War in 1999 as well as the ethnic cleansing of Albanians by Serbs alongside the subsequent refugee influx into the country, Albania's status as an ally of the United States was confirmed.[2] Albania emerged as being generally supportive of the United States.[2] The support for the United States has remained high at 95% in Muslim majority (56% of the population) Albania in contrast to the rest of the Islamic world.[2]

During the post-cold war, geo-political complexities and conflicts in the Balkans, made Albania seek a protector power with Turkey, which is a NATO member.[3] During the 1990s, state relations between Albania and Turkey were marked by high level visits, military agreements and the deployment of Turkish soldiers.[4][3][5] An Albanian-Turkish military cooperation agreement was signed on 29 July 1992.[4][3] The military agreement entailed education and training of personnel, bilateral cooperation in weapons production, joint military exercises, the exchange of military delegations and joint commissions on expanding further military ties into the future.[3] The agreement also encompassed rebuilding Albania's Pasha Liman Base in the Bay of Vlorë on the Ionian sea by Turkey, in return for granting Turkey's access and use.[6][5] Turkey has trained the Albanian Armed Forces, in particular officers and commando units.[4][6][5] During civil war in 1997, Turkey alongside other countries, participated in Operation Alba by providing a brigade of 800 Turkish troops to restore order and its involvement served mainly as a stabilising force.[4][7]

Turkey considers its friendship with Albania as important due to the context of state relations with Greece and through policy have exploited difficulties arising in Albanian-Greek relations.[8][9] Having a powerful ally in Turkey has suited Albania at times regarding difficult interstate relations with Greece.[10] Albania's emergence in the Balkans as a key NATO partner contributed to good and stronger Albanian-Turkish relations, in particular relating to military matters.[11] The military alliance during the 1990s between Turkey and Albania was also aimed against Serbia in case a war over Kosovo had a wider regional spread.[12] Greece has expressed concerns regarding Turkish relations with Albania and interpreted them as an anti-Greek measure to isolate Greece within the wider context of Albania being a potential outlet for expanding Muslim influence and Turkey allying with Muslim populations in the Balkans.[3][13][14] Turkey on the other hand claimed Greece increased tensions within the region and conveyed concerns relating to Albanian and Greek polemics with Ankara expressing a partial bias on Albania's side angering the Greeks.[15] Greece, aware of Albanian-Turkish military agreements denounced Turkey's interference in Greek affairs.[15] Though not officially considered in Turkey as a rival within Albania, during the unrest of 1997 Greece was able to become an influential actor in Albania and the early period of the Kosovo crisis (1998-1999) when Albanian officials looked to Greece for assistance.[16] The resumption of closer Albanian-Turkish relations ensured during the Kosovo crisis that made both countries act along the same policy lines toward Slobodan Milošević and the issue of Greater Serbia.[17]

Turkey supported Albania's membership to become part of NATO.[4] Military cooperation between Albania and Turkey is viewed by NATO as a stabilising factor within the volatile region of the Balkans.[18] Albania has come to depend heavily on Turkish assistance and a high amount of military security.[3] Turkey remains for Albania an important military ally alongside the U.S.[19] Through its military personnel Turkey continues to train Albanian armed forces and also to provide assistance in logistics and modernisation efforts of the Albanian military.[20][21] Radar systems for the surveillance of Albanian airspace in addition to telecommunication equipment have been supplied by Turkey to Albania.[22] Albania receives Turkish assistance for police training.[17] Turkey has continuously supported Albania from the 1990s on EU related matters as both countries view EU membership as an eventual final goal and common objective.[23] State relations of Albania with Turkey are friendly and close, due to maintenance of close links with the Albanian diaspora in Turkey and strong Turkish sociopolitical, cultural, economic and military ties with Albania.[24][25][26][27][28][29][4] Turkey has been supportive of Albanian geopolitical interests within the Balkans.[28][4][30] In Gallup polls conducted in recent times Turkey is viewed as a friendly country by 73% of people in Albania.[31] Albania has established political and economic ties with Arab countries, in particular with Arab Persian Gulf states who have heavily invested in religious, transport and other infrastructure alongside other facets of the economy in addition to the somewhat limited societal links they share.[32] Albania is also working to develop socio-political and economic ties with Israel.[33]

After the fall of the Albanian communist regime in 1991, relations between Greece and Albania became increasingly strained because of widespread allegations of mistreatment by Albanian authorities of the Greek ethnic minority in southern Albania and of the Albanian communities in northern Greece. A wave of Albanian illegal economic migrants to Greece exacerbated tensions. The crisis in Greek–Albanian relations reached its peak in late August 1994, when an Albanian court sentenced five members (a sixth member was added later) of the ethnic Greek political party Omonia to prison terms on charges of undermining the Albanian state. Greece responded by freezing all EU aid to Albania, and sealing its border with Albania. In December 1994, however, Greece began to permit limited EU aid to Albania, while Albania released two of the Omonia defendants and reduced the sentences of the remaining four.[citation needed]

There are still other impending issues in the relations between the two countries, regarding many Albanian workers in Greece who have not received legal papers despite promises by the Greek government. In 1996, the two countries signed a Treaty of Peace and Friendship and discussed the issues of the status of Albanian refugees in Greece and education in the mother tongue for the ethnic Greek minority in southern Albania. In the 1990s, Greece preferred and assisted Fatos Nano as Albanian leader due to him being Orthodox over Sali Berisha a Muslim, as Nano was seen as being friendlier to Greek interests.[34] The government of Fatos Nano was viewed by Turkey as having a pro-Greek orientation and expressed some dissatisfaction though during that time still maintained close military relations with Albania in rebuilding its armed forces and a military base.[19]

Today, as result of very frequent high-level contacts between the governments and the parliaments, relations between the two countries are regarded as excellent. Greece is a staunch supporter of the Euro-Atlantic integration of the Republic of Albania. Since Albania's NATO entry in May 2009, the Albanian-Greek relations have been developing on all fronts, and especially after the election victory of Edi Rama in 2013,[35] with the Albanian Chief of Foreign Policy, Ralf Gjoni, describing the diplomatic relations between two countries as "excellent". Greece today is Albania's most important European Union ally and NATO partner.[36] At the Albanian government's request, about 250 Greek military personnel are stationed in Albania to assist with the training and restructuring of the Albanian Armed Forces, as part of the NATO programme. Big projects currently in running between the two countries include the touristic development of the Ionian coastline shared between the two countries, and the Trans Adriatic Pipeline (TAP), which helped boosting the relations of the two countries even further.

Albania's ties with Greece are also based on cultural and historic relations of the two peoples, including migration and national minorities. In addition, since Albania's transition to democracy, Greece has become a major financial partner of the country with Albania's economy being heavily reliant on investments from Greece. Culturally, the two nations populations, whilst having a tense history, share numerous cultural and historic traits that have been used to boost the political relations of the neighbouring countries.

Disputes

The Albanian government supports the protection of the rights of ethnic Albanians outside of its borders but has downplayed them to further its primary foreign policy goal of regional cooperation; Albanian majority in Kosovo seeks full recognition of the declared independence from Serbia; Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia claim discrimination in education, access to public-sector jobs, and representation in government.[citation needed] A handful of Albanian troops have participated in the U.S.-led military operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.[37] Albanian policy is very favorable to that of the United States and European Union.

The $30 million Albanian-American Enterprise Fund (AAEF), launched in 1994, is actively making debt and equity investments in local businesses.[38] AAEF is designed to harness private sector efforts to assist in the economic transformation. U.S. assistance priorities include promotion of agricultural development and a market economy, advancement of democratic institutions (including police training), and improvements in quality of life.

List of countriesEdit

Albania currently has diplomatic relations with the following countries as of 2020:

 
Countries which have diplomatic relations with Albania
# Country Year
1   Bulgaria 1946[39]
2   France 1946[39]
3   Russia 1946[39]
4   Serbia 1946[39]
5   Czech Republic 1948[39]
6   Ethiopia 1948[39]
7   Poland 1948[39]
8   Romania 1948[39]
9   China 1949[39]
10   Hungary 1949[39]
11   Italy 1949[39]
12   Mongolia 1950[39]
13   North Korea 1950[39]
14   Austria 1956[39]
15   India 1956[39]
16   Sudan 1957[39]
17   Egypt 1958[39]
18   Guinea 1958[39]
19   Iraq 1958[39]
20   Turkey 1958[39]
21   Somalia 1960[39]
22   Ghana 1961[39]
23   Cambodia 1962[39]
24   Morocco 1962[39]
25   Algeria 1963[39]
26   Vietnam 1963[39]
27   Indonesia 1965[39]
28   Mali 1965[39]
29   Pakistan 1965[39]
30   Tanzania 1966[39]
31   Republic of the Congo 1968[39]
32   Kuwait 1968[39]
33   Belgium 1970[39]
34   Central African Republic 1970[39]
35   Denmark 1970[39]
36   Finland 1970[39]
37   Libya 1970[39]
38    Switzerland 1970[39]
39   Chile 1971[39]
40   Greece 1971[39]
41   Iran 1971[39]
42   Netherlands 1971[39]
43   Norway 1971[39]
44   Equatorial Guinea 1972[40]
45   Luxembourg 1972[39]
46     Nepal 1972[39]
47   Niger 1972[39]
48   Sweden 1972[39]
49   Argentina 1973[39]
50   Brunei 1973[39]
51   Burundi 1973[39]
52   Cameroon 1973[39]
53   Colombia 1973[39]
54   Costa Rica 1973[39]
55   Malta 1973[39]
56   New Zealand 1973[39]
57   Nigeria 1973[39]
58   Peru 1973[39]
59   Senegal 1973[39]
60   Tunisia 1973[39]
61   Benin 1974[39]
62   Brazil 1974[39]
63   Gabon 1974[39]
64   Guinea-Bissau 1974[39]
65   Lebanon 1974[39]
66   Mexico 1974[39]
67   Laos 1975[39]
68   Mozambique 1975[39]
69   Venezuela 1975[39]
70   Myanmar 1976[39]
71   Madagascar 1976[39]
72   San Marino 1976[39]
73   Sierra Leone 1976[39]
74   Bangladesh 1977[39]
75   Burkina Faso 1977[39]
76   Mauritania 1977[39]
77   Panama 1978[39]
78   Syria 1978[39]
79   Nicaragua 1979[39]
80   Sao Tome and Principe 1979[39]
81   Yemen 1979[39]
82   Zambia 1979[39]
83   Cabo Verde 1980[39]
84   Cuba 1980[39]
85   Djibouti 1980[39]
86   Ecuador 1980[39]
87   Seychelles 1980[39]
88   Sri Lanka 1980[39]
89   Zimbabwe 1980[39]
90   Iceland 1981[39]
91   Japan 1981[39]
92   Malaysia 1981[39]
93   Portugal 1982[39]
94   Thailand 1982[39]
95   Barbados 1983[39]
96   Kenya 1983[39]
97   Australia 1984[39]
98   Guyana 1985[39]
99   Ivory Coast 1985[39]
100   Malawi 1985[41]
101   Singapore 1986[39]
102   Spain 1986[39]
103   Bolivia 1987[42]
104   Canada 1987[39]
105   Germany 1987[39]
106   Jordan 1987[39]
107   Philippines 1987[39]
108   Uruguay 1987[39]
109   Angola 1988[43]
110   Namibia 1990[44]
  State of Palestine 1990[45]
111   Cyprus 1991[46]
   Holy See 1991[47]
112   Israel 1991[48]
113   Papua New Guinea 1991[49]
114   South Korea 1991[50]
115   United States 1991[51]
116   Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992[52]
117   Croatia 1992[53]
118   Estonia 1992[51]
119   Kyrgyzstan 1992[54]
120   Latvia 1992[51]
121   Lithuania 1992[51]
122   Moldova 1992[55]
123   Oman 1992[56]
124   Paraguay 1992[46]
125   Qatar 1992[57]
126   Saudi Arabia 1992[58]
127   Slovenia 1992[59]
128   South Africa 1992[60]
129   United Arab Emirates 1992[61]
130   United Kingdom 1992[51]
131   Armenia 1993[62]
132   Azerbaijan 1993[63]
133   Bahrain 1993[64]
134   Belarus 1993[65]
135   Georgia 1993[66]
137   Guatemala 1993[46]
138   Kazakhstan 1993[67]
139   North Macedonia 1993[68]
140   Slovakia 1993[51]
141   Tajikistan 1993[69]
142   Ukraine 1993[46]
143   Uzbekistan 1993[70]
  Sovereign Order of Malta 1994[71]
144   Turkmenistan 1994[72]
145   Ireland 1995[73]
146   Andorra 1996[74]
147   Jamaica 1996[46]
148   Dominican Republic 2002[75]
149   El Salvador 2003[76]
150   Montenegro 2006[77]
  Kosovo 2008[78]
151   Samoa 2008[46]
152   Maldives 2008[79]
153   Fiji 2010[80]
154   Honduras 2010[81]
155   Saint Lucia 2010[46]
156   Monaco 2011[82]
157   Nauru 2011[46]
158   Solomon Islands 2011[83]
159   Tuvalu 2011[46]
160   Trinidad and Tobago 2014[46]
161   Saint Kitts and Nevis 2018[84]
162   Bahamas 2019[85]

The other countries which Albania has diplomatic relations are Afghanistan,[86] Botswana,[87] Liechtenstein,[88] Mauritius[89] and Uganda.[86]

OrganizationsEdit

Albania also maintains very good relations with the European Union. The nation is since 2009 also a full member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)

Albania is member in these international organizations:[90]

NATO, BSEC, Council of Europe, Central European Initiative, CCC, EAPC, EBRD, Energy Community, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IPU, IOM, ISO, ITU, ITUC, MINGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO and WTO.

Diplomatic relationsEdit

AfricaEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Algeria
  • Algeria has an embassy office in Tirana.
  Egypt See Albania–Egypt relations

The father of the modern Egypt Muhammad Ali of Egypt was Albanian commander in the Ottoman army. Albanian Muhammad Ali dynasty reigned in Egypt from 1805 to 1952.

  Libya See Albania–Libya relations
  • Libya has an embassy in Tirana.

Albania was one of the first countries to recognize the National Transitional Council on 18 July 2011 as legitimate representative of the Libyan people.[93][94][95]

  Tunisia

Both countries have a number of bilateral agreements.[96][97]

AmericasEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Argentina
  • Albania is accredited to Argentina from its embassy in Brasília, Brazil.
  • Argentina is accredited to Albania from its embassy in Rome, Italy.
  Brazil See Albania–Brazil relations
  Canada See Albania–Canada relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Ottawa.
  • Canada is accredited to Albania from its embassy in Rome, Italy.
  Mexico 1974
  • Albania is accredited to Mexico from its embassy in Washington, D.C., USA.[98]
  • Mexico is accredited to Albania from its embassy in Rome, Italy.[99]
  United States 1922[100] See Albania–United States relations

AsiaEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Armenia 18 February 1993
  • Albania is accredited to Armenia from its embassy in Athens, Greece.
  • Armenia is accredited to Albania from its embassy in Athens, Greece.
  Azerbaijan 23 September 1992 See Albania–Azerbaijan relations
  China 23 November 1949 See Albania–China relations

People's Socialist Republic of Albania under Enver Hoxha, moved an annual resolution in the General Assembly to transfer China's seat at the United Nations from the Republic of China to the People's Republic of China. On 25 October 1971, Resolution 2758, sponsored by Albania, was passed by the General Assembly, withdrawing recognition of the ROC as the legitimate government of China, and recognizing the PRC as the sole legitimate government of China. Albania was the first country to recognize the People's Republic China. Albania and People's Republic China established diplomatic relations on 23 November 1949.[102]
Sino-Albanian split
China–Albania Friendship Association

  • Albania has an embassy in Beijing.
  • People's Republic China has an embassy in Tirana.
  Georgia 8 July 1993[103] See Albania–Georgia relations
  • Albania is accredited to Georgia from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
  • Georgia is accredited to Albania from its embassy in Ankara, Turkey.
  India 1956[104] See Albania–India relations

Mother Teresa, one of India's national symbols, was of Albanian origin.

  Iran
  • Iran has an embassy in Tirana.
  Israel 20 August 1991[105] See Albania–Israel relations

Albania recognized the State of Israel on 16 April 1949 by a telegram of Prime Minister of Albania Enver Hoxha.

  Japan April 1922
re-established in March 1981
See Albania–Japan relations

Albania and Japan resumed established diplomatic relations in March 1981.[108]

  • Albania has an embassy in Tokyo.
  • Japan has an embassy in Tirana.
  Kuwait
  • Albania has an embassy in Kuwait City.
  • Kuwait has an embassy in Tirana.
  Malaysia
  Mongolia 24 May 1949[109]
  • Albania is accredited to Mongolia from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
    Nepal 23 May 1972

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 23 May 1972.[110]

  North Korea 29 November 1948[111]
  Pakistan In December 2006, Albanian Deputy Foreign Minister Mr. Anton Gurakqui visited Pakistan to hold bilateral consultation with Pakistani political leadership. Pakistan also offers training facilities to young Albanian bureaucrats in the field of banking, finance, management and diplomacy.[112]
  Palestine 1990 See Albania–Palestine relations

Albania had previously recognized the State of Palestine as a state since 1988.

Albania and the State of Palestine established diplomatic relations in 1990.

  • Palestine has an embassy in Tirana.
  Qatar
  • Albania has an embassy in Doha.
  • Qatar has an embassy in Tirana.
  Saudi Arabia
  • Albania has an embassy in Riyadh.
  • Saudi Arabia has an embassy in Tirana.
  South Korea 22 August 1991[50] See Albania–South Korea relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Seoul.
  • South Korea has an embassy in Tirana.

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and Republika e Shqipërisë began on 22 August 1991.

Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade Ban Ki-moon and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Albania Besnik Mustafaj signed the Convention between the Government of the Republic of Korea and the Council of government Ministers of the Republic of Albania for the Avoidance of Double Taxation with Respect to Taxes on Income and for the Prevention of Fiscal Evasion on 17 May 2006.[113]

The number of the South Korean citizens living in Albania in 2012 was about 80.[50]

  Turkey 1981 See Albania-Turkey relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate-general in Istanbul.
  • Turkey has an embassy in Tirana.
  • Both countries are full members of NATO.
  United Arab Emirates
  • Albania has an embassy in Abu Dhabi.
  • UAE is accredited to Albania from its embassy in Athens, Greece.

EuropeEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Austria 1912 See Albania–Austria relations

Austria-Hungary supported the Albanian Declaration of Independence in 1912.

  • Albania has an embassy in Vienna.
  • Austria has an embassy in Tirana.
  Belgium See Albania–Belgium relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Brussels.
  • Belgium has an embassy in Tirana.
  Bulgaria 1922 See Albania–Bulgaria relations
  Croatia 25 August 1992 See Albania–Croatia relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Zagreb.
  • Croatia has an embassy in Tirana.
  • Albania had recognized Croatia on 21 January 1992.
  • Albania and Croatia established diplomatic relations on 25 August 1992.[118]
  • In April 2009, both countries became full members of NATO at an event which both Albanian Prime Minister Sali Berisha and Croatian Prime Minister Ivo Sanader attended. Also that year, the two countries decided to build a joint Nuclear Power Plant on the Albanian border with Montenegro. This decision was greeted warily by the government of Montenegro, which is worried about the plant's environmental impact.
  • The two have a history of defense pacts, and overall theirs is a good relationship.
  • Arbanasi is a community in the Zadar region, Croatia, of Albanian origin, who traditionally speak a dialect of Gheg Albanian.
  Cyprus 28 August 1991[119]
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on 28 August 1991.[119]
  • Albania is represented in Cyprus by its embassy in Athens, Greece[120] and an honorary consulate in Larnaca.[121]
  • Cyprus is represented in Albania by its embassy in Athens, Greece[122][123] and an honorary consulate in Tirane.[124]
  • Both countries have a number of bilateral agreements.[119]
  Czech Republic See Albania–Czech Republic relations

The multi-national Communist armed forces' sole joint action was the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968. All member countries, with the exception of the People's Republic of Albania and the Socialist Republic of Romania participated in the invasion. Albania formally withdrew form the Warsaw Pact in 1968 over the matter.[125]

  • Albania has an embassy in Prague.
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Tirana.
  Denmark 1 May 1970[126] See Albania–Denmark relations
  Finland
  • Albania is accredited to Finland from its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Finland is accredited to Albania from its embassy in Athens, Greece.
  France See Albania–France relations
  Germany See Albania–Germany relations
  Greece de facto in 1971[129][130]
de juro 21 March 1996
See Albania–Greece relations


Cham Albanians
Expulsion of Cham Albanians
Albanian communities in Greece
In 1940 Greece declared war to the Italian-occupied Albania, during the Greco-Italian War.

Greece and Albania – even though diplomatic relations were restored in 1971[129][130] – normalized relations only in 1987 as till then both countries were officially – in a cease-fire – but nevertheless under the state of war since Albania and Italy had declared war on Greece on 28 October 1940. During rule of dictator Enver Hoxha relations were strained because of the part that Albania played during World War II against Greece and also because of the material help that they provided to Greek communists during the Greek civil war. In addition there was controversy about the expulsion of Cham Albanians.

After the fall of the Albanian socialist regime in 1991, relations between the two countries got better but soon begun to deteriorate with accusations about mistreatment of minorities vice versa. To the latter problem it was added the widespread phenomenon of waves of illegal immigration from Albania towards Greece. High criminality numbers from one hand and alleged police brutality from the other became familiar subjects on the news of both neighbors, increasing eventually tensions. According to official Greek data around 450,000 Albanian immigrants work in Greece and it is believed the number will almost double if illegal immigrants are accounted too. This is a brand new situation, for both countries as Greece for the first time become a destination country for immigrants and Albanians for the first time got out of their country after the total isolation that the communist regime had imposed.

Today, relations between the two countries are very close and are regarded as excellent, and, at the Albanian Government's request, about 250 Greek military personnel are stationed in Albania to assist with the training and restructuring the Albanian Armed Forces. Albania's economy is overdependent to the money immigrants from Greece sent back home, while Greece is the second larger trading partner, with more than US$400 million worth of investments. Moreover, Greek products account for 21% of Albania's imports, with Greece absorbing 12% of its neighboring country's exports.[131] At the same time, low cost labor from Albania propelled the growth of the Greek economy, especially in the construction and agriculture sectors. Albania is home to 300,000 or more Greeks, with about 650,000 Greeks in total being linked to Albania[132] while between 400,000 and 600,000 Albanians live and work in Greece, the vast majority of them post-1991 economic migrants.

  • Greece is home to just under a million Albanians (some sources say 600,000, whilst other Greek organisations claim 900,000 with illegal migrants and overstayers).
  • The Arvanitika are a Tosk dialect traditionally spoken by the Arvanites, a population group in Greece. Arvanitika is today an endangered language, as its speakers have been shifting to the use of Greek and most younger members of the community no longer speak it.[133]
  • Greece is Albania's most important European Union ally and partner.[134]
  • Relations since the election victory of Edi Rama in 2013 have seen massive improvement and warming of relations between the two nations.[35]
  • The Archbishop of Albania is of Greek descent.[135]
  • There are many cultural, political, historical and biological similarities and shared kinship between the Albanian and Greek peoples.[136][137]
  • Greek is the second most spoken language in Albania, with a considerable size having knowledge of it.[138]
  • Albanian is the most common foreign/migrant language in Greece, although most Greeks do not have clear knowledge of it.[139]
  • Many organisations both political and societal exist in Albania and Greece promoting relations between the two nations.[140]
  • Albania is home to the largest number of Greek diaspora political and cultural organisations; there are 5 political parties and over a dozen organisations.[141]
  • As of 2014 both nations have described their relations as 'excellent' and Albania considered Greece one of its 'strongest and most important allies', both NATO nations have close relations nowadays.[142]
  • Greece's position is that respect of the rights of the Greek minority in Albania is a precondition for Albania's entry into the European Union.[143]
   Holy See 7 September 1991[144] See Albania–Holy See relations
  • Albania has an embassy to the Holy See in Rome.[145]
  • Holy See has a resident nunciature (embassy) in Tirana[145]
  • The Apostolic Nunciature in Albania started asf an apostolic delegation to Albania by Pope Benedict XV on 12 November 1920, and was elevated to the full rank of a nunciature by Pope John Paul II on 16 January 1991.
  • Relations were reestablished in 1991, after the fall of communism in Albania.
  • Pope John Paul II was the first Pope to visit Albania, which took place immediately after the fall of communism.
  • Pope Francis visited Albania on 21 September, which the first nation in Europe he visited.[146]
  • Albania is home to 520,000 Roman Catholics, and is the second largest religion in the country, after Islam. (Roman Catholicism in Albania)
  Hungary See Albania–Hungary relations
  Iceland
  • Albania is accredited to Iceland from its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden and an honorary consulate in Tirana.[147]
  • Iceland is accredited to Albania from its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.[148]
  • Both countries are members of NATO and of Council of Europe.
  Ireland
  • Albania is accredited to Ireland from its embassy in London, United Kingdom.[149]
  • Ireland is accredited to Albania from its embassy in Athens, Greece.[150]
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
  Italy 1912 See Albania–Italy relations
  Kosovo 18 February 2008 See Albania–Kosovo relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Pristina.
  • Kosovo has an embassy in Tirana.
  • Albania recognized the Republic of Kosovo on 21 October 1991, the only country to do it.
  • Albania recognized Kosovo on 18 February 2008, one of the first countries to do so.
  • Albanians in Kosovo constitute 92% of the population.
  Latvia
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1928 and were restored in 1992.[152]
  • Albania is represented in Albania by its embassy in Warsaw, Poland.[152]
  • Latvia is represented in Albania by its embassy in Rome, Italy and an honorary consulate in Tirana.[153]
  • Both countries have a number of bilateral agreements.[154]
  Montenegro 1 August 2006
  • Albania has an embassy in Podgorica.
  • Montenegro has an embassy in Tirana.
  • Albania has recognized Montenegro independence on 12 July 2006.
  • Albania and Montenegro established diplomatic relations on 1 August 2006.
  • Albanians in Montenegro
  Netherlands 1970[155] See Albania–Netherlands relations
  North Macedonia 1991 See Albania–North Macedonia relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Skopje.
  • North Macedonia has an embassy in Tirana.
  Poland See Albania–Poland relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Warsaw.
  • Poland has an embassy in Tirana.
  Portugal See Albania–Portugal relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portugal is accredited to Albania from its embassy in Rome, Italy.
  Romania 28 December 1913 See Albania–Romania relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Bucharest.
  • Romania has an embassy in Tirana.
  • Romania was the first country that recognized Albania's independence in 1912.[156][157]

Albanians of Romania

  Russia 7 April 1924 See Albania–Russia relations
  Serbia See Albania-Serbia relations

Albanians in south Serbia
Albanian Coalition of Preševo Valley

  • Albania has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Tirana.
  Sovereign Military Order of Malta 1994[144]
  Slovakia

The multi-national Communist armed forces' sole joint action was the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia in August 1968. All member countries, with the exception of the People's Republic of Albania and the Socialist Republic of Romania participated in the invasion. Albania formally withdrew form the Warsaw Pact in 1968 over the matter.[125]

  Slovenia See Albania–Slovenia relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Ljubljana.
  • Slovenia has an embassy in Tirana.
  Spain See Albania–Spain relations
  • Albania has an embassy in Madrid.
  • Spain has an embassy in Tiran.
  Sweden
   Switzerland 1 March 1922[158]

Albanians in Switzerland

  • Albania has an embassy in Bern.
  • Switzerland has an embassy in Tirana.
  Ukraine 1992 See Albania-Ukraine relations

The diplomatic relations between Albania and Ukraine were established in 1922.

  United Kingdom 1922-1939
reestablished on 29 May 1991
See Albania–United Kingdom relations

OceaniaEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Australia
  • Albanian Australian are residents of Australia who are of Albanian heritage or descent. According to the 2011 Australian census 2,398 Albanians were born in Australia while 13,142 claimed Albanian ancestry, either alone or with another ancestry.

Former countriesEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Papal States

Albania (League of Lezhë) during the reign of Skanderbeg had good relations with the Papacy.

  Kingdom of Naples

Albania (League of Lezhë) during the reign of Skanderbeg had good relations with Naples.
Skanderbeg's Italian expedition

  Soviet Union 7 April 1924 See Albania–Soviet Union relations
  Republic of Venice

Albanian–Venetian War (1447–1448)
Venetian Albania

  Yugoslavia

MultilateralEdit

Organisation Formal Relations Began Notes
  European Union 1992 See Accession of Albania to the European Union

The nation applied to join the European Union, becoming an official candidate for accession to the European Union in June 2014. Although Albania received candidate status for the European Union membership in 2014 (based on its 2009 application), the European Union has twice rejected full membership.[159] In July 2016, the Parliament of Albania approved constitutional amendments on justice reforms, it has had also hoped to open membership negotiations by December 2016.[160] The Commission recommended the launch of negotiations on 9 November 2016.[161]

  • Albania have a Permanent Representatives to the European Union in Brussels.
  • European Union has an embassy (delegation) in Tirana.
  • Albania applied for European Union membership on 28 April 2009.
  NATO 1992 See Albania–NATO relations

At the 2008 Bucharest summit, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) invited Albania to join the alliance. In April 2014 Albania became a full member of the NATO, which remains popular in the country especially due to its intervention in the Kosovo war on behalf of ethnic Albanians. However, Albania was among the first southern European countries to join the Partnership for peace program.[162] Within the Balkans, Albania is considered to be the most pro-European and pro-Western country in the region and unlike its neighbours, except Kosovo, it has to negligible support for Russia.[163][24]

Since 1992, Albania has been extensively engaged with NATO and has maintained its position as a stability factor and a strong ally of United States and EU in the troubled and divided region of the Balkans. In addition to the political will, the overwhelming majority of 95% of the Albanian population supported NATO membership.[164]

  • Albania have a permanent representatives to NATO in Brussels.
  • Albania's relationship with the NATO began in 1992 when it joined the North Atlantic Cooperation Council.
  • In 1994, Albania entered NATO's Partnership for Peace.
  • Albania received an invitation to join at the 2008 Bucharest Summit and became a full member on 1 April 2009.
  United Nations 14 December 1955 See Albania at the United Nations
  • Albania have a permanent representatives to the UN in New York.
  • Albania became a full member of the UN on 14 December 1955.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit

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  This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/countries-areas/. (U.S. Bilateral Relations Fact Sheets)   This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/.