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Foreign interference in the 2020 United States elections

Foreign interference in the 2020 United States elections has become a matter of concern at the highest level of national security as well as in the computer and social media industries.

BackgroundEdit

In his Congressional testimony, Robert Mueller stated that "many more countries" have developed disinformation campaigns based partly on the Russian model. During a hearing in the United States House of Representatives concerning the contents of the Mueller Report, in which Robert Mueller presented the results of his nearly two-year-long investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections,[1] Mueller said that the Russians continue to interfere in U.S. elections "as we sit here".[2][3] In his Congressional testimony, Mueller stated that "many more countries" have developed disinformation campaigns based partly on the Russian model. Between January and late July 2017, Twitter had identified and shut down over 7,000 phony accounts created by Iranian influence operations.[4] Shortly thereafter, the Senate Intelligence Committee released the first volume of a bipartisan report on Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, a report that included recommendations for securing the 2020 elections.[5][6] The second volume of that report noted, based on social-media data from October 2018, that "Russian disinformation efforts may be focused on gathering information and data points in support of an active measures campaign targeted at the 2020 U.S. presidental election."[7]

Between January and late July 2017, Twitter identified and shut down over 7,000 phony accounts created by Iranian influence operations.[4]

U.S. officials have accused Russia, China and Iran of trying to influence the 2020 elections.[8][9][10][11] According to Christopher A. Wray, the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Russia is attempting to interfere with the 2020 United States elections.[12][13][14] Speaking to the Council on Foreign Relations in July 2019, Wray stated, "We are very much viewing 2018 as just kind of a dress rehearsal for the big show in 2020."[15] Dan Coats, the former Director of National Intelligence, believes that Russia and China will both attempt to influence the elections.[16][17]

Various disinformation campaigns on social media have targeted the Democratic Party candidates running in the 2020 Democratic Party presidential primaries.[18] This has prompted considerable concern regarding the ability of social media companies to cope with disinformation and manipulation.[19][20] By August 2019, Facebook and Twitter had banned advertisements that use misinformation to attempt the suppression of voter turnout.[21] Microsoft developed open source software called ElectionGuard to help safeguard the 2020 elections.[22] In mid-July 2019, Microsoft announced that it had, over the prior year, "notified nearly 10,000 customers they've been targeted or compromised by nation-state attacks". Based on attacks that had targeted political organizations, and on experience from 2016 and 2018, Microsoft anticipated "attacks targeting U.S. election systems, political campaigns or NGOs that work closely with campaigns".[23] Of the "nation-state attacks" that had originated from Russia, Microsoft claimed that they followed the "same pattern of engagement" as Russian operations in 2016 and 2018.[24] On October 4, 2019, Microsoft announced that "Phosphorus", a group of hackers linked to the Iranian government, had attempted to compromise e-mail accounts belonging to journalists, prominent Iranian expatriates, U.S. government officials and the campaign of a U.S. presidential candidate.[25][26] While Microsoft did not disclose which campaign had been the target of the cyber attack, unnamed sources informed Reuters that it had been that of Donald Trump.[27]

Government reactionEdit

Dan Coats appointed Shelby Pierson as the U.S. election security czar in July 2019, creating a new position in a move seen as an acknowledgment that foreign influence operations against U.S. elections will be ongoing indefinitely.[28][29] Election-security task forces established before the 2018 midterm elections at the FBI, the Department of Homeland Security, the National Security Agency and the United States Cyber Command have been expanded and "made permanent".[13] The Department of Homeland Security indicated that the threat of ransomware attacks upon voter registration databases was a particular concern.[30]

Prior to resigning as U.S. Secretary of Homeland Security, Kirstjen Nielsen attempted to organize a meeting of the U.S. Cabinet to discuss how to address potential foreign interference in the 2020 elections. Mick Mulvaney, the White House Chief of Staff, reportedly warned her to keep the subject away from Trump, who views the discussion as questioning the legitimacy of his victory in 2016.[31] Mitch McConnell, the Senate Majority Leader, has blocked various bills intended to improve election security from being considered,[32][33][34] including some measures that have had bipartisan support.[35][36] However, various states have implemented changes, such as paper ballots.[37] Florida has expanded its paper-ballot backup system since 2016, but experts warn that its voting systems are still vulnerable to manipulation, a particular concern being the electronic poll books that store lists of registered voters.[38] Democratic members of Congress have cited the lack of effort to secure U.S. elections against foreign interference, particularly from Russia, as among grounds to begin an impeachment inquiry.[39]

On September 30, 2019, the United States issued economic sanctions against seven Russians affiliated with the Internet Research Agency, an organization that manipulates social media for misinformation purposes. The sanctions were described as a warning against foreign interference in United States elections.[40]

Presidency of Donald TrumpEdit

In a June 2019 interview with George Stephanopoulos, President Donald Trump said that he would accept information from other nations about his opponents in the 2020 United States presidential election.[41][42]

According to reporting by The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post and The New York Times, Trump and his personal attorney Rudy Giuliani repeatedly pressed the Ukrainian government to investigate Hunter Biden, the son of Joe Biden, leading to the ongoing Trump–Ukraine scandal.[43][44][45] Biden is a potentially strong Trump challenger in the 2020 presidential election.[46][47] The purpose of the requested investigation was alleged to be to damage Biden's election campaign for president.[48][49] Reports suggested that Trump threatened to withhold military aid from Ukraine unless they investigate Biden.[49][50] The controversy triggered the commencement of the formal process of impeachment inquiries against Trump on September 24, with House speaker Nancy Pelosi directing six House committee chairmen to proceed "under that umbrella of impeachment inquiry".[51]

On October 3, 2019, Trump said that "China should start an investigation" into presidential candidate Joe Biden and his son Hunter Biden. Moments before, while discussing negotiations on a possible agreement in the ongoing China–United States trade war, he said that "if they [China] don't do what we want, we have tremendous power." Chair of the Federal Election Commission Ellen Weintraub then retweeted a June statement explaining that "it is illegal for any person to solicit, accept, or receive anything of value from a foreign national in connection with a U.S. election".[52]

As of early October 2019, there is evidence President Trump, Vice President Mike Pence, U.S. Attorney General William Barr, as well as Trump's personal attorney Giuliani have solicited help from Ukraine, Australia, Italy, Britain, and China for assistance in discrediting Trump's political opponents.[53][54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Breuninger, Kevin (March 22, 2019). "MUELLER PROBE ENDS: Special counsel submits Russia report to Attorney General William Barr". CNBC. Retrieved September 24, 2019.
  2. ^ "Robert Mueller's testimony: The biggest takeaway is Russia's interference in US elections". CNN. July 25, 2019. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
  3. ^ Tucker, Eric; Jalonick, Mary Clare; Balsamo, Michael (July 25, 2019). "Mueller rejects Trump's claims of exoneration, 'witch hunt'". The Washington Post. And [Mueller] said of the interference by Russians and others: "They are doing it as we sit here. And they expect to do it during the next campaign."
  4. ^ a b Timberg, Craig; Romm, Tony (July 25, 2019). "It's not just the Russians anymore as Iranians and others turn up disinformation efforts ahead of 2020 vote". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
  5. ^ Sanger, David E.; Edmondson, Catie (July 25, 2019). "Russia Targeted Election Systems in All 50 States, Report Finds". The New York Times. But while the bipartisan report's warning that the United States remains vulnerable in the next election is clear, its findings were so heavily redacted at the insistence of American intelligence agencies that even some key recommendations for 2020 were blacked out.
  6. ^ "Report of the Select Committee on Intelligence, United States Senate, on Russian Active Measures, Campaigns, and Interference in the 2016 U.S. Election" (PDF). Retrieved July 27, 2019.
  7. ^ "Report of the Select Committee on Intelligence, United States Senate, on Russian Active Measures, Campaigns, and Interference in the 2016 U.S. Election, Volume 2" (PDF). Retrieved October 8, 2019.
  8. ^ "US warns of 'ongoing' election interference by Russia, China, Iran". The Hill. October 19, 2018.
  9. ^ "U.S. Sees Russia, China, Iran Trying to Influence 2020 Elections". Bloomberg. June 24, 2019.
  10. ^ "US says Russia, China and Iran are trying to influence 2020 elections". The National. June 25, 2019.
  11. ^ "2020 Election Meddling by China, Iran, N. Korea Likely, Administration Officials Warn". Yahoo News. June 28, 2019.
  12. ^ "FBI Director Wray: Russia intent on interfering with U.S. elections". Reuters. July 23, 2019. Retrieved July 24, 2019.
  13. ^ a b Goldman, Adam (April 26, 2019). "F.B.I. Warns of Russian Interference in 2020 Race and Boosts Counterintelligence Operations". The New York Times. Retrieved July 24, 2019.
  14. ^ Sebenius, Alyza (March 9, 2019). "Russian Internet Trolls Are Apparently Switching Strategies for 2020 U.S. Elections". Time. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
  15. ^ Bump, Philip (July 25, 2019). "A brief history of administration officials warning that our elections are at risk from Russia". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
  16. ^ Dilanian, Ken (January 29, 2019). "U.S. intel agencies: Russia and China plotting to interfere in 2020 election". NBC News. Retrieved July 24, 2019.
  17. ^ Coats, Daniel R. (January 29, 2019). "Worldwide Threat Assessment of the US Intelligence Community" (PDF). United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. Retrieved July 27, 2019. Russia's social media efforts will continue to focus on aggravating social and racial tensions, undermining trust in authorities, and criticizing perceived anti-Russia politicians. Moscow may employ additional influence toolkits—such as spreading disinformation, conducting hack-and-leak operations, or manipulating data—in a more targeted fashion to influence US policy, actions, and elections.
  18. ^ Korecki, Natasha (February 20, 2019). "'Sustained and ongoing' disinformation assault targets Dem presidential candidates; A coordinated barrage of social media attacks suggests the involvement of foreign state actors". Politico.com. Retrieved July 24, 2019.
  19. ^ Zakrzewski, Cat (June 26, 2019). "The Technology 202: Social media companies readying to combat disinformation in Democratic debates". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 27, 2019. Facebook and Twitter say they're taking additional precautions this week after analysis found debates were a key target for Russian actors seeking to sow discord on social media ahead of the 2016 election. The companies are under immense public pressure to avoid a repeat in 2020 after they say they were caught off guard by the foreign influence operations in 2016.
  20. ^ O'Kane, Caitlin (May 31, 2019). "Russian trolls fueled anti-vaccination debate in U.S. by spreading misinformation on Twitter, study finds". CBS News. Retrieved July 28, 2019. Facebook also said it would crack down on the spread of vaccine misinformation by de-prioritizing medical myths across the platform ... however, misinformation about vaccines is not the only threat, as Russia is focusing on spreading misinformation around health care issues ahead of the 2020 election.
  21. ^ Priest, Dana; Aljas, Riin; Gelman, Scott (August 28, 2019). "Maryland was never in play in 2016. The Russians targeted it anyway". The Washington Post. Retrieved August 28, 2019.
  22. ^ Parks, Miles (May 6, 2019). "Ahead Of 2020, Microsoft Unveils Tool To Allow Voters To Track Their Ballots". NPR.
  23. ^ Burt, Tom (July 17, 2019). "New cyberthreats require new ways to protect democracy". Microsoft. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
  24. ^ Gazis, Olivia (July 19, 2019). "Iranian cyber activity "spiked" after U.S. withdrawal from nuclear deal, says Microsoft official". Retrieved July 27, 2019.
  25. ^ Greene, Jay; Romm, Tony (October 4, 2019). "Iranians tried to hack U.S. presidential candidate in effort that targeted hundreds, Microsoft says". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
  26. ^ Burt, Tom (October 4, 2019). "Recent cyberattacks require us all to be vigilant". Microsoft. Retrieved October 4, 2019.
  27. ^ "Trump campaign targeted by Iran-linked hackers". The Jerusalem Post. October 4, 2019.
  28. ^ Barnes, Julian E. (July 19, 2019). "Intelligence Chief Names New Election Security Oversight Official". The New York Times. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
  29. ^ Myre, Greg (July 28, 2019). "Dan Coats, Who Challenged President Trump, Is Ousted From Top Intelligence Job". NPR. Retrieved July 28, 2019.
  30. ^ Bing, Christopher (August 26, 2019). "U.S. officials fear ransomware attack against 2020 election". Reuters. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  31. ^ Schmitt, Eric; Sanger, David E.; Haberman, Maggie (April 24, 2019). "In Push for 2020 Election Security, Top Official Was Warned: Don't Tell Trump". The New York Times.
  32. ^ Piore, Adam (July 23, 2019). "Russia Is Using Cold War Strategy to Undermine the Faith of Americans in the 2020 Election—Will It Work?". Newsweek. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
  33. ^ Croucher, Shane (July 26, 2019). "#MoscowMitch Trends on Twitter as Mitch McConnell Blocks Election Security Bills Despite 'Unprecedented Level' of Russian Interference". Newsweek.com. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
  34. ^ Martinez, Gabriela (July 26, 2019). "How the U.S. is trying to improve election security ahead of 2020". PBS Newshour. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
  35. ^ Dilanian, Ken (June 13, 2019). "Hill push to battle foreign election interference is stuck at McConnell roadblock". NBC News. Retrieved July 30, 2019. In fact, some GOP senators have joined with Democrats to co-sponsor legislation designed to shore up voting machines and make it harder for foreign intelligence operatives to hack, leak and manipulate social media the way the Russians did in 2016. But those bills are going nowhere — because Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, R-Ky., has not allowed a vote on any of them.
  36. ^ Laslo, Matt (July 31, 2019). "Russia Is Going To Up Its Game For The 2020 Elections". Wired. Retrieved August 2, 2019. Both bills have bipartisan support—Senator Susan Collins became the first Republican to cosponsor the Foreign Influence Reporting in Elections Act earlier this week.
  37. ^ Sanger, David E.; Epstein, Reid J.; Wines, Michael (July 26, 2019). "States Rush to Make Voting Systems More Secure as New Threats Emerge". The New York Times.
  38. ^ Stone, Peter (August 27, 2019). "Russian hackers likely to target Florida again in 2020 election, experts warn". The Guardian. Retrieved August 27, 2019.
  39. ^ Sullivan, Kate (July 25, 2019). "Dem lawmaker to her party: 'Take action' on impeachment by September or 'shut it down'". CNN. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
    Swasey, Benjamin; Atkins, Kimberley (July 25, 2019). "Rep. Clark Backs Impeachment Probe, Putting Pressure On Pelosi". WBUR. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
    Romano, Benjamin (July 29, 2019). "All Washington House Democrats now favor Trump impeachment inquiry". The Seattle Times. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
    Boone, Rolf (July 28, 2019). "U.S. Reps Heck, Kilmer, Schreir, and Del Bene announce support of impeachment inquiry". The Olympian. Retrieved July 29, 2019.
  40. ^ Jakes, Lara (September 30, 2019). "With Sanctions on Russians, U.S. Warns Against Foreign Election Meddling". The New York Times.
  41. ^ Baker, Peter (June 12, 2019). "Trump Says 'I'd Take It' if Russia Again Offered Dirt on Opponent". The New York Times. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
  42. ^ "Transcript: ABC News' George Stephanopoulos' exclusive interview with President Trump". ABC News. June 16, 2019. Retrieved July 31, 2019. STEPHANOPOULOS: Your campaign this time around, if foreigners, if Russia, if China, if someone else offers you information on opponents, should they accept it or should they call the FBI? TRUMP: I think maybe you do both. I think you might want to listen, I don't, there's nothing wrong with listening. If somebody called from a country, Norway, "We have information on your opponent." Oh, I think I'd want to hear it. STEPHANOPOULOS: You want that kind of interference in our elections? TRUMP: It's not an interference, they have information. I think I'd take it. If I thought there was something wrong, I'd go maybe to the FBI. If I thought there was something wrong. But when somebody comes up with oppo research, right, that they come up with oppo research. Oh, let's call the FBI. The FBI doesn't have enough agents to take care of it, but you go and talk honestly to congressmen, they all do it, they always have. And that's the way it is. It's called oppo research. STEPHANOPOULOS: Surprising. Thank you. TRUMP: Thank you. Okay. Fine.
  43. ^ Volz, Alan Cullison, Rebecca Ballhaus and Dustin. "WSJ News Exclusive | Trump Repeatedly Pressed Ukraine President to Investigate Biden's Son". WSJ.
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  45. ^ Barnes, Julian E.; Schmidt, Michael S.; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Goldman, Adam; Haberman, Maggie (September 20, 2019). "Trump Pressed Ukraine's Leader on Inquiry Into Biden's Son" – via NYTimes.com.
  46. ^ Volz, Alan Cullison, Rebecca Ballhaus and Dustin. "WSJ News Exclusive | Trump Repeatedly Pressed Ukraine President to Investigate Biden's Son". WSJ. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
  47. ^ Kramer, Andrew E. (September 20, 2019). "Ukraine Pressured on U.S. Political Investigations". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
  48. ^ "WSJ: Trump urged Ukrainian president "about 8 times" to investigate Biden's son". Axios. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
  49. ^ a b Mackinnon, Amy. "Is Trump Trying to Get Ukraine to Take Out Biden for Him?". Foreign Policy. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
  50. ^ Cassidy, John (September 20, 2019). "Did Trump Try to Extort the President of Ukraine Into Investigating Joe Biden?". ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved September 20, 2019.
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