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Ford Thunderbird (first generation)

The first generation of the Ford Thunderbird is a two-seat convertible produced by Ford for the 1955 to 1957 model year, the first 2-seat Ford since 1938. It was developed in response to the 1953 Motorama display at the New York Auto Show, which showed the Chevrolet Corvette. The Corvette in turn was developed in response to the popularity of European sports cars among Americans.[5]

Ford Thunderbird
1955 Ford Thunderbird BYT568.jpg
1955 Ford Thunderbird
AssemblyDearborn, Michigan
Long Beach, California
Mahwah, New Jersey
Hapeville, Georgia
Body and chassis
Body style2-door convertible
LayoutFR layout
Engine292 cu in (4.8 L) Y-block V8
312 cu in (5.1 L) Y-block V8
Wheelbase102 in (2,591 mm)
Length175.3 in (4,453 mm) (1955[1])
185.2 in (4,704 mm) (1956[2]
181.4 in (4,608 mm)(1957[3])
Width70.3 in (1,786 mm)[4]
SuccessorFord Thunderbird (second generation)
Ford GT

Dubbed a "a personal car of distinction" by Ford,[6][7][8] this appellation was also used by the motoring press at the time. [9] The car built upon the heritage of the bespoke roadsters of the 1930s, yet was constructed largely of existing components, marking the first step toward the evolution of the personal luxury car as a mass market segment in the United States.[10][7] While light weight for its era and fitted with a standard V8 engine, the Thunderbird focused more on driver comfort than speed, and was not a direct rival to either the Corvette or European sports cars.[11] It remained the only two-seat convertible Thunderbird until the eleventh-generation was unveiled in 2002.


1955 Ford Thunderbird

Ford unveiled the Thunderbird at the Detroit Auto Show on February 20, 1954. The first production car came off the line on September 9, 1954, and went on sale on October 22, 1954 as a 1955 model, and sold briskly; 3,500 orders were placed in the first ten days of sale. While only 10,000 were planned, 16,155 were sold in 1955.

It included fender skirts and a removable fiberglass top as standard equipment, with a fabric convertible top as a commonly specified option. The engine was Ford's proven 292-cubic-inch OHV 292 Y-block V8,[12] which got 18MPG. The exhaust pipes exited through twin bumper guards bolted to the rear bumper.

The car used existing chassis and suspension design and off-the-shelf Ford mechanical components. It was constructed body-on-frame frame using a version of the standard Ford design cut-down to a 102-inch wheelbase identical the Corvette's.[12] It was produced with a Fordomatic automatic or manual overdrive transmissions, and featured four-way powered seats and pushbutton interior door handles. Other unique features were a telescoping steering wheel[13] and a tachometer.[1]

A rare domestic two-seater for the era, it was designed to be a brisk luxury tourer and not a sports car,[14]and could hit 110–120 mph (180–190 km/h).[citation needed]


1956 Ford Thunderbird

For the 1956 model, more trunk space was added, the spare wheel was mounted outside (which helped free up trunk space),[15] the exhausts were moved to the ends of the bumper, and air vents were added behind the front wheels to improve cabin ventilation. To improve rear-quarter visibility with the removable hardtop in place, "porthole" windows were available as a no-cost option. An optional 312 cu in (5.1 L) Y-block V8 was added as an option. 1956 production was 15,631 units, the lowest of all three 2-seater Thunderbird model years.


For 1957 the front bumper was reshaped, the grille and tailfins were made larger, and larger taillights were fitted. The spare wheel moved back inside the trunk, which had been redesigned to allow it to be mounted vertically. The side "Thunderbird" script moved from the fins to the front fenders. A new option was "Dial-o-Matic" 4-way power seats that would move rearward when the ignition was turned off to allow easier exit and entry.[16][17] In addition to the standard 292 and optional 312 engines, higher performance versions of the 312 were offered,[3] including two with a 4-barrel Holley carburetor McCulloch/Paxton centrifugal superchargers rated at 300 hp (304 PS; 224 kW) @ 4800 rpm with a maximum torque of 439 lb⋅ft (595 N⋅m; 61 kg⋅m) @ 2600 rpm[18][19]; and 340 hp (345 PS; 254 kW), respectively. 1957 sales were 21,380, including three extra months of production because the 1958 models were late. The 1957 Thunderbird was the last two-seater Ford sold until the 1982 Ford EXP sport compact car.

Production totalsEdit

Year Production[20]
1955 16,155[21]
1956 15,631[21]
1957 21,380[21]
Total 53,166



  1. ^ a b "Directory Index: Ford_Thunderbird/1955_Ford_Thunderbird/1955_Thunderbird_Brochure". Retrieved 2011-11-20.
  2. ^ "Directory Index: Ford_Thunderbird/1956_Ford_Thunderbird/1956_Ford_Thunderbird_Brochure". Retrieved 2011-11-20.
  3. ^ a b "Directory Index: Ford_Thunderbird/1957_Ford_Thunderbird/1957_Ford_Thunderbird_Brochure". Retrieved 2011-11-20.
  4. ^ Flory, Jr., J. "Kelly" (2008). American Cars, 1946-1959 Every Model Every Year. McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7864-3229-5.
  5. ^ Leffingwell, Randy; Newhardt, David (2005). Mustang. MotorBooks/MBI Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-7603-2183-6. Retrieved 2013-01-28.
  6. ^ "1955 Ford Thunderbird - A personal car of distinction". Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  7. ^ a b "1958 Ford Thunderbird: Personal Luxury 101". Retrieved August 20, 2016.
  8. ^ "The 1955-1960 Ford Thunderbird Automobiles". Farber and Associates. 2009. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
  9. ^ Wiron, Walt (December 1954). "1955 FORD THUNDERBIRD ROAD TEST". Motor Trend Magazine. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
  10. ^ Jim Koscs (23 May 2016). "OTHER PERSPECTIVES: WHAT IS A THUNDERBIRD?". Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  11. ^ Jedlinka, Dan. "1955-57 two-seat Ford Thunderbird". Retrieved 4 June 2019.
  12. ^ a b "Ford Thunderbird History". Retrieved 2011-11-20.
  13. ^ "Directory Index: Ford_Thunderbird/1955_Ford_Thunderbird/1955_Thunderbird_Brochure". Retrieved 2011-11-20.
  14. ^ Mays, James. "1956 Ford Thunderbird". Retrieved 15 April 2013.
  15. ^ "Ford Thunderbird History". Retrieved 2011-11-20.
  16. ^ "Directory Index: Ford_Thunderbird/1957_Ford_Thunderbird/1957_Ford_Thunderbird_Brochure". Retrieved 2011-11-20.
  17. ^ D.Lang. "1955 to 1957 Thunderbird Options". Retrieved 2011-11-20.
  18. ^ "1957 Ford Thunderbird D/F-Code Phase I". Retrieved 2018-06-09.
  19. ^ "Ford Thunderbird Hardtop 312 Supercharged V-8 overdrive". Retrieved 2018-06-09.
  20. ^ Tast, Alan H. and David Newhardt. THUNDERBIRD FIFTY YEARS. Motorbooks. October 15, 2004.
  21. ^ a b c Mike Bumbeck (February 2011). "Four-Place Ford Thunderbird". Hemmings Motor News (Print). p. 18.


  • Holmes, Mark (2007). Ultimate Convertibles: Roofless Beauty. London: Kandour. pp. 76–77. ISBN 978-1-905741-62-5.