Florida Highway Patrol
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The Florida Highway Patrol (FHP) is a division of the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles and the primary law enforcement agency charged with investigating traffic crashes and criminal laws on the state’s highways.
|Florida Highway Patrol|
|Motto||Courtesy, Service, Protection|
|Annual budget||$292 million (2017)|
|Operations jurisdiction||Florida, US|
|FHP Troops & Boundaries|
|Size||65,795 square miles (170,410 km2)|
|Population||20,984,400 (2017 est.)|
|Governing body||Florida Legislature|
|Parent agency||Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles|
The Florida Highway Patrol enforces motor vehicle and commercial vehicle laws and is charged with investigating motor vehicle accidents that occur on the state's Interstate highways and on all roadways within unincorporated areas of the state.
The FHP's responsibility to is investigate traffic crashes in any unincorporated areas, with the focus on the Interstate Highways as well as State and US roads.
The Department of Public Safety was created in 1939 and was reorganized and renamed the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles in 1970. On November 21, 1930, at the request of the Chairman of the State Road Department (Florida Attorney General Cary D. Landis) to Governor Doyle E. Carlton, ruled it shall be the duty of the State Road Department to maintain the state roads and enforce the laws enacted to preserve its physical structure. The road department hired 12 weight inspectors who were placed under the supervision of the division engineers because of the ruling. This was the beginning of state law enforcement in Florida.
In January 1934, a Division of Traffic Enforcement was created as a result of an Attorney General's opinion indicating the division could enforce the motor vehicles laws. As a result, E. A. Shurman was appointed Traffic Inspector. The division was given a distinctive military style uniform, forest green in color.
In July 1936, Chairman C. B. Treadway appointed retired Army Major H. Neil Kirkman, Chief of the State Road Department's Traffic Division due to his experience in the Armed Forces associated with traffic and his background in floppy. Army Major Kirkman was the engineer supervising the construction of the Palatka Memorial Bridge over the St. Johns River.
In 1939, the Florida Legislature created the State Department of Public Safety with two divisions; the Florida Highway Patrol and the Division of State Motor Vehicle Drivers Licenses, under the control of Governor Fred P. Cone and Chairman of the State Road Department, Arthur B. Hale.
Director of the Department of Public SafetyEdit
On October 1, 1939, H. Neil Kirkman was appointed as the first Commander of the Florida Highway Patrol. Colonel Kirkman was originally from Greensboro, North Carolina but considered Palatka, Florida his home. He entered the United States Army as a Private in 1917 and was discharged as a First Lieutenant. He was a charter member of the American Legion and served as State Commander of the American Legion during 1922–1923. He worked in the construction business for many years, particularly in building bridges such as the Memorial Bridge at Palatka and the Clearwater Causeway Bridge. Colonel Kirkman laid the groundwork for what has become the motto of the Florida Highway Patrol: "Service, Courtesy, Protection".
The first uniformEdit
In 1939, the uniform color for the Florida Highway Patrol was forest green. The forest green whipcord blouse had orange piping around the epaulets and shirt pockets with silver buttons carrying the State seal. There was an orange and blue shoulder patch on the left shoulder, with silver collar ornaments – FHP on the left lapel and a wheel with wings attached to each side on the right lapel signifying traffic. There was a badge, chain and whistle. The shirt was forest green with orange piping around the epaulets and shirt pockets. Trousers were forest green with 1½" black stripe. Shoes were black. In addition, each trooper was issued two pair of riding britches with 1½" black stripe and a pair of black boots for winter dress.
The collar ornament design is a wing and wheel similar to the insignia that appears on the Ohio State Highway Patrol cars today. The original insignias had a broken spoke in the wheel which is the origin of the term "Broken Spoke Club".
A black Sam Browne belt, 3" wide, with handcuff case, cartridge clip, and a swivel or swing holster carrying a .38 caliber Colt revolver on the right side, with a shoulder strap to support the revolver and other equipment, completed the body uniform.
The first beige Stetson, or "Campaign", hats purchased for the Patrol in 1939, were $12.50 each. The hat, was the Stetson 3X Beaver, with a 1½" orange hat band and a thin, 32" long, tan leather head strap to hold the hat in place. Before the turn of the century the Stetson 3X Beaver, as its name implies, was made from genuine beaver pelt; however, it is not known what type of fur, if any, the original FHP Stetsons were made from.
The uniform of the FHP and its ornaments originated with the military. The Patrol's Stetson hat design had first appeared during the Civil War, was beige in color, rounded on top instead of creased down the middle, and was worn by the officers of the Union forces. Confederate forces also wore a hat of similar design but gray in color.
First training schoolEdit
In November 1939, the first training school was held in Bradenton, Florida, with 40 recruits. The school was directed by Captain George Mingle of the Ohio Highway Patrol, a personal friend of Colonel Kirkman. Thirty-two recruits graduated and became troopers. Twenty troopers were issued specially equipped Ford motor vehicles and twelve were assigned Model 84 Harley-Davidson motorcycles.
At this time the Patrol had no radio communication. Troopers would make regular stops at service stations or grocery stores along their routes to call in for assignments, reports of wrecks, and messages.
By the end of 1940, the first full year of operation, the Florida Highway Patrol had 59 officers. The State was divided into three divisions: Northern, Central and Southern. The commanding officer of each division was a Lieutenant. Since there were no district offices, all the records were kept in Tallahassee and each trooper was responsible for mailing his daily reports to Tallahassee.
The first year of activity included: 154,829 hours of patrol time, 1,000 accidents investigated, 29,860 hours at the station, 127 motorists killed, 1,938,564 miles (3,119,816 km) patrolled, 1,132 persons injured and 4,836 motorists arrested.
The 1941 legislature increased the authorized strength of the Patrol to 190 officers and the pay increased to $150 per month. In the fall, the State Road Department supplied the Division Commanders an office in their district; the Northern District was Lake City, the Central District was Bartow and the Southern District was Ft. Lauderdale.
During Director Gilliam's administration, World War II was in progress and textile mills were using all green wool for military uniforms. Gilliam selected the army officers' purple material for the uniform trousers and britches. In 1943, the Patrol's uniform blouse was olive drab whipcord with silver buttons bearing the state seal, a patch on the left shoulder (the orange emblem with the word "Florida" spelled out), silver collar ornament "F.H.P." on the left lapel and the "Winged Wheel" ornament on the right, signifying traffic. A badge, chain, whistle, army pink trousers with a 1-inch (25 mm) black stripe from waist to hem, black riding britches, and one pair of black plain-toed riding boots completed the uniform. Instructions were to wear riding britches and boots on each Friday, Saturday and Sunday until the forest green uniforms were phased out. Also, part of the uniform was the graphite blue Stetson hat, Sam Browne 3" gun belt, plus handcuff and cartridge cases.
In the spring of 1951, the Patrol's use of a single shoulder patch on the right shoulder was adopted by every highway patrol and state police organization in the United States. The patch appeared in a magazine published by the Florida Peace Officers Association and soon all of Florida's law enforcement agencies adopted the idea.
In late 1952, the Patrol realigned the divisions. Boundaries were changed, and divisions became Troops and were designated as A, B, C, D, E, and Headquarters Troop.
In the beginning, while on probation, all members were classified as Patrolmen. When they completed their probation, they were classified as Patrol Officers. That changed in 1952, when the new classification for members on the Patrol was Trooper.
Teletype network and into the modern eraEdit
The FHP continuously is recruiting new troopers to fill its ranks due to many troopers retiring, and has posted Recruiting videos online to attract new recruits. The Florida Highway Patrol does extensive background checks for prospective employees to include polygraph, and psychological testing. New Troopers receive extensive training in accident investigations, defensive tactics, and DUI detection. FHP specializes in traffic crash investigations, and traffic homicide investigation. Although they can and will assist other law enforcement agencies with criminal investigations, FHP is primarily traffic and are experts in Crash Investigations, and traffic enforcement. FHP is often called to assist smaller agencies with traffic crashes that result in death or serious injury, due to their having resources where smaller agencies do not.
The Office of Motor Carrier Compliance officially transitioned from the Florida Department of Transportation to the Florida Highway Patrol division of the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles on July 1, 2011.
The Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles directs the FHP.
The director of the Florida Highway Patrol holds the rank of colonel. The organization has six bureaus: The Patrol has one Deputy Director who holds the rank of Lieutenant Colonel who works under the direction of the Colonel, who directly oversees the Six Bureaus within the patrol which includes, Patrol operations (North/South), Special Operations, Special services/Support Services, Commercial Motor Vehicle, Bureau of Investigation, Technology and Professional Compliance.
- Bureau of Field Operations North (troops A, B, C, G, and H)
- Bureau of Field Operations South (troops D, E, F, K and L);
- Bureau of Special Operations (training and leadership, program planning, fleet and property, accreditation and policy, aviation, employee selection, recruitment, background investigation, polygraph, and budget)
- Bureau of Law Enforcement Support Services (EOC/domestic security, communications, lieutenant governor aide-de-camp, inspections, Auxiliary and Reserve, technology and communications, contraband interdiction, and traffic homicide)
- Bureau of Commercial Vehicle Enforcement (CVE) Troops I and J
- Bureau of Investigations.
The Bureau of Investigations is commanded by a major, while the other four bureaus are each commanded by a Chief. The Nine field troops are commanded by personnel with the rank of major, which are divided by regions geographically located across the state. A tenth troop handles the Florida Turnpike operations.
The function of the FHP is to the safety of State Roads, U.S. Highways, and Interstate Highways in Florida. Florida has an investigative department, the Florida Department of Law Enforcement, analogous to the FBI.
In addition to the FHP, Florida's highways were patrolled by the Florida Department of Transportation's Office of Motor Carrier Compliance (MCCO), a state law enforcement agency responsible for commercial vehicle laws in the state. As of July 1, 2011, the Office of Motor Carrier Compliance officially transitioned from the Florida Department of Transportation to the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles' Division of the Florida Highway Patrol as a bureau. The consolidation is a result of Senate Bill 2160, passed by lawmakers during the 2011 Legislative Session, and places the commercial vehicle licensing, registrations, fuel permits, and enforcement all under the purview of DHSMV.
The FHP was created in 1939 with 60 uniformed officers.
There have been 46 state troopers killed in the line of duty since its founding: 19 died by gunshot, 15 in automobile crashes, five in aircraft crashes, and one in an explosion. The authorized strength of the FHP is 2360: 1813 sworn, 547 non-sworn.
The FHP Reserve consists of 110 volunteer members who have the authority to bear arms and make arrests but receive no compensation.
Ranks and insignia of the Florida Highway PatrolEdit
|Trooper First Class|
- Bureau of Criminal Investigations and Intelligence:
- One Chief of Investigations
- Four Captains (three Captains are regional commanders over the Northern, Central and Southern Regions)
- Twenty-seven Lieutenants
- Ten Sergeants
- Three Corporals
- Nine Troopers.
- Details: There are 54 sworn and 11 non-sworn personnel assigned to the Bureau of Investigations. These officers conduct investigations on auto theft, driver license theft and fraud, title fraud, odometer fraud, and other criminal activities statewide. During fiscal year 2000/2001, 153 stolen vehicles, valued at $2,414,664, were recovered; 13 vehicles valued at $94,500 were seized; 289 warrants were issued; and 174 arrests for criminal activity were made. The Bureau also conducted 63 professional compliance cases, 954 criminal Investigations, 26 division cases and 19 internal review cases for other divisions within the department.
- Public Information/Safety Education:
- One Major
- Twelve Lieutenants
- Recruitment:
- One Captain (assigned as Chief Recruitment Officer and responsible for coordinating the recruitment program)
- Six Regional Recruitment Officers (stationed throughout the state)
- Background/Selection:
- One Lieutenant (Chief Background Investigator)
- One Sergeant (Assistant Chief Background Investigator)
- Details: Thirteen full-time background investigators are assigned throughout the state assisted by FHP personnel in their local troop as needed. This section is responsible for all pre-employment testing and screening of all applicants for the positions of state trooper and community service officer. This screening consists of pre-employment written testing, physical abilities testing, polygraph, eye examination, physical examination, psychological screening, background investigation and drug screening. This section is also charged with the responsibility of handling requests for assistance from other law enforcement agencies throughout the country in conducting background investigations on applicants with their agency.
- Inspections:
- One Chief (incl. a staff assistant)
- Three Inspectors (with rank of Captain)
- One Captain and one Lieutenant (responsible for the Grants, Accreditation, and Policy (GAP) Section)
- Details: The Office of Inspections, established in 1995, is responsible to the Director and represents his office while conducting staff inspections throughout the Patrol. GAP is responsible for the Division's Policy development and management, is the Accreditation Manager for the Florida (CFA) and National (CALEA) Accreditation programs and manages the Division's financial grant acquisitions. Additionally, a total of seventeen Inspectors-in-Place (IIP) representing all ten Troops and GHQ, formally trained, assist the permanent Inspectors on a need basis during the staff inspection of field and GHQ units.
- Office of Commercial Vehicle Enforcement
Formerly Florida Department of Transportation-Office of Motor Carrier Compliance (MCCO)-Commercial Vehicle Enforcement:
Otherwise known as Florida's commercial vehicle enforcement agency, headed by its director, Colonel David Dees, MCCO mainly comprises sworn law enforcement officers and civilian weight inspectors. Similar to state troopers, MCCO officers are certified (e.g. police academy trained), armed and have full statewide law enforcement authority including powers of arrest. Primary duties include but are not limited to:
- Issuing traffic citations pursuant to state motor vehicle laws
- Reviewing operator logbooks and inspecting their vehicles to ensure they are in compliance with FDOT and US DOT regulations
- Verifying operator possesses valid CDL and hazardous materials permit (if applicable)
- Providing supplemental support to local law enforcement agencies during emergency situations
- Although their primary focus is on commercial vehicles, MCCO officers can (and will) stop non-commercial drivers when serious infractions are observed.
The Office of Motor Carrier Compliance officially transitioned from the Florida Department of Transportation to the Florida Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles' Division of the Florida Highway Patrol on July 1, 2011. The consolidation is a result of Senate Bill 2160, passed by lawmakers during the 2011 Legislative Session, and places the commercial vehicle licensing, registrations, fuel permits, and enforcement all under the purview of DHSMV.
Motor Carrier Compliance officers will be "troopers". Motor Carrier Compliance troopers' uniforms will include the FHP patch beginning July 1. MCC troopers also will wear a Florida Highway Patrol badge. They will continue to perform commercial vehicle safety inspections and to weigh commercial vehicles with portable scales at various locations around the state, in addition to FDOT weigh stations on Florida's highways. Motor Carrier Compliance vehicles will replace the FDOT seal with the FHP seal on door panels. The vehicles will bear the FHP license plates, too. Through attrition, motorists will eventually see more FHP black and tan vehicles patrolling Florida roadways.
Usually after two years on the Patrol, troopers are eligible to join a specialized unit. Trooper training is tough, but new troopers can work anywhere in the State of Florida after recruit training .
- The Traffic Homicide Investigations Unit was created in 1967 to meet the Florida Highway Patrol's need for comprehensive investigation into the circumstances resulting in all traffic-related deaths in Florida. The unit consists of 168 full-time investigators, divided into 23 squads statewide. According to the FHP during the period of July 1, 2000 to June 30, 2001, the Patrol investigated 1,728 fatal traffic crashes.
- The Drug Interdiction Program includes advanced training of all sworn personnel in drug identification and use detection as well as search and seizure laws, use of FHP Aircraft for observation of marijuana fields during routine flight duties; drug detection canines; drug interdiction teams; and utilization of fiber optic scopes to locate concealed compartments.
- The Drug Interdiction Teams are 20 felony teams, with 50 specially trained troopers designated as felony officers and canine handlers.
- The Florida Highway Patrol Flight Section pilots flew 3481.8 total flight hours during FY 00/001 (July 2000 to June 2001). Of these total flight hours, 1721.9 were flown over speed check zones producing 30,967 arrests. This is an average of 18.0 arrests per hour. The total cost to operate these aircraft during FY 00/01 was $212,472.14, with an average of $61.02 per hour. The total revenue generated by the aircraft was $3,870,875.00, an average of $125.00 per citation.
- The Armored Personnel Carriers are three armored personnel carriers that were acquired by the Florida Highway Patrol from the Department of Management Services, Bureau of Federal Property Assistance in November 1998.
- The patrol's three Mobile Command Units are stationed in Jacksonville (Troop G), Orlando (Troop D), and Miami (Troop E).
- Civilian Community Service Officers are stationed in the Tampa Bay area and the Orlando area, with 14 in Hillsborough County, 14 in Pinellas County and four in Orange County. These non-sworn officer positions are responsible for responding to, and investigating minor crashes where there are no criminal charges involved, and providing assistance to stranded motorists. Community Service Officers are not armed, nor do they have any arrest authority. They wear a distinctive colored uniform, which consists of a white shirt with FHP patches and black trousers.
- Quick Reaction Force teams provide rapid assistance to areas of the state affected by hurricanes or other natural disasters, the Patrol has Reaction Force Teams. These teams are deployed to disaster areas. There are eight teams, each consisting of one lieutenant, three sergeants and 21 troopers or corporals for a total of 25.
- Motorcycle squads include 47 motorcycles for traffic enforcement and crash investigations. Ten motorcycles are assigned to Troop C (Tampa) and 11 each are assigned to Dade, Duval, Orange, and Palm Beach counties.
- The five Special Response Teams (SRT), similar to SWAT, consisting of members specially trained in crowd control, weapons, tactical maneuvers, building searches, service of arrest warrants, and other special techniques.
Aggressive driving enforcementEdit
In response to the growing problem of "Aggressive Driving", the Florida Highway Patrol launched a selective traffic enforcement campaign in South Florida called "Eye on 95". The program was piloted in Miami-Dade (Miami metro) and Broward (Ft. Lauderdale) counties using two confiscated Jeep Grand Cherokees equipped with grant-funded in-car video equipment, radar, laser, and other speed measuring devices. The Jeeps are designated as observation vehicles, and work with second vehicles that are standard issue marked or unmarked Florida Highway Patrol cars. These vehicles are designated as the enforcement vehicles, and are utilized to overtake the violator upon receiving information from the observation vehicle. The enforcement vehicle conducts the traffic stop of the violator and takes enforcement action for the team.
In 2016, FHP assigned a small number of 'Ghost' cars to mostly to metropolitan areas around the state. The solid black Dodge Chargers had subdued graphics (black which reflected silver) making them less obvious, with intentions to focus on aggressive drivers while being able to maintain authenticity.
In 1979, the United States Department of Justice filed a federal lawsuit alleging race and sex discrimination in employment by the Florida Highway Patrol. The State of Florida entered into a settlement with the Justice Department. The settlement was incorporated into a Consent Decree entered by the Federal Court for the Northern District of Florida on July 12, 1979. The Consent Decree required the Patrol to hire more minorities and women.
By 1985, the Justice Department changed its position and required agencies with existing Affirmative Action consent decrees, including the Florida Highway Patrol, to end the use of specific numerical goals designed to increase the employment of women and minorities. The Justice Department said that specific preferences, based on race, sex or national origin, were unacceptable under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. For example, one New York decree adopted in 1979, specified that 40 percent of the entrants to the state police academy should, if possible, be blacks or people with Spanish surnames, while 10 percent should be women.
As of 2000, the FHP's demographics were:
- Male: 90%
- Female: 10%
- White: 75%
- African American/Black: 14%
- Hispanic: 10%
- Asian: 1%
FHP vehicle color schemeEdit
Florida law designates the prescribed colors as 'Florida Highway Patrol black and tan.' The color origins have no correlation with the road or grass colors. The traditional color scheme is unique to the FHP and has long been utilized on FHP patrol vehicles. Florida law makes it a misdemeanor crime to cause a vehicle or motorcycle to be the same or similar colors as prescribed by FHP. A 1998 Legislative review determined the paint added $657 to the purchase of each vehicle. Prior to the vehicles being decommissioned, the Patrol defaces the cars so that they cannot be misconstrued as official law enforcement vehicles. The defaced, two-tone paint reduces each car's resale value by approximately $400.
Florida Highway Patrol AuxiliaryEdit
The Florida Highway Patrol is authorized by Florida law to have an Auxiliary force. The Auxiliary personnel are volunteers who dedicate a minimum number of hours on a part-time, but regularly recurring basis to supplement the Florida Highway Patrol in its legislated duties. The maximum number of auxiliary personnel is limited by law. Auxiliary personnel receive no individual wages, health or insurance benefits, and may not work as auxiliary troopers for compensation (e.g. off duty employment).
Just as with any Florida law enforcement officer, auxiliary personnel who wish to be considered for a traditional Auxiliary trooper position must meet minimum statutory qualification criteria. Additionally, auxiliary members must successfully meet other requirements including submitting a State of Florida application and fingerprints, undergoing a background investigation, passing mandated Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE) and agency law enforcement training requirements. Once certified, Auxiliary troopers are Florida certified auxiliary law enforcement officers. State law provides that while serving under the supervision and direction of a full-time trooper, auxiliary troopers have the power to bear arms and make arrests. The supervision and direction of a full-time trooper may come in the form being present at the scene or in radio contact with the auxiliary trooper. Auxiliary troopers wear agency issued sidearms, and similar but slightly distinctive uniforms.
The Auxiliary is overseen by a high ranking full-time command staff member of the Florida Highway Patrol who acts as the auxiliary coordinator. Throughout the state, each auxiliary unit is supervised by a full-time member who comes under the purview of the troop commander within each troop.
Auxiliary duties include: patrolling the highways of the state, assisting motorists, participating in vehicle equipment and license checkpoints, operating the mobile Breath Alcohol Testing (BAT) Unit, and participating in specialized events or details relevant to traffic related matter.
- "State Population Totals and Components of Change". US Census Bureau Population Estimates Program. Retrieved January 28, 2018.
- "HSMV FY15-16 Annual Performance Report" (PDF). www.flhsmv.gov. Retrieved January 4, 2017.
- FDLE (2014). "Florida Criminal Justice Agency Profile 2014". www.fdle.state.fl.us. Florida Department of Law Enforcement. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
- "Consolidation Task Force: Florida Highway Patrol Jurisdiction Team Report" (PDF). www.flhsmv.gov. October 28, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 5, 2017.
- "FHP in the 1940s: First Driver License Examination Program". www.flhsmv.gov. Archived from the original on November 27, 2017.
- "Historical Timeline Division of Driver License" (PDF). www.flhsmv.gov. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 27, 2017.
- "Motor Carrier Compliance officers become 'troopers' July 1" (PDF) (Press release). Florida Highway Patrol. June 29, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
- Rank Structure
- "FHP Unveils Latest Stealth Vehicle". www.flhsmv.gov. December 11, 2004.
- ""Ghost Cruiser" is FHP's new weapon". WEARtv.com. June 5, 2017.
- "Consent Decree: FHP in the 1970s". www.flhsmv.gov. September 16, 2017.
- Pear, Robert (April 3, 1985). "Justice Dept Presses Drive on Quotas". www.nytimes.com. The New York Times. Archived from the original on November 25, 2017.
- "Law Enforcement Management and Administrative Statistics, 2000" (PDF). Bureau of Justice Statistics. p. 243. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 4, 2007.
- § 321.02, Fla. Stat. (2010) Powers and Duties of FHP
- "321.03 Fla. Stat. (2010) FHP Imitations prohibited". Florida Legislature Online Sunshine.
- Vaughn, Linda; Estes, Anna (1999). Report 98-87 Justification Review: Florida Highway Patrol (PDF). The Florida Monitor: Office of Program Policy Analysis and Government Accountability (OPPAGA): An Office of the Florida Legislature. p. 16. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 24, 2018.
- "Inside the Fast-Paced Florida Highway Patrol". Tactical Life Gun Magazine: Gun News and Gun Reviews. Retrieved March 31, 2016.
- 321.24, Fla. Stat. (2007) Members of an auxiliary to Florida Highway Patrol
- "FHP Policy - Auxiliary 18.02" (PDF). www.flhsmv.gov/fhp/Manuals. January 14, 2013. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
- § 943.13, Fla. Stat. (2013) Officers' minimum qualifications for employment or appointment.
- Fla. Admin. Code R. 11B-35.003 (2014) Basic recruit training program requirements for auxiliary law enforcement training.
- "FDLE Curriculum Training Programs". Florida Department of Law Enforcement. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved September 1, 2015.
- § 943.10(8), Fla. Stat. (2007) Definitions for s 943.085-943.255: Auxiliary law enforcement officer means in part - "...has authority to arrest and perform law enforcement functions."
- "FHP Policy - Drivers License and Vehicle Inspection Checkpoints 17.07" (PDF). www.flhsmv.gov/fhp/Manuals. Florida Highway Patrol. December 17, 2015. p. 4. Retrieved January 10, 2016.