The flare follows the final approach phase and precedes the touchdown and roll-out phases of landing. In the flare, the nose of the plane is raised, slowing the descent rate and therefore, creating a softer touchdown, and the proper attitude is set for touchdown. In the case of conventional landing gear-equipped aircraft, the attitude is set to touchdown on the main (front) landing gear first. In the case of tricycle gear-equipped aircraft, the attitude is set to touchdown on the main (rear) landing gear. In the case of monowheel gear-equipped gliders, the flare consists only of leveling the aircraft.
- Flight Standards Service (2016). Airplane Flying Handbook. Federal Aviation Administration. pp. 8–6. FAA-H-8083-3B.
- Transport Canada (1994). Aeroplane Flight Training Manual (4th ed.). Gage Educational Publishing. p. 105. ISBN 0-7715-5115-0.
- KaiserG, John W. (1977). How to Fly Book: Cessna 150. Victoria Flying Club. p. 33.
- Reichman, Helmut (1980). Flying Sailplanes. Thomson Publications. p. 51. LCCN 80-52798.
- Poynter, Dan; Turoff, Mike (2003). Parachuting: The Skydiver's Handbook. Para Publishing. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-56860-087-1. Retrieved 2011-10-15 – via Google Books.
Flare at 15', push both toggles down to pelvis....or blow the timing on the landing flare.
- Newman, Simon (1994). The Foundations of Helicopter Flight. Halsted Press. ISBN 978-0-470-23394-8. Retrieved 2011-10-15 – via Google Books.
...the final part of the autorotative manoeuvre. This is the landing flare prior to touchdown, which is necessary to arrest the vertical descent rate of the helicopter.