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Flammulina velutipes is a highly regarded mushroom, especially in Japan where it is called Enokitake or Enoki (the English pronunciation for Enokitake //)(榎茸, エノキタケ, Japanese pronunciation: [enokitake], also enokidake (榎茸, エノキダケ, Japanese pronunciation: [enokidake]. While enoki 榎, エノキ, Japanese pronunciation: [enoki],
|Cultivated Flammulina velutipes|
|Wild enokitake, Flammulina velutipes|
Due to its popularity, this mushroom is also farmed and commercialized. The farmed and commercial form is represented by a long, thin white mushroom. The cultivated form is a popular ingredient for soups, especially in the East Asian cuisine, but can be used for salads and other dishes. The mushroom has a crisp texture and can be refrigerated for approximately one week. The farmed form is also known as golden needle mushroom, futu mushroom or lily mushroom. The farmed F. velutipes is usually commercialized fresh or canned.
The wild forms differ in color, texture, and sliminess and may be called futu, seafood mushrooms, winter mushrooms or winter fungus, velvet foot, velvet stem or velvet shank.
When picking in the wild, it is important not confuse it with the poisonous Galerina marginata. Flammulina velutipes can be distinguished by its shiny and sticky caps, white spores, and the absence of the ring on the stem. Galerina marginata presents brown caps and stipe and most notably has brown rusty spores It also tends to grow in isolated specimen and it presents a ring.
There is a significant difference in appearance between the wild and cultivated types of the mushroom. Cultivated mushrooms have not been exposed to light, resulting in a white color, whereas wild mushrooms usually display a dark brown color. Cultivated mushrooms are grown in a carbon dioxide (CO2)-rich environment to nurture the development of long thin stems, whereas wild mushrooms produce a much shorter and thicker stem.
The wild variety of the mushroom may be found from September through to March, hence the name winter fungus.
|gills on hymenium|
|cap is convex|
|hymenium is adnexed|
|stipe is bare|
|spore print is white|
|ecology is saprotrophic|
The names enokitake (榎茸、エノキタケ), enokidake (榎茸、エノキダケ) and enoki (榎、エノキ) are derived from the Japanese language. In Mandarin Chinese, the mushroom is called 金針菇 (jīnzhēngū, "gold needle mushroom") or 金菇 (jīngū, "gold mushroom"). In India it is called futu, in Korean, it is called paengi beoseot (팽이버섯) which means "mushroom planted near catalpa", and nấm kim châm in Vietnamese. In Hungary it is called téli fülőke, meaning "winter ear".
Research at the National University of Singapore, first published in 2005, stated that the stalk of the golden needle mushroom contains a large quantity of a protein, named "Five"/"FIP-fve" by the researchers, that helps in the regulation of the immune system. The mushroom also contains Flammutoxin, a cytolytic and cardiotoxic protein that has proven to be non-toxic when absorbed/taken orally.
- Dictionary.com (2012). "enokitake". Dictionary.com. Dictionary.com, LLC. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
- Shanghai Xuerong Biotechnology Co Ltd on Seafood Mushrooms
- Bao HN, Ushio H, Ohshima T (March 2009). "Antioxidative activities of mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) extract added to bigeye tuna meat: dose-dependent efficacy and comparison with other biological antioxidants". Journal of Food Science. 74 (2): C162–9. doi:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2009.01069.x. PMID 19323731.
- Bao HN, Ushio H, Ohshima T (November 2008). "Antioxidative activity and antidiscoloration efficacy of ergothioneine in mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) extract added to beef and fish meats". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 56 (21): 10032–40. doi:10.1021/jf8017063. PMID 18841979.
- "New look at two wonder mushrooms". National University of Singapore. 2001–2012. Retrieved 14 May 2012.
- Tomita T, Ishikawa D, Noguchi T, Katayama E, Hashimoto Y (July 1998). "Assembly of flammutoxin, a cytolytic protein from the edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes, into a pore-forming ring-shaped oligomer on the target cell". The Biochemical Journal. 333 (1): 129–37. PMC 1219565. PMID 9639572.
- Lin, JY; Wu, HL; Shi, GY (November 1975). "Toxicity of the cardiotoxic protein flammutoxin, isolate from edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes". Toxicon. 13 (5): 323–31. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(75)90191-9. PMID 54950.
- Tomita, Toshio; Dai Ishikawa; Takayasu Noguchi; Eisaku Katayama; Yohichi Hashimoto (8 April 1998). "Assembly of flammutoxin, a cytolytic protein from the edible mushroom Flammulina velutipes, into a pore-forming ring-shaped oligomer on the target cell". Biochemical Journal (333): 129–137.
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