In mathematics, a fixed point (sometimes shortened to fixpoint, also known as an invariant point) of a function is an element that is mapped to itself by the function. That is, c is a fixed point of a function f if c belongs to both the domain and the codomain of f, and f(c) = c.
For example, if f is defined on the real numbers by
Not all functions have fixed points: for example, f(x) = x + 1, has no fixed points, since x is never equal to x + 1 for any real number. In graphical terms, a fixed point x means the point (x, f(x)) is on the line y = x, or in other words the graph of f has a point in common with that line.
Points that come back to the same value after a finite number of iterations of the function are called periodic points. A fixed point is a periodic point with period equal to one. In projective geometry, a fixed point of a projectivity has been called a double point.
Attracting fixed pointsEdit
An attracting fixed point of a function f is a fixed point x0 of f such that for any value of x in the domain that is close enough to x0, the iterated function sequence
The natural cosine function ("natural" means in radians, not degrees or other units) has exactly one fixed point, which is attracting. In this case, "close enough" is not a stringent criterion at all—to demonstrate this, start with any real number and repeatedly press the cos key on a calculator (checking first that the calculator is in "radians" mode). It eventually converges to the Dottie number (about 0.739085133), which is a fixed point. That is where the graph of the cosine function intersects the line .
Not all fixed points are attracting. For example, x = 0 is a fixed point of the function f(x) = 2x, but iteration of this function for any value other than zero rapidly diverges. However, if the function f is continuously differentiable in an open neighbourhood of a fixed point x0, and , attraction is guaranteed.
Attracting fixed points are a special case of a wider mathematical concept of attractors.
An attracting fixed point is said to be a stable fixed point if it is also Lyapunov stable.
A fixed point is said to be a neutrally stable fixed point if it is Lyapunov stable but not attracting. The center of a linear homogeneous differential equation of the second order is an example of a neutrally stable fixed point.
Multiple attracting points can be collected in an attracting fixed set.
This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2018)
In many fields, equilibria or stability are fundamental concepts that can be described in terms of fixed points. Some examples follow.
- In economics, a Nash equilibrium of a game is a fixed point of the game's best response correspondence. John Nash exploited the Kakutani fixed-point theorem for his seminal paper that won him the Nobel prize in economics.
- In physics, more precisely in the theory of phase transitions, linearisation near an unstable fixed point has led to Wilson's Nobel prize-winning work inventing the renormalization group, and to the mathematical explanation of the term "critical phenomenon."
- Programming language compilers use fixed point computations for program analysis, for example in data-flow analysis, which is often required for code optimization. They are also the core concept used by the generic program analysis method abstract interpretation.
- In type theory, the fixed-point combinator allows definition of recursive functions in the untyped lambda calculus.
- The vector of PageRank values of all web pages is the fixed point of a linear transformation derived from the World Wide Web's link structure.
- The stationary distribution of a Markov chain is the fixed point of the one step transition probability function.
- Logician Saul Kripke makes use of fixed points in his influential theory of truth. He shows how one can generate a partially defined truth predicate (one that remains undefined for problematic sentences like "This sentence is not true"), by recursively defining "truth" starting from the segment of a language that contains no occurrences of the word, and continuing until the process ceases to yield any newly well-defined sentences. (This takes a countable infinity of steps.) That is, for a language L, let L′ (read "L-prime") be the language generated by adding to L, for each sentence S in L, the sentence "S is true." A fixed point is reached when L′ is L; at this point sentences like "This sentence is not true" remain undefined, so, according to Kripke, the theory is suitable for a natural language that contains its own truth predicate.
Topological fixed point propertyEdit
there exists such that .
According to the Brouwer fixed-point theorem, every compact and convex subset of a Euclidean space has the FPP. Compactness alone does not imply the FPP and convexity is not even a topological property so it makes sense to ask how to topologically characterize the FPP. In 1932 Borsuk asked whether compactness together with contractibility could be a necessary and sufficient condition for the FPP to hold. The problem was open for 20 years until the conjecture was disproved by Kinoshita who found an example of a compact contractible space without the FPP.
Generalization to partial orders: prefixpoint and postfixpointEdit
The notion and terminology is generalized to a partial order. Let ≤ be a partial order over a set X and let f: X → X be a function over X. Then a prefixpoint (also spelled pre-fixpoint) of f is any p such that p ≤ f(p). Analogously, a postfixpoint (or post-fixpoint) of f is any p such that f(p) ≤ p. One way to express the Knaster–Tarski theorem is to say that a monotone function on a complete lattice has a least fixpoint that coincides with its least postfixpoint (and similarly its greatest fixpoint coincides with its greatest prefixpoint). Prefixpoints and postfixpoints have applications in theoretical computer science.
- Coxeter, H. S. M. (1942). Non-Euclidean Geometry. University of Toronto Press. p. 36.
- G. B. Halsted (1906) Synthetic Projective Geometry, page 27
- Weisstein, Eric W. "Dottie Number". Wolfram MathWorld. Wolfram Research, Inc. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- Wilson, Kenneth G. (1971). "Renormalization Group and Critical Phenomena. I. Renormalization Group and the Kadanoff Scaling Picture". Physical Review B. 4 (9): 3174–3183. Bibcode:1971PhRvB...4.3174W. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.4.3174.
- Wilson, Kenneth G. (1971). "Renormalization Group and Critical Phenomena. II. Phase-Space Cell Analysis of Critical Behavior". Physical Review B. 4 (9): 3184–3205. Bibcode:1971PhRvB...4.3184W. doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.4.3184.
- "P. Cousot & R. Cousot, Abstract interpretation: A unified lattice model for static analysis of programs by construction or approximation of fixpoints".
- Kinoshita, S. (1953). "On Some Contractible Continua without Fixed Point Property". Fund. Math. 40 (1): 96–98. doi:10.4064/fm-40-1-96-98. ISSN 0016-2736.
- Patrick Cousot; Radhia Cousot (1979). "Constructive Versions of Tarski's Fixed Point Theorems" (PDF). Pacific Journal of Mathematics. 82 (1): 43–57. doi:10.2140/pjm.1979.82.43.
- Yde Venema (2008) Lectures on the Modal μ-calculus Archived March 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine