Fitness and figure competition
Fitness and figure competition is a class of physique-exhibition events for women. While bearing a close resemblance to female bodybuilding, its emphasis is on muscle definition, not size. The class was originally introduced when female bodybuilding's popularity began to noticeably decline, in terms of both fanbase and number of participants. In recent years organizations like NPC have done away with the female bodybuilding division altogether, only Physique, Figure, Fitness and Bikini divisions remain.
Fitness and Figure are two distinct forms of competition, not just one. In a Fitness contest (the older of the two disciplines), female competitors showcase their physiques (which are noticeably less massive than bodybuilders') while performing a demanding, time-limited, aerobic/dance routine. In a Figure contest, the most important attributes are a curvaceous-yet-trim body, and facial beauty; however, the physique guidelines are similar to a Fitness pageant's, and many contestants move back and forth between the two disciplines. The Figure division emerged on the bodybuilding scene when the numbers for Fitness pageant competitions started to dwindle. Typically, fitness and figure competitions are held as part of the larger-drawing bodybuilding contests.
Women's fitness competitions did not start until the 1980s. In previous years it was uncommon for women to compete in muscle building competition. Beauty pageants were the main way for women to compete. Women's body building is a relatively new cultural phenomenon, and has shown a significant increase in popularity since the 1980s. Body building has traditionally been seen as a male-appropriate activity, and various authors have documented the struggle faced by pioneering women body builders as they entered the competitive body building world in the 1970s. Gold's Gym is said to have prided itself on being ‘ovary free’ until the late 1970s. The first women's Fitness competition was produced by Wally Boyko in 1985 at the National Fitness trade show in Las Vegas, Nevada; it included a swimsuit round, an athletic routine, and an evening gown segment. Louis Zwick, then the producer of American Muscle Magazine (a magazine-format, bodybuilding TV show on ESPN), produced and aired a segment on the pageant. The number of contests was proliferating, and Zwick himself launched Fitness America (now Fitness Universe) in 1989 to capitalize on the trend. The International Federation of BodyBuilding & Fitness soon followed suit, holding its own, sanctioned fitness pageant—Fitness Olympia—in 1995.
The first women's Figure competition was the NPC (the major sanctioning body for would-be professional bodybuilders and organized amateur bodybuilding) Figure Nationals held in 2001 at Borough of Manhattan Community College's Performing Arts Center, in New York City's Tribeca section. It was a qualifier and precursor to the 2003 IFBB Figure Olympia, held in Las Vegas, Nevada. The Fitness Universe organization launched their own Figure division in 2005.
A typical fitness competition consists of a swimsuit round and a routine round. In the swimsuit round, the competitors wear two-piece swimsuits and high-heeled shoes, presenting their physiques with a series of quarter- or half-turns toward the judges and audience. Physique guidelines for fitness competitions typically suggest a small amount of muscular mass; clear separations between muscle groups (but, no visible striations); and, leanness. The swimsuit must cover at least fifty percent of the gluteus maximus muscle; no thongs or G-strings are allowed. The routine round requires a physically active stage performance; most competitors attempt aerobic, dance, and/or gymnastic routines.
Fitness contests sanctioned by the International Federation of BodyBuilding & Fitness (IFBB) are the Fitness Olympia and the Fitness International. Fitness contests sanctioned by Wally Boyko Productions are the National Fitness Sanctioning Body (NFSB) Ms. Fitness USA and the International Fitness Sanctioning Body (IFSB) Ms. Fitness World. Fitness contests sanctioned by the Fitness Universe organization are the Fitness America Pageant and the Fitness Universe Pageant.
Figure competition is a newer sub-category of fitness contests. Figure shows exclude the routine round common to fitness shows. The competitors are judged solely on muscular symmetry and definition; as in fitness shows, muscle size is downplayed. Figure competitions appeal most to women who want to compete in a body competition, but wish to avoid fitness shows' additional athletic and creative demands (the routine round), or bodybuilding's demands for heavy muscle mass.
A typical figure competition includes two rounds, though this varies by organization. In the symmetry round, the competitors appear on stage in high-heeled shoes and a one-piece swimsuit in a side-by-side line that faces the judges. They execute a series of quarter-turns to the right, allowing the judges to view and compare them from all sides for symmetry, presentation, and other aesthetic qualities such as skin tone, hair, make-up, and stylishness of clothing. In the next round (the group comparisons), competitors return in high heels and a two-piece bathing suit, executing a series of quarter-turns. At this stage, they are judged more critically against the others for conditioning, leanness, and how "feminine" and "athletic" (as opposed to brawny) their muscularity is. Included in either of these rounds, or perhaps just the evening show, the competitors come out individually on stage for a model walk where they are judged on presentation, gracefulness, confidence, poise, and professionalism.
Figure contests sanctioned by the International Federation of BodyBuilding & Fitness (IFBB) are the Figure Olympia and the Figure International. Figure contests sanctioned by the Fitness Universe organization is the Figure Universe Pageant.
Bikini competition was created as a category with much less emphasis on muscularity to accommodate even more women into the world of physique competitions and IFBB recognized bikini competition as an independent competition category on 7 November 2010. Rapidly growing, bikini category looks for lean and firm physique and "competitors are scored on proportion, symmetry, balance, shape and skin tone". Women that are not willing to be as muscular as bodybuilders can still participate in bikini competition. The tan that they have is also a point that should be taken into consideration when it comes to participating at a bikini competition. The first Bikini Olympia was introduced in 2010, since then it has grown to become the largest and most popular division on the fitness stage..
The Wellness CategoryEdit
Created by Gustavo Costa, then President of IFBB-Rio (Brasil), being one of the most contested categories in competitions, it won worldwide recognition when it was made official by the IFBB .
Women's physique category has been created to give a platform for women who enjoy weight training, competing, and contest preparation. Competitors should display a toned, athletic physique showcasing femininity, muscle tone, and beauty/flow of physique. The following are examples of common terms used in the bodybuilding industry. These words can be helpful to assess what should not be descriptive to the physiques being judged in women's physique: ripped, shredded, peeled, striated, dry, diced, hard, vascular, grainy, massive, thick, and dense. While all types of physiques will be considered when it comes to height, weight, structure, etc. Excessive muscularity should be scored down accordingly. Women's physique competitors should have the overall aesthetics and look that is found in figure with a little more overall muscularity. Women's physique categories are broken down into two parts, a group comparison and an individual performance routine. During group comparisons competitors will be directed through a series of poses that can consist of any of the following: quarter turns, front or rear double biceps with open hands, left or right-side chest with front leg and arms extended, left or right-side triceps with front leg extended, hands over head abdominals. In the individual performance routine contestants perform a small choreographed routine to music. Not only do they have to look good on stage they have to show their personality on stage depending on the physique competition some will require you to wear a one-piece bikini or a two-piece bikini. Some competitions depending on the organization for instance NPC or IFBB will require the use of high heels or bare feet. Along with, the use of jewelry or no jewelry physique competitors also have to worry about their tan, makeup and hair.
According to personal trainers and nutritionist, nutrition is one of the most important factors to muscle building. Without the proper nutrients and hydration that your muscles need to grow you will not see much progress with just weight training. There are several nutrients that you need which include protein, carbohydrates, and fats. Proteins, are one of the most important nutrients for muscle building. Protein provides the amino-acid building blocks for muscle growth. Carbohydrates are also an important factor when it comes to muscle building. Carbohydrates provide a valuable source of calories for building a bigger physique. Plus, if trainers do not have enough glycogen, they will not have the energy to train hard to grow muscle mass, so quality carbs are necessary to fuel intense workouts. Dietary fats are important because it promotes healthy blood flow along with healthy skin and hair. More calorie dense than protein or carbohydrates, fat is a surefire way to help meet your caloric needs. It is also necessary to keep testosterone levels elevated, which makes it easier to pack on muscle. Not only do you have to eat right, you also have to make sure you stay hydrated. Water is a critical component of your mass-gaining diet because it helps maintain muscle fullness and helps the body properly use all the calories you are supplying it.
Enhancing substances (steroids) are sometimes used in the fitness industry to promote the development of muscle in a shorter amount of time. It is easier for a male to gain muscle mass than for women to gain muscle due to the amounts of testosterone that males have. Steroids are illegal unless they are prescribed by Doctors. If they are not prescribed by Doctors, steroids are usually smuggled into the United States from places like Mexico and European countries where a prescription is not required. The [anabolic–androgenic steroids (AASs)] are a family of hormones that contain the innate male hormone, testosterone, and a group of synthetic testosterone derivatives. These medicines are widely misused by men and rarely women to increase muscle content and body fat lose. When female athletes use these substances, they have to make sure they know how much exactly to take as mistake can lead to a lifelong side effect. Steroids in females can have a great amount of side effects including liver disorder, enlargement of clitoris, and a masculine look. Another major effect that can occur is if you are not eating the right nutrients or working out enough you can gain a lot of weight from the misuse of steroids. In women, AASs may interrupt ovarian function. Chronic intense physical activity leads to menstrual irregularities and, in severe cases, to the female athletes’ triad (such as low energy intake, menstrual disturbance and low bone mass), making it difficult to abandon sports effects and AASs. Acne, hirsutism and deepening of the tone of voice are major outcomes of AASs misapplication.
- Kotel, Amanda (1 October 2012). "What's the Deal with Bikini Contests?". Muscle & Body. Archived from the original on 5 September 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
- Stein, Jeanine (11 Jun 2006). "Figure contests focus on form Women prefer feminine appearance". Gazette. Los Angeles Times: 5D. ProQuest Document ID: 1057898431.
- Grogan, Sarah, et al. "Femininity and Muscularity: Accounts of Seven Women Body Builders." Journal of Gender Studies, vol. 13, no. 1, Mar. 2004, p. 49. EBSCOhost, library.se.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edb&AN=13073262&site=eds-live .
- Billard, Mary (May–June 1999). "Power Pageant". Women's Sports & Fitness (Article)
|url=(help). 2 (4): 146–151. ISSN 1099-6079.
- "Competitor History of the Fitness Olympia". IFBB Professional League. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- "2001 NPC Nationals Figure". NPC News Magazine. npcnewsonline.com. 16, number 2 (85). March–April 2002. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- "Competitor History of the Figure Olympia". IFBB Professional League. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- "Figure Introduction, Figure Universe". Fitness Universe, Inc. Retrieved 22 August 2011.
- Curtis, Bryan (16 February 2005). "The Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue: An intellectual history". Slate. Washington Post. Newsweek Interactive Co. LLC. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- "Ford Models Supermodel of the World". Supermodeloftheworld.com. Archived from the original on December 6, 2000. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- NPC Figure Competition Rules
- IFBB Competition Rules Archived 2015-02-14 at the Wayback Machine
- Campos, Thiago (2019). "ANTHROPOMETRIC, DERMATOGLYPHIC AND SOMATOTYPIC INTERVENTION IN ONE OF THE CHAMPIONSHIPS OF THE FEDERATION PARAIBAN OF FISCULTURISM, MUSCULATION AND FITNESS" (PDF). Coleção Pesquisa em Educação Física. 18 (01): 75–84. ISSN 1981-4313.
- “Official NPC Women's Physique Division.” NPC News Online, National Physique Committee, npcnewsonline.com/official-npc-womens-physique-division/.
- “Women's Physique Guidelines.” OCB Online, ocbonline.com/guidelines-womensphysique.php.
- Kadey, Matthew. "The Big 12." Muscle & Performance, vol. 4, no. 12, Dec. 2012, pp. 47-52. EBSCOhost, library.se.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ofm&AN=83073147&site=eds-live
- Navidinia, Masoumeh and A. S. L. Pedram Ebadi. "Medical Consequences of Long-Term Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids (Aass) Abuses in Athletes." Biomedical Research (0970-938X), vol. 28, no. 13, Dec. 2017, pp. 5693-5701. EBSCOhost, library.se.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=124672166&site=eds-live.