First Battle of the Masurian Lakes

The First Battle of the Masurian Lakes was a German offensive in the Eastern Front 4–13 September 1914, during the second month of World War I. It took place only days after the Battle of Tannenberg where the German Eighth Army encircled and destroyed the Russian Second Army. Using the rapid movements aided by the East Prussian railway network, the Eighth Army reformed in front of the spread-out Russian First Army and pushed them back across their entire front, eventually ejecting it from Germany. Further progress was hampered by the arrival of the Russian Tenth Army on the Germans' right flank.

First Battle of the Masurian Lakes
Part of the Eastern Front of World War I
EasternFront1914a.jpg
Eastern Front to 26 September 1914.
Date7–14 September 1914
Location
East Prussia, Germany (present-day Poland)
Result

German victory

  • Russian ejection from East Prussia
Belligerents
 German Empire  Russian Empire
Commanders and leaders
German Empire Paul von Hindenburg
German Empire August von Mackensen
Russian Empire Paul von Rennenkampf
Units involved
German Empire 8th Army Russian Empire 1st Army
Russian Empire 10th Army
Strength
Total 244,391 men[1][2]
1,212 guns
400 machine guns
Total 553,937 men[3]
1,673 guns
960 machine guns:
First army:
306,470 men,
924 guns
395 machine guns
Tenth army:
247,467 men
749 guns
565 machine guns
Casualties and losses

German official data (1-30.09.1914):
1,552 KIA,
10,412 WIA,
1,552 MIA,
Total 13,516 [4]
17 guns
17 machine guns[5]


10,000[6][7] killed, wounded and missing[8][9][10]
Other Estimate:
40 000 killed and wounded[11]

100,000[12][13]125,000 killed, wounded and captured,[14][15][16]
162 guns
174 machine guns[17]


70,000 killed and wounded,[8]
30,000[18]45,000 prisoners
Russian Estimate:
about 60 000 died,wounded and prisoners[19][20]
Headquarters of the Russian NW front: 100,000 men, including 50,000 prisoners[21]

By the conclusion of the battle, the Germans had destroyed the Second Army and shattered the First in a series of actions over only a few weeks. This pushed the Russians so off-balance that they were unable to mount any serious operations on the German front until the spring of 1915. At that time the Germans launched the Gorlice–Tarnów offensive which pushed the Russian forces deep into Russia.

BackgroundEdit

The Russian offensive in East Prussia had started well enough, with General Paul von Rennenkampf's First Army (Army of the Neman) forcing the Eighth Army westward from the border towards Königsberg. Meanwhile, the Russian Second Army invaded from the south, hoping to cut the Germans off in the area around the city. The lack of railways and logistical problems meant they made slow progress even though they faced only a single German army corps.

During their advance Yakov Zhilinsky, Chief of Staff of the Imperial Russian Army, made a strategic mistake by separating two large Russian armies and urging them to move rapidly over a marginally trafficable terrain in response to the requests of the French for an early offensive. As a result, the armies approached in a poorly coordinated manner, being isolated from each other by terrain obstacles, and before the logistical base could be established, the troops were worn down by a rapid march and had to face fresh German troops.[22]

The Germans developed a plan to rapidly move their forces to surround the Second Army as it moved northward over some particularly hilly terrain. The danger was that the First Army would turn to their aid, thereby flanking the German forces. However, the Russians broadcast their daily marching orders "in the clear" on the radio, and the Germans learned that the First Army was continuing to move away from the Second. Using railways in the area, the German forces maneuvered and eventually surrounded and destroyed the Second Army at the Battle of Tannenberg between 26 and 30 August 1914.

According to Prit Buttar, "as the magnitude of the disaster that had befallen Samsonov's army became clear, Rennenkampf ordered his men to pull back from their most advanced positions. First Army took up a line running from the Deime valley in the north, through Wehlau and Nordenberg, to the northern shore of the Mauer-See, immediately to the west of Angerburg." His reserve divisions formed the new XXVI Corps on his northern flank. Between Wehlau and Nordenburg were his III and IV Corps. The II Corps was placed opposite the German garrison in Lötzen. In addition, Rennenkampf received 5 newly formed reserve divisions (54th, 57th, 68th, 72th, 76th).[23] The total strength of the First Army was more than 300,000 men, including 50,000 in reserve (garrisons of fortresses in the rear of the First Army).[23] The Tenth Army filled the gap with what was left of the Second Army. The Tenth Army was newly formed, and consisted of the XXII Corps from Finland, the III Siberian Corps, the I Turkestan Corps, and the II Caucasian Corps, with the XXII Corps opposite Lyck, and the III Siberian Corps to their south. Two corps were kept in reserve.[24] The total strength of the Tenth Army was 250,000 men[25] In the reserve of the Tenth Army there were garrisons of fortresses with more than 37,000 men.[25]

On 31 August, Hindenburg received the following orders, "XI Corps, Guards Reserve Corps, and 8th Cavalry Division are placed at your disposal. Their transport has begun. The first task of Eighth Army is to clear East Prussia of Rennenkampf's army. When the situation in East Prussia has been restored you are to contemplate employing Eighth Army in the direction of Warsaw." Hindenburg and Ludendorff placed their Guards Reserve Corps, I Reserve Corps, XI Corps and the XX Corps on the Russian northern flank. Their XVII Corps was deployed at Lötzen, and their I Corps around Lyck.[24] The total strength of the Eighth Army was 244,391 men, including troops against the Second Russian Army.[26]

BattleEdit

 
General staff of the German 8th Army during the battle.

On 4 September, Hans von der Goltz's East Prussian Army of the South, attacked Mława, which was captured by the 1st Landwehr Division, and 35th Reserve Infantry Division, on 5 Sept. On 6 September, the I Corps advanced on Arys, and its 2nd Infantry Division captured Nikolaiken, while its 1st Infantry Division captured Johannisburg, and its 3rd Reserve Infantry Division captured Biała Piska on 7 September. The 1st Infantry division reached Arys on 9 September, and then Ranten. In support of I Corps, the German XVII Corps reached Kruglanken on 9 September. On 10 September, the 3rd Reserve Infantry Division was near Lyck. While the German I Corps attempted to turn the Russian left flank, the other 4 German corps to the north put pressure on the Russian III and IV Corps, as the Russians fought a defensive action. The Russian commander of the XXII Corps sent a message stating, "I cannot carry out my orders to march against the flank of the Hindenburg Army, as I was attacked at Lyck and beaten." Rennenkampf was forced to retreat to the east.[24]

The Russian IV Corps then launched a surprise attack to the German center, but the attack faltered, and the Russians continued their retreat east. On 11 September, the German I Corps had reached Goldap and ordered to cut off the Russian retreat. By then the German XVII Corps had cut the road between Angerburg and Goldap. On 12 September, I Corps reached Pillupönenn and the 35th Infantry Division had reached Tollmingkehmen.[24]

The battle had turned decisively in the Germans' favor. By 11 September the Russians had been pushed back to a line running from Insterburg to Angerburg in the north, with a huge flanking maneuver developing to the south. It was at this point that the threat of encirclement appeared possible. Rennenkampf ordered a general retreat toward the Russian border, which happened rapidly under the protection of a strong rear guard. It was this speed that enabled the retreating Russian troops to escape the trap Hindenburg had planned for them. The German commander had ordered his wings to quicken their march as much as possible, but a trivial accident—a rumor of a Russian counterattack—cost the Germans half a day's march, allowing the Russians to escape to the east. These reached Gumbinnen the next day, and Stallupönen on the 13th. The remains of the First Army retreated to the safety of their own border forts. Likewise, the Tenth Army was forced back into Russia. German casualties were about 10,000 (according to German official data, the losses of the 8th Army for the whole of September 1914 amounted to: 1,552 KIA, 10,412 WIA, 1,552 MIA, total 13,516 [4]), Russians 100,000-125,000.[13]

OutcomeEdit

On 11 September, Grand Duke Nikolai dismissed Yakov Zhilinsky as the commander of the Russian Northwestern Front, replacing him with Nikolai Ruzsky. The Grand Duke then ordered the Fifth Army from Galicia to a position north of Warsaw.[24]

On 14 September, the last of the Russian army had retreated over the frontier, as the German 1st Infantry Division reached Wyłkowyszki, within Russian territory, and the German 3rd Reserve Infantry Division had reached Suvalki.[24]

On 15 September, the Germans formed the Ninth Army to protect Silesia.[24]

The German advantage was bought at a cost: the newly arrived corps had been sent from the Western front and their absence would be felt in the upcoming Battle of the Marne. Much of the territory taken by the Germans would later be lost to a Russian counterattack during 25–28 September.[8]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ С. Г. Нелипович: Два похода. Борьба за Восточную Пруссию в августе-октябре 1914 года, 2020, p. 76.
  2. ^ Hans Niemann, Hindenburgs Siegeszug gegen Rußland, Berlin : Mittler & Sohn, 1917, p. 44.
  3. ^ С.Г. Нелипович, Два похода, 2020, p. 77-78, 110
  4. ^ a b Sanitaetsbericht ueber das Deutsche Heer, bd. II, Berlin 1938, s. 495,508
  5. ^ С.Г. Нелипович, Два похода, 2020, p. 98
  6. ^ David Eggenberger, An Encyclopedia of Battles: Accounts of Over 1,560 Battles, 2012, p. 270
  7. ^ Dennis Cove,Ian Westwell, History of World War I, 2002, p. 157
  8. ^ a b c Spencer C. Tucker. World War I: The Definitive Encyclopedia and Document Collection. ABC-CLIO. 2014. P. 1048
  9. ^ Timothy C. Dowling. Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond. ABC-CLIO. 2014. P. 509
  10. ^ Prit Buttar. Collision of Empires: The War on the Eastern Front in 1914. Osprey Publishing. 2014. P. 239
  11. ^ First World War
  12. ^ Tucker S. The Great War, 1914-1918. Routledge. 2002. P. 44
  13. ^ a b Gray, Randall; Argyle, Christopher (1990–1991). Chronicle of the First World War. New York: Oxford. p. vol. I, 282.
  14. ^ David Eggenberger, (2012), p. 270
  15. ^ Christine Hatt, The First World War, 1914-18, 2007, p. 15
  16. ^ Roger Chickering, Imperial Germany and the Great War, 1914-1918, 2004, p. 26
  17. ^ С.Г. Нелипович, Два похода, 2020, p. 97.
  18. ^ F. Kagan, R. Higham. The Military History of Tsarist Russia. Springer, 2016. P. 230
  19. ^ https://btgv.ru/history/great-war/восточный-рубеж/1914/-the-collapse-of-the-austro-german-blitzkrieg-east-prussian-operation-1914-part-6
  20. ^ Alfred Knox Major General with the Russian Army 1914-1917 (1921) p.90
  21. ^ С.Г. Нелипович, Два похода, 2020, p. 92
  22. ^ William R. Griffiths. The Great War. Square One Publishers, 2003. P. 48
  23. ^ a b С.Г. Нелипович, Два похода, 2020, p. 77-78
  24. ^ a b c d e f g Buttar, Prit (2016). Collision of Empires, The War on the Eastern Front in 1914. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. pp. 227–245. ISBN 9781472813183.
  25. ^ a b С.Г. Нелипович, Два похода, 2020, p. 110
  26. ^ С.Г. Нелипович, Два похода, 2020, p. 76

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 54°00′00″N 22°00′00″E / 54.0000°N 22.0000°E / 54.0000; 22.0000