Finnish Declaration of Independence

The Finnish Declaration of Independence (Finnish: Suomen itsenäisyysjulistus; Swedish: Finlands självständighetsförklaring; Russian: Провозглашение независимости Финляндии) was adopted by the Parliament of Finland on 6 December 1917. It declared Finland an independent nation, ending its autonomy within Russia as the Grand Principality of Finland, with reference to a bill simultaneously delivered to the Parliament to make Finland an independent republic instead.

Image of the Declaration in Finnish with the senators' signatures
Image of the Declaration in Swedish with the senators' signatures
The Bolshevist government of Russia led by Lenin approve Finland's independence

Declaring independence was only part of the long process leading to the independence of Finland. The declaration is celebrated as Independence Day in Finland.


Revolution in RussiaEdit

After the February Revolution and the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, Grand Prince of Finland, on 2 March (15 March N.S.) 1917, the personal union between Russia and Finland lost its legal base – at least according to the view in Helsinki. There were negotiations between the Russian Provisional Government and Finnish authorities.

The resulting proposal, approved by the Provisional Government, was heavily rewritten in the Eduskunta (Finnish Parliament) and transformed into the so-called Power Act (Finnish: Valtalaki, Swedish: Maktlagen), whereby the Parliament declared[1] itself to now hold all powers of legislation, except with respect to foreign policy and military issues, and also that it could be dissolved only by itself. At the time of the vote, it was believed that the Provisional Government would be quickly defeated by the rebellion in Saint Petersburg. The Provisional Government survived, however, disapproved of the Power Act and dissolved the Parliament.

After new elections and the ultimate defeat of the Provisional Government in the October Revolution, the Finnish Parliament decided to set a three-man regency council, based on Finland's Constitution, and more precisely on clause §38 of the old Instrument of Government of 1772, which had been enacted by the Estates after Gustav III's bloodless coup. This paragraph provided for the election of a new monarch in case of the extinction of the royal line and was interpreted in Finland as vesting sovereignty in the estates, later the Parliament, in such an interregnum. The regency council was never elected, because of the strong opposition of Finnish socialists and their general strike which demanded for more radical action.

On 2 November (15 November N.S.) 1917, the Bolsheviks declared a general right of self-determination, including the right of complete secession, "for the Peoples of Russia". On the same day the Finnish Parliament issued a declaration by which it assumed, pro tempore, all powers of the Sovereign in Finland.[2]

The old Instrument of Government was however no longer deemed suitable. Leading circles had long held monarchism and hereditary nobility to be antiquated, and advocated a republican constitution for Finland.


The Finnish Senate of 1917, Prime Minister P. E. Svinhufvud in the head of table.

The Senate of Finland, the government that the Parliament had appointed in November, drafted a Declaration of Independence and a proposal for a new republican Instrument of Government. Chairman of the Senate (a.k.a. Prime minister) Pehr Evind Svinhufvud read the Declaration to the Parliament on 4 December.[3] The Declaration of Independence was technically given the form of a preamble of the proposition, and was intended to be agreed by the Parliament, which adopted the Declaration on 6 December.

On 18 December (31 December N. S.) the Soviet Russian government issued a Decree, recognising Finland's independence,[4] and on 22 December (4 January 1918 N. S.) it was approved by the highest Soviet executive body, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK).[5]

The Declaration and 15 NovemberEdit

With reference to the declaration of 15 November, the declaration says:

The people of Finland have by this step taken their fate in their own hands; a step both justified and demanded by present conditions. The people of Finland feel deeply that they cannot fulfil their national and international duty without complete sovereignty. The century-old desire for freedom awaits fulfilment now; Finland's people step forward as a free nation among the other nations in the world. (...) The people of Finland dare to confidently await how other nations in the world recognize that with their full independence and freedom, the people of Finland can do their best in fulfilment of those purposes that will win them a place amongst civilized peoples.


Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania declared their independence from Russia during the same period. See Estonian War of Independence, Latvian Independence and Lithuanian Wars of Independence.

These three countries were occupied by, and annexed into, the Soviet Union (1940–1941, 1944–1991). See Occupation of the Baltic states.

Text of Finland's Declaration of IndependenceEdit

To The Finnish People.

The Finnish Parliament has on 15th day of the last November, in support of Section 38 of the Constitution, declared to be the Supreme holder of the State Authority as well as set up a Government to the country, that has taken to its primary task the realization and safeguarding Finland’s independence as a state. The people of Finland have by this step taken their fate in their own hands: a step both justified and demanded by present conditions. The people of Finland feel deeply that they cannot fulfil their national duty and their universal human obligations without a complete sovereignty. The century-old desire for freedom awaits fulfilment now; The People of Finland has to step forward as an independent nation among the other nations in the world.

Achieving this goal requires mainly some measures by the Parliament. Finland’s current form of government, which is currently incompatible with the conditions, requires a complete renewal and therefore has the Government now submitted a proposition for a new Constitution to the Parliament’s council, a proposition that is based on the principle that Finland is to be a sovereign republic. Considering that, the main features of the new polity has to be carried into effect immediately, the Government has at the same time delivered a bill of acts in this matter, which mean to satisfy the most urgent renewal needs before the establishment of the new Constitution.

The same goal also calls for measures from the part of the Government. The Government will approach foreign powers to seek an international recognition of our country’s independence as a state. At the present moment this is particularly all the more necessary, when the grave situation caused by the country’s complete isolation, famine and unemployment compels the Government to establish actual relations to the foreign powers, which prompt assistance in satisfying the necessities of life and in importing the essential goods for the industry, are our only rescue from the imminent famine and industrial stagnation.

The Russian people have, after subverting the Tsarist Regime, in a number of occasions expressed its intention to favour the Finnish people the right to determine its own fate, which is based on its centuries-old cultural development. And widely over all the horrors of the war is heard a voice, that one of the goals of the present war is to be, that no nation shall be forced against its will to be dependent on another (nation). The Finnish people believe that the free Russian people and its constitutive National Assembly don’t want to prevent Finland’s aspiration to enter the multitude of the free and independent nations. At the same time the People of Finland dare to hope that the other nations of the world recognizes, that with their full independence and freedom the People of Finland can do their best in fulfilment of those purposes that will win them an independent position amongst the people of the civilized world.

At the same time as the Government has wanted to let all the Finnish citizens to know these words, the Government turns to the citizens, as well as the private and public authorities, calling everyone on their own behalf with rapt attention to follow the (law and) order by filling their patriotic duty, to strain all their strength for achieving the nation's common goal in this point of time, which has such an importance and decisiveness, that there have never before been in the life of the Finnish people. In Helsinki, 4 December 1917.[6]

The Finnish Senate:

P. E. Svinhufvud. E. N. Setälä.
Kyösti Kallio. Jalmar Castrén.
Onni Talas. Arthur Castrén.
Heikki Renvall. Juhani Arajärvi.
Alexander Frey. E. Y. Pehkonen.
O. W. Louhivuori. A. E. Rautavaara (Senate Judge-Rapporteur)

International recognitionEdit

The decision of the Soviet of the People's Comissars' to recognise Finnish independence, signed by Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky, Grigory Petrovsky, Joseph Stalin, Isaac Steinberg, Vladimir Karelin and Alexander Schlichter.
State[7] Date [7]
  Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic 4 January 1918
  France 4 January 1918
  Sweden 4 January 1918
  German Empire 4 January 1918
  Kingdom of Greece 5 January 1918
  Norway 10 January 1918
  Denmark 10 January 1918
   Switzerland 11 January 1918
  Austria-Hungary 13 January 1918
  Netherlands 28 January 1918
  Spain 21 February 1918
  Ottoman Empire 21 February 1918
  Kingdom of Bulgaria 21 February 1918
   Holy See 2 March 1918
  Argentina 11 May 1918
  Persia 23 July 1918
  Siam 9 October 1919
  Poland 8 March 1919
  United Kingdom 6 May 1919
  United States 7 May 1919
  Japan 23 May 1919
  Belgium 10 June 1919
  Chile 17 June 1919
  Peru 23 June 1919
  Kingdom of Italy 27 June 1919
  Uruguay 18 August 1919
  Liechtenstein 27 October 1919
  Portugal 19 December 1919
  Brazil 26 December 1919
  Colombia 31 December 1919
  Kingdom of Romania 8 April 1920
  Venezuela 18 April 1920
  Panama 17 May 1920
  Ecuador 25 June 1920
  Mexico 13 July 1920
  Kingdom of Hungary 23 August 1920
  Paraguay 3 June 1921
  Luxembourg 25 October 1921
  Kingdom of Yugoslavia [8] 27 July 1922
  Kingdom of Afghanistan 17 July 1928
  Kingdom of Albania 1 December 1928
  Chile 20 February 1931

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Hallituksen esitykseen, joka sisältää ehdotuksen laiksi erinäisten asiain siirtämisestä Suomen senaatin ja kenraalikuvernöörin ratkaistavaksi" (in Finnish). 25 July 1917. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  2. ^ "Eduskunta". Suomi 80 (in Finnish). Tampere University. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  3. ^ "Tiistaina 4. p. joulukuuta – Hallituksen puheenjohtajan lausunto Suomen valtiollisen itsenäisyyden toteuttamisesta". Toiset valtiopäivät 1917, Pöytäkirjat, osa I (in Finnish). Valtioneuvoston kirjapaino. 1918. p. 310–311.
  4. ^ "Primary Documents - Soviet Recognition of Finland's Independence, 18 December 1917". first world war. Retrieved 20 August 2016.
  5. ^ "On This Day - 4 January 1918". first world war. Retrieved 20 August 2016. Eastern front: Bolshevik Government recognises independence of Finland.
  6. ^ Translation from the Finnish language by B. Holm, 25 July 2009. (Clarifications by the translator are in brackets.)
  7. ^ a b "Suomi ulkomailla". Finland abroad. 6 December 2020. Retrieved 6 December 2020.
  8. ^ Janne Ridanpää (2020). Maailmanympärimatka Helsingissä suurlähetystöt ja niiden historia. Helsinki: Otava. p. 152. ISBN 978-952-5805-86-4.

External linksEdit