File integrity monitoring
File integrity monitoring (FIM) is an internal control or process that performs the act of validating the integrity of operating system and application software files using a verification method between the current file state and a known, good baseline. This comparison method often involves calculating a known cryptographic checksum of the file's original baseline and comparing with the calculated checksum of the current state of the file. Other file attributes can also be used to monitor integrity.
Generally, the act of performing file integrity monitoring is automated using internal controls such as an application or process. Such monitoring can be performed randomly, at a defined polling interval, or in real-time.
Changes to configurations, files and file attributes across the IT infrastructure are common, but hidden within a large volume of daily changes can be the few that impact file or configuration integrity. These changes can also reduce security posture and in some cases may be leading indicators of a breach in progress. Values monitored for unexpected changes to files or configuration items include:
- Privileges and Security Settings
- Core attributes and size
- Hash values
- Configuration values
- PCI-DSS - Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (Requirement 11.5)
- SOX - Sarbanes-Oxley Act (Section 404)
- NERC CIP - NERC CIP Standard (CIP-010-2)
- FISMA - Federal Information Security Management Act (NIST SP800-53 Rev3)
- HIPAA - Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (NIST Publication 800-66)
- SANS Critical Security Controls (Control 3)
Some examples include:
- Advanced Intrusion Detection Environment
- McAfee Change Control
- System File Checker (provided with Windows)
- Trend Micro Deep Security
- Tripwire products
- Kaspersky Lab Hybrid Cloud Security, Embedded Security, Security for Linux, Security for Windows Server
- "Verisys - How it Works". Ionx. Retrieved 2012-09-21.
- "File Integrity Monitoring". nCircle. Retrieved 2012-04-18.
- "Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard" (PDF). PCI Security Council. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
- "Sarbanes-Oxley Sections 302 & 404 - A White Paper Proposing Practival, Cost Effective Compliance Strategies" (PDF). Card Decisions, Inc. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
- "Standard CIP-010-2 - Security Configuration, Change Management and Vulnerability Assessments". North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC). Retrieved 2016-06-06.
- "Applying NIST SP 800-53 to Industrial Control Systems" (PDF). National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Retrieved 2011-10-11.
- "An Introductory Resource Guide for Implementing the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Rule" (PDF). National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 2011-10-11.
- "Critical Control 3: Secure Configurations for Hardware and Software on Mobile Devices, Laptops, Workstations, and Servers". SANS Institute. Retrieved 2012-11-19.