The Fiat Croma name was used for two distinct large family car by Fiat, one a five door liftback manufactured and marketed from 1985 to 1996, and after a nine year hiatus, a crossover station wagon manufactured and marketed from 2005 to 2010.

Fiat Croma
2010 Fiat Croma facelift.JPG
Overview
ManufacturerFiat
Production1985–1996
2005–2010
Body and chassis
ClassLarge family car (D)
LayoutFront-engine, front-wheel-drive

First generation (1985–1996)Edit

First generation (154)
 
First facelift model (1988–1991)
Overview
Production1985–1996
AssemblyMirafiori, Turin, Italy
DesignerGiorgetto Giugiaro at Italdesign
Body and chassis
Body style5-door liftback
PlatformType Four platform (Tipo Quattro)[1]
RelatedSaab 9000
Lancia Thema
Alfa Romeo 164
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,660 mm (104.7 in)
Length4,495 mm (177.0 in)
Width1,755 mm (69.1 in)
Height1,425 mm (56.1 in)
Curb weight1,095 kg (2,414 lb) approx
Chronology
PredecessorFiat Argenta
SuccessorFiat Marea
 
1987 Fiat Croma CHT

The original Croma (Type 154) was a five door notchback liftback styled by Giorgetto Giugiaro of Italdesign using the Type Four platform, cooperatively used with the Saab 9000, Lancia Thema and Alfa Romeo 164.[2]

Released in December 1985,was marketed in the large family car segment, replacing the Fiat Argenta in the Fiat lineup. The Croma was the first large car produced by Fiat to feature a transverse mounted engine and front wheel drive.[3]

FaceliftEdit

 
Fiat Croma (after the facelift of 1991).
 
Rear view.

The Croma received a light facelift for 1988, first shown in Frankfurt in September 1987. The black plastic between the rear lamps was now ridged rather than smooth, the lower portion of the bumpers were body coloured, and the turn signals received clear glass rather than amber.[4]

The front appearance received some other light modifications to bring appearance in line with that of the recently introduced Tipo.[5]

A more significant facelift was released in January 1991, with a new front design, including changes to the lights, bumpers grille and sheet metal changes to wings and bonnet. Also in 1991, the direct injected diesel engine was equipped with a variable geometry turbocharger ("VNT").[6] Another facelift was released in June 1993.

Production ended in December 1996, and Fiat left the large family car segment. The Bravo/Brava based Fiat Marea small family car debuted at the same time as the Croma's cancellation.

EnginesEdit

The Croma was available with a variety of petrol and diesel engines, most of the petrol units coming from Fiat's Twin Cam engine family.

Base models had a single cam 1585 cc four with 83 PS (61 kW) and the 1995 cc, 90 PS (66 kW) "Controlled High Turbulence" (CHT) engine, followed by two fuel injected 2.0 litre twin cam powerplants, one with 120 PS (88 kW) and the other a turbocharged and intercooled version giving 155 PS (114 kW).

The later 2.5 L V6 petrol unit was from Alfa Romeo, but as with the 1.6 L engine, was not available in all markets. The 2.0 CHT was designed specifically to provide low fuel consumption under light and medium loads thanks to two separate inlet manifolds of different diameters.[7]

The Fiat Croma was the first passenger car in the world to have a direct injection Diesel (Turbo D i.d.) engine, going on sale in 1988.[5][8] The 1.9 L fitted with a turbocharger with direct injection produces 92 PS (68 kW). It was joined by the 2499 cc unit supplied by Iveco, with a normally aspirated version giving 75 PS (55 kW) and a turbocharged one with 115 PS (85 kW). The latter version replaced the original 2446 cc with 100 PS (74 kW).

Diesel engined variants of this car were not marketed in the United Kingdom.

PetrolEdit

Model Engine Displacement Power
1.6 I4 SOHC 8V 1585 cc 83 PS (61 kW; 82 hp)
CHT I4 DOHC 8V 1995 cc 90 PS (66 kW; 89 hp)
CHT I4 DOHC 8V 1995 cc 101 PS (74 kW; 100 hp)
i.e. I4 DOHC 8V 1995 cc 113 PS (83 kW; 111 hp)
i.e. I4 DOHC 8V 1995 cc 116 PS (85 kW; 114 hp)
i.e. I4 DOHC 8V 1995 cc 120 PS (88 kW; 118 hp)
i.e. 16V I4 DOHC 16V 1995 cc 137 PS (101 kW; 135 hp)
i.e. Turbo I4 DOHC 8V 1995 cc 150 PS (110 kW; 148 hp)
i.e. Turbo I4 DOHC 8V 1995 cc 155 PS (114 kW; 153 hp)
V6 V6 SOHC 12V 2492 cc 160 PS (118 kW; 158 hp)

DieselEdit

Model Engine Displacement Power
Turbo D i.d. I4 SOHC 8V 1929 cc 94 PS (69 kW; 93 hp)
Diesel I4 SOHC 8V 2499 cc 75 PS (55 kW; 74 hp)
Turbo Diesel I4 SOHC 8V 2446 cc 100 PS (74 kW; 99 hp)
2500 TD I4 SOHC 8V 2499 cc 101 PS (74 kW; 100 hp)
2500 TD I4 SOHC 8V 2499 cc 116 PS (85 kW; 114 hp)
2500 TDE I4 SOHC 8V 2499 cc 105 PS (77 kW; 104 hp)

Second generation (2005–2010)Edit

Second generation (194)
 
Overview
Production2005–2010 (LHD)[9]
2005–2007 (RHD)
AssemblyCassino – Piedimonte S. Germano (Frosinone), Italy
DesignerGiorgetto Giugiaro at Italdesign
Body and chassis
Body style5-door estate
PlatformGM Epsilon platform
RelatedCadillac BLS
Opel Signum
Opel Vectra
Saab 9-3
Powertrain
Transmission5- and 6-speed manual
6-speed automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,700 mm (110 in)
Length4,755 mm (187.2 in)
4,783 mm (188.3 in) (facelift)
Width1,775 mm (69.9 in)
Height1,600 mm (63 in)
Chronology
SuccessorFiat Freemont
 
Fiat Croma (2006)

In March 2005, Fiat announced a large crossover wagon with an upright tailgate, reminiscent of that of the Fiat Stilo, resurrecting the Croma nameplate. Giugiaro once again styled the exterior, while the chassis was provided via the short lived link with General Motors.

The new Croma (Type 194) is therefore based on the extended variant of the GM Epsilon platform sharing components with the Opel Vectra and Saab 9-3. It went on sale in Italy in June 2005. The car was shown in the Geneva Motor Show in 2005.

Unlike the previous model, and aware of its lack of image in the upper market segments, Fiat opted for not developing a standard large family car, but developing a "Comfort Wagon",[10] an automobile with design elements of both estates and large MPVs.

Its height of 1,600 mm (63.0 in) falls between the Mitsubishi Grandis and Ford S-Max large MPVs (1,655 mm (65.2 in) and 1,660 mm (65.4 in) respectively) and SEAT Altea XL (1,525 mm (60.0 in)). In February 2007, Fiat UK announced that the Croma would no longer be generally available in the United Kingdom, after less than 900 were sold in 2005.[citation needed]

The car was still offered only on special order, with RHD models manufactured to customer specifications. Production of the second generation Croma ceased in the end of 2010.

SafetyEdit

The Croma has seven airbags as standard, including one knee bag for the driver. As standard, the Croma is equipped with anti-lock braking system and electronic brakeforce distribution. It has a five star EuroNCAP crash, rating for adult occupant protection:

Euro NCAP test results
Fiat Croma (2008)
Test Score Rating
Adult occupant: 34      
Child occupant: 39      
Pedestrian: 6     

FaceliftEdit

 
Facelifted Fiat Croma

The Croma got a major facelift in November 2007, and was termed the Nuova Croma. A new grille (Bravo look) and rear bumper, as well as some material changes inside are the main differences. Fiat now designates the revised model as "Station Wagon" instead of the previously used term "Comfort Wagon".[11] The Nuova Croma was only sold in mainland Europe, excluding the United Kingdom.

EnginesEdit

The Croma, built at Fiat's Cassino factory, had three trim levels and five engine options. Like the chassis, petrol engines were supplied by Opel, beginning with the brand new evolution of the Family 1 Ecotec 1.8 L with 140 PS (103 kW), followed by the torquier L850 Ecotec 2.2 L with 147 PS (108 kW).

However, the bulk of the sales is represented by Fiat's own Multijet engine, available in three variants 1.9 L with 8 valves and 120 PS (88 kW), 1.9 L with 16 valves and 150 PS (110 kW), and the range topper five cylinder 2.4 L 20V, with 200 PS(147 kW). The diesel engines were fitted with a standard six speed manual gearbox, six speed automatic (standard on 2.4 engines) is also available.

PetrolEdit

Model Engine Displacement Power Torque
1.8 MPI 16V DOHC 16V I4 1796 cc 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp) at 6300 rpm 175 N⋅m (129 lb⋅ft) at 3800 rpm
2.2 MPI 16V DOHC 16V I4 2198 cc 147 PS (108 kW; 145 hp) at 5800 rpm 203 N⋅m (150 lb⋅ft) at 4000 rpm

DieselEdit

Model Engine Displacement Power Torque
1.9 MultiJet 8V SOHC 8V I4 1910 cc 120 PS (88 kW; 118 hp) at 4,000 rpm 280 N⋅m (207 lb⋅ft) at 2,000 rpm
1.9 MultiJet 16V DOHC 16V I4 1910 cc 150 PS (110 kW; 148 hp) at 4,000 rpm 320 N⋅m (236 lb⋅ft) at 2,000 rpm
2.4 MultiJet 20V DOHC 20V I5 2387 cc 200 PS (147 kW; 197 hp) at 4,000 rpm 400 N⋅m (295 lb⋅ft) at 2,000 rpm

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Curiosidades Tipo". Fiat Tipo Portugal. Archived from the original on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
  2. ^ "Octane Model Specs". Classicandperformancecar.com. Archived from the original on 11 March 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
  3. ^ Autocar Test Update 19 August 1987
  4. ^ Baghetti, Giancarlo (17 December 1987). "Che diesel volete?" [Which diesel do you want?]. Auto Oggi (in Italian). Verona, Italy: Arnoldo Mondadori Editore. 2 (54): 19.
  5. ^ a b Mastrostefano, Raffaele, ed. (January 1989). "Le nostre "stelle"" [Our "stars"]. Quattroruote (in Italian). Vol. 34, no. 399. Milan, Italy: Editoriale Domus. pp. 90–91.
  6. ^ "Turbo Pioneer". honeywell.com. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  7. ^ Letrou, Jean-Claude (January 1986). "Fiat Croma: En quête d'image" [On a quest for image]. L'Automobile Magazine (in French). Neuilly-sur-Seine, France: Societé des Editions Techniques et Touristiques de France: 34. ISSN 0758-6957.
  8. ^ "Air technologies - Heritage". fiat.com. Archived from the original on 8 August 2013.
  9. ^ "Fiat Croma uit productie; het einde van een tijdperk". autoedizione.nl (in Dutch). Retrieved 6 April 2011.
  10. ^ Car Reviews: First Drives: Fiat Croma - Autoexpress
  11. ^ "Nuova Fiat Croma". italiaspeed.com. Retrieved 13 November 2007.

External linksEdit