Ferula assa-foetida

Ferula assa-foetida is a species of Ferula endemic to Southern Iran.[1] It is the source of asafoetida, but its production is confined to Southern Iran, especially the area near Lar.[2][3][4]

Ferula assa-foetida
Asa foetida Kaempfer.jpg
The first botanical illustration of
Ferula assa-foetida (1712)
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Apiaceae
Genus: Ferula
F. assa-foetida
Binomial name
Ferula assa-foetida
  • Ferula foetida St.-Lag.
  • Narthex polakii Stapf
  • Narthex silphium Oerst.
  • Peucedanum assa-foetida (L.) Baill.
  • Peucedanum hooshee (Lindl. ex Descourt.) Baill.
  • Scorodosma assa-foetida (L.) H.Karst.

Outside its native range, other asafoetida-producing species are often misidentified as F. assa-foetida.[5] For example, F. foetida is mistaken for F. assa-foetida in Flora of the U.S.S.R. and Flora of Pakistan.[6][7] In a molecular phylogenetic study, all the plant samples of F. assa-foetida collected in Central Iran were clustered with other species such as F. alliacea and F. gabrielii instead of with the verified sample of F. assa-foetida collected in Southern Iran.[8] Chemical analyses of asafoetida samples obtained from local markets also showed that asafoetida-producing species in Eastern Iran were F. lutensis, F. foetida, F. alliacea, etc., instead of F. assa-foetida.[2][3]

F. pseudalliacea and F. rubricaulis are endemic to western and southwestern Iran and are sometimes considered conspecific with F. assa-foetida.[5]


  1. ^ a b "Ferula assa-foetida L." Plants of the World Online. Kew Science. Retrieved 2021-05-20.
  2. ^ a b Farhadi, Faegheh; Asili, Javad; Iranshahy, Milad; Iranshahi, Mehrdad (November 2019). "NMR-based metabolomic study of asafoetida". Fitoterapia. 139: 104361. doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2019.104361. PMID 31629871.
  3. ^ a b Farhadi, Faegheh; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Taghizadeh, Seyedeh Faezeh; Asili, Javad (November 2020). "Volatile sulfur compounds: The possible metabolite pattern to identify the sources and types of asafoetida by headspace GC/MS analysis". Industrial Crops and Products. 155: 112827. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2020.112827.
  4. ^ Barzegar, Alireza; Salim, Mohammad Amin; Badr, Parmis; Khosravi, Ahmadreza; Hemmati, Shiva; Seradj, Hassan; Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali (April 2020). "Persian Asafoetida vs. Sagapenum: Challenges and Opportunities". Research Journal of Pharmacognosy. 7 (2). doi:10.22127/rjp.2019.196452.1516.
  5. ^ a b Chamberlain, David F (1977). "The identity of Ferula assa-foetida L." Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 35 (2): 229–233.
  6. ^ Shishkin, B. K. (1974) [1951]. Flora of the U.S.S.R. Vol. 17. Translated by Lavoott, R. Edited by Lorch, J. Jerusalem: Israel Program for Scientific Translations. p. 52. ISBN 0-7065-1299-5.
  7. ^ "Ferula assa-foetida L." Flora of Pakistan. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2021-05-20.
  8. ^ Panahi, Mehrnoush; Banasiak, łukasz; Piwczyński, Marcin; Puchałka, Radosław; Kanani, Mohammad Reza; Oskolski, Alexei A; Modnicki, Daniel; Miłobędzka, Aleksandra; Spalik, Krzysztof (28 September 2018). "Taxonomy of the traditional medicinal plant genus Ferula (Apiaceae) is confounded by incongruence between nuclear rDNA and plastid DNA". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society. 188 (2): 173–189. doi:10.1093/botlinnean/boy055.