Ferrari Dino engine
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The idea for the engine came from Alfredo "Dino" Ferrari, who was the son of Enzo Ferrari. Dino suggested to Enzo Ferrari the development of a V6 engine for F2 at the end of 1955. Soon afterwards, Alfredo fell gravely ill, and he was diagnosed with muscular dystrophy. While hospitalized, he discussed technical details about the engine with a recently hired engineer named Vittorio Jano. Dino would never live to see the engine; he died on June 30, 1956 at the age of 24.
The production Dino V6 began as a discussion between Vittorio Jano and Enzo and Dino Ferrari about the ideal 1.5 L engine for use in the 1957 Formula Two auto racing series. Jano, formerly of Alfa Romeo and Lancia, pressed for a conventional 60° V6 but the Ferraris were open-minded.
Jano's 60° design incorporated some of his ideas from the Lancia Aurelia, and were used in a number of Formula One, Formula Two, and Grand Prix cars from 1959 through the early 1960s. Appearing in 1958, it used a 77 mm × 71 mm (3.03 in × 2.80 in) bore and stroke for 1,984 cc (2.0 L) and produced 200 bhp (149 kW; 203 PS) in the 196 S. A larger version was also produced, the 245 bhp (183 kW; 248 PS) 2,497 cc (2.5 L) Dino 246 S. These engines continued in the 1962 Ferrari 196 SP and 286 SP. The latter had a bore and stroke of 90 mm × 75 mm (3.54 in × 2.95 in) for 2,863 cc (2.9 L) and 260 PS (191 kW; 256 hp).
Ferrari designers began work on the first Dino V6 engine in 1956 and the engine was running by the end of the year. The engine displaced 1,489 cc (1.5 L; 90.9 cu in). This engine was installed in the Dino 156 F2 car and was first raced in the Grand Prix of Naples in April 1957, where it finished in third place behind two Lancia-Ferrari V8 Formula One cars.
The result of the trio's creativity was the world's only 65° V6 engine. The extra 5° between cylinder banks gave Ferrari the straight intakes he wanted. As this engine was not a true V6 but had a separate crankpin for every connecting rod, the crank pins were offset by 55 degrees within every pair of cylinders. This ensured an even firing order for the complete engine as well as an even distance between firing pulses per cylinder bank. Thus the engine was as smoothly running as a conventional 60 degree V6, but had greatly enhanced potential for the design of harmonically balanced exhaust manifolds, giving much better performance. Although the Dino V6 was discontinued with the introduction of the V8, the 65° design continues to this day: It reappeared on Ferrari's 1992 456 V12.
The 85 mm × 71 mm (3.35 in × 2.80 in) 2,417 cc (2.4 L; 147.5 cu in) engine used in the 246 S produced 280 PS (276 bhp; 206 kW) with dual overhead camshafts pushing two valves per cylinder. The rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout 1961 Ferrari 246 SP used this same engine, as did the 246 P F1. A bigger displacement engine (2,962 cc (3.0 L)) with 296 bhp (221 kW; 300 PS) was used for the 1959 Dino 296 S.
The 65° Dino V6 continued in racing after 1962, and made its way to the street as well. The 60° unit was no longer being developed after the SP-series. Ferrari needed to have the engine in 500 production vehicles to homologate it for racing use. The company worked with Fiat to develop a sports car to house it, and the front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout Fiat Dino project was born.
In competition, the 1965 Dino 166 P used a tiny 1,593 cc (1.6 L; 97.2 cu in) version of the 65° unit. Both bore and stroke were different from the earlier engine at 77 mm × 57 mm (3.03 in × 2.24 in) and output was impressive at 175 PS (129 kW; 173 bhp). Bore was up to 86 mm (3.39 in) for the 218 PS (215 bhp; 160 kW) 1,987 cc (2.0 L; 121.3 cu in) version found that same year in the Dino 206 SP as well as the 1966 Dino 206 S.
In 1968, Ferrari debuted its own Dino 206 GT, the company's first mid-engined road car. It used the 2.0 L engine from the 206 S transversely-mounted between the rear wheels. After producing just 152 cars, Ferrari bumped the bore and stroke up from 86 mm × 57 mm (3.39 in × 2.24 in) to 92.5 mm × 60 mm (3.64 in × 2.36 in) for 2,419 cc (2.4 L; 147.6 cu in). This increased power to 195 PS (192 bhp; 143 kW) at 7600 rpm and 226 N⋅m; 166 lbf⋅ft (23 kg⋅m) at 5500 rpm, but the engine block was now made of cast iron rather than aluminium.
The Dino V8, now bored to 81 mm (3.19 in), replaced the V6 in the next line of street Dinos to be produced by Ferrari, the 1973 GT4 and 1975 GTB "308" cars. Although the model name suggests 3.0 L, the V8 displaced only 2,927 cc (2.9 L) which rounds down to 2.9 L and was another DOHC 2-valve design.
- 1973–1976 308 GT4 (branded "Dino") F106AL
- 1976–1980 308 GT4 (branded "Ferrari") F106AL
- 1975–1980 308 GTB F106AB
- 1977–1980 308 GTS F106AB
The 1980 "i" models added fuel injection to the existing 2,927 cc (2.9 L) engine.
A very unusual Dino Quattrovalvole was used in the Lancia Thema 8.32. It was based on the 308 QV's engine, but used a cross-plane crankshaft rather than the Ferrari-type flat-plane. The engine was constructed by Ducati rather than Ferrari, and was produced from 1986 through 1991.
The Quattrovalvole was also used by Lancia for their attempt at the World Sportscar Championship with the LC2. The engine was twin-turbocharged and destroked to 2.65 litres, but produced 720 PS (530 kW; 710 bhp) in qualifying trim. The engine was later increased to 3.0 litres and increased power output to 828 PS (609 kW; 817 bhp).
- 1982–1985 308 GTB QV & GTS QV F105AB
- 1982–1985 Mondial QV F105A
- 1986–1991 Lancia Thema 8.32 F105L
- 1983–1991 Lancia LC2
These small V8 variants were chiefly intended for the domestic market, where cars with engines larger than two-litre incurred in an almost doubled 38% value added tax.
In 1975 the company introduced the Dino 208 GT4. The bore was reduced from 81 to 66.8 mm (3.19 to 2.63 in) but the stroke remained at 71 mm (2.80 in). Output was reduced as well, from 255 to 170 PS (188 to 125 kW; 252 to 168 bhp). Applications:
- 1975–1976 208 GT4 (branded "Dino") F106C
- 1976–1980 208 GT4 (branded "Ferrari") F106C
- 1980–1982 208 GTB F106CB
- 1980–1982 208 GTS F106CB
1982 saw the introduction of the 208 Turbo. The 208 Turbo featured 220 PS (162 kW; 217 bhp), more than the fuel injected 308 from the previous year. Except for the non-intercooled 208 Turbo engine, all the forced induction F1 and road engines from 1980 to 1989 were designed and developed by Nicola Materazzi due to his experience in fuels, engines, combustion, turbo and Comprex that had accumulated in his career (Mobil, Lancia, Osella).
- 1982–1985 208 GTB Turbo F106D
- 1982–1985 208 GTS Turbo F106D
- 1986–1989 GTB Turbo F106N
- 1986–1989 GTS Turbo F106N
The turbo also served as a development platform for the forthcoming 1984 288 GTO sports car. That famous Ferrari was meant for Group B racing, with a 2,855 cc (2.9 L) version of the 308's engine (bore was down by 1 mm (0.04 in) to meet the regulations of the class). With IHI twin-turbochargers, a Behr intercooler, and Weber-Marelli fuel injection, the GTO boasted 400 PS (294 kW; 395 bhp) from Dino's engine.
The 1985 328 and 3.2 Mondial used a bored and stroked 3.0 QV V8 to 83 mm × 73.6 mm (3.27 in × 2.90 in) version called the Tipo F105CB. That naturally aspirated 3,186 cc (3.2 L) engine boasted 270 PS (199 kW; 266 bhp).
In 1987, the F40 sports car debuted with the Tipo F120A engine. The 2.9 L (2,936.25 cc) Dino-based engine now had a bore x stroke of 82 mm × 69.5 mm (3.23 in × 2.74 in) and 16 psi (1.1 bar) of turbo boost for 351.5 kW (478 PS; 471 hp) at 7000 rpm and 577 N⋅m (426 lbf⋅ft) of torque at 4000 rpm while the US designated engines, code named the Tipo F120 D were rated at 356 kW (484 PS; 477 hp).
The Tipo F120 B, used in the Ferrari F40 LM, retained the same displacement as the F120A, but the output of the IHI turbochargers was upped to 2.6 bar (38 psi) and the compression ratio was increased to 8.0:1 for 720 hp (540 kW; 730 PS) at 7500 rpm.
The 1989 introduction of the 348 and Mondial t saw the Dino V8 pushed to 3.4 L (3,405 cc) with a bore x stroke of 85 mm × 75 mm (3.35 in × 2.95 in). Power was up to 300 PS (296 bhp; 221 kW) in the Tipo F129D/G, and revised as the Tipo F119H with 320 PS (316 bhp; 235 kW) in later Ferrari 348s.
- Tipo F129D & Tipo F119G
- Tipo F119H
- 1994 348 GTC
The 1994 F355 included their first production 5-valve engine, and sported a 2 mm (0.08 in) longer stroke for 3.5 L (3,496 cc) and 380 PS (375 bhp; 279 kW). This Tipo F129B was used from 1994 through 1998. It was revised as the Tipo F129C, debuting in 1998 and used through 1999.
- Tipo F129B
- Tipo F129C
The 1999 360 Modena retained the 85 mm (3.35 in) bore of the F355 engine and the 5-valve per cylinder layout, but increased the stroke to 79 mm (3.11 in), to raise the displacement again to 3.6 L (3,586 cc) and 400 PS (395 bhp; 294 kW). Modifications to the intake/exhaust and an increased 11.2:1 compression ratio produced 425 PS (419 bhp; 313 kW) for the 360 Challenge Stradale. This Tipo F131 was produced from 1999 through 2004.
A new V12 engine family debuted in the 1992 456 as the Tipo F116. It featured the Dino 65° V angle with an 88 mm bore and the same 75 mm stroke as the Dino V8 found in the 348, that was produced at the time of introduction.
- Fitzgerald, Merritt and Thompson, Ferrari The Sports and Gran Turismo Cars, Chapter 8, pp. 129–130
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