Fernando José Mendes Rosas ComL (born 18 April 1946, in Lisbon) is a Portuguese historian, professor and politician.

Fernando Rosas

Fernando Rosas (História a História) (cropped).png
Member of the Assembly of the Republic
In office
25 October 1999 – 4 April 2002
In office
10 March 2005 – 19 June 2011
Personal details
Fernando José Mendes Rosas

(1946-04-18) 18 April 1946 (age 73)
Lisbon, Portugal
Political partyLeft Bloc (1999–present)
Other political
Portuguese Communist Party (1961–1968)
Portuguese Workers' Communist Party (1970–1980)
Alma materUniversity of Lisbon
Universidade Nova de Lisboa
ProfessionHistorian, professor

Early life and educationEdit

Rosas was born on 18 April 1946. He studied at Pedro Nunes secondary school, and in 1961, he joined the school's Portuguese Communist Party organization, a party for which he was later a militant.

He entered University of Lisbon's Faculty of Law where he remained an active militant. He was arrested in the repressive wave of January, 1965, while he was directing the student association of his Faculty. The Estado Novo arrested dozens of activists from the main board of student resistance. He was tried and convicted in 1965. He served one year and three months at a correctional facility. As he left this facility he dedicated himself to supporting activities for arrested politicians.

The events of May 1968, and the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, in August of the same year, led him to opt for the abandonment of the Communist Party. He participated in Portugal's first public protest against the Vietnam War, supported by sectors that were linked to the Students' Democratic Left-Wing, organization which he helped found in late 1968. It was as a politician responsible for this party that he organized the 1969 protests in Lisbon. He also participated in the second protest (this time centred on Coimbra).

In August 1971, he was arrested for the second time and taken to the headquarters of the PIDE political police. He was submitted to sleep torture for several days and then the regime's courts convicted him to 14 months at a correctional facility.

Upon his release, he returned to anti-fascist activism. In March 1973, he actively supported the campaign for the accusation of the murder of African nationalist politician Amílcar Cabral. After a renewed attempt by the PIDE to imprison him, he escaped and went "underground" until the Carnation Revolution on 25 April 1974.

Up to 1979 he was editor of the Luta Popular newspaper ("People's struggle" in English). He represented this organization both times Ramalho Eanes ran for the presidency.

In 1981, Fernando Rosas returned to University and began dedicating himself to journalism as a profession. He coordinated the history page of Diário de Notícias and its cultural supplement. His collaboration with DN continued until 1992, a time when he integrated the fortnightly column of the pages of Público, another newspaper.

In 1986 he finished a Master's Degree in Contemporary History (19th and 20th century). He was invited to be assistant professor by the Faculty for Human and Social Sciences of Universidade Nova de Lisboa. In 1990 he got his Ph.D. and is today the president of the Instituto de História Contemporânea (Portugal's contemporary history institute), historical consultant for the Mário Soares Foundation and the editor of História magazine.

In 1996, he belonged to the Political Committee for the presidential candidature of Jorge Sampaio.

In 1999, he helped found the Left Bloc political party, whose Permanent Commission he leads.

In 2001 he ran for President of the Republic, supported by the Left Bloc, and had got 3% of the valid votes.

In 2006 he was made a Commander of the Order of Liberty, by President Jorge Sampaio.

Rosas was a deputy for Lisbon in the Assembly of the Republic from 1999 to 2002 and for Setubal since 2005.[1]

Electoral resultsEdit

2001 Portuguese presidential electionEdit

e • d Summary of the 14 January 2001 Portuguese presidential election results
Candidates Supporting parties First round
Votes %
Jorge Sampaio Socialist Party 2,401,015 55.55
Ferreira do Amaral Social Democratic Party, People's Party 1,498,948 34.68
António Abreu Portuguese Communist Party, Ecologist Party "The Greens" 223,196 5.16
Fernando Rosas Left Bloc 129,840 3.00
António Garcia Pereira Portuguese Workers' Communist Party 68,900 1.59
Total valid 4,321,899 100.00
Blank ballots 82,391 1.85
Invalid ballots 45,510 1.02
Total (turnout 49.71%) 4,449,800
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições
Vote share 1st Round
Jorge Sampaio
Ferreira do Amaral
António Simões de Abreu
Fernando Rosas
António Garcia Pereira

Selected worksEdit

  • As primeiras eleições legislativas sob o Estado Novo : as eleições de 16 de Dezembro de 1934, Cadernos O Jornal, 1985
  • O Estado Novo nos Anos 30, Lisbon, Estampa, 1986
  • O salazarismo e a Aliança Luso-Britânica : estudos sobre a política externa do Estado Novo nos anos 30 a 40, Lisbon, Fragmentos 1988
  • Salazar e o Salazarismo (with JM Brandão de Brito), Publicacoes Dom Quixote, 1989, ISBN 978-972-20-0758-0
  • Portugal Entre a Paz e a Guerra (1939/45), Lisbon, Estampa, 1990
  • Portugal e o Estado Novo (1930/60), Vol. XII (ed), Nova História de Portugal, (gen. ed. A. H. de Oliveira Marques e Joel Serra), Lisbon, Editorial Presença, 1992
  • O Estado Novo (1926/74), vol. VII, História Portugal (ed. J. Mattoso), 1994
  • Dicionário de História do Estado Novo (with JM Brandão de Brito, ed.), Lisbon, Bertrand Editora, 1996
  • Portugal e a Guerra Civil de Espanha (ed), Colibri, 1996, ISBN 978-972-772-016-3
  • Armindo Monteiro e Oliveira Salazar : correspondência política, 1926-1955 (ed.), Lisbon, Estampa, 1996, ISBN 978-972-33-1182-2
  • Salazarismo e Fomento Económico, Lisbon, Noticias, 2000
  • Portugal Século XX : Pensamento e Acção Política, Lisbon, Noticias, 2004
  • Lisboa Revolucionária, Lisbon, Tinta da China, 2007, ISBN 978-972-8955-45-8
  • História da Primeira República Portuguesa (with Maria Fernanda Rollo), Lisbon, Tinta da China, 2009, ISBN 978-972-8955-98-4