Fencing at the 1992 Summer Olympics – Men's foil

The men's foil was one of eight fencing events on the fencing at the 1992 Summer Olympics programme. It was the twenty-first appearance of the event. The competition was held on 31 July 1992. 59 fencers from 25 nations competed.[1] Nations had been limited to three fencers each since 1928. The event was won by Philippe Omnès of France, the nation's first victory in the men's foil since 1956 and eighth overall (passing Italy for most all-time). Serhiy Holubytskiy of the Unified Team took silver. Elvis Gregory earned Cuba's first medal in the event in 88 years with his bronze.

Men's foil
at the Games of the XXV Olympiad
Philippe Omnès.jpg
Philippe Omnès (2012)
VenuePalau de la Metal·lúrgia
Dates31 July 1992
Competitors59 from 25 nations
Medalists
1st place, gold medalist(s) Philippe Omnès  France
2nd place, silver medalist(s) Serhiy Holubytskiy  Unified Team
3rd place, bronze medalist(s) Elvis Gregory  Cuba
← 1988
1996 →

BackgroundEdit

This was the 21st appearance of the event, which has been held at every Summer Olympics except 1908 (when there was a foil display only rather than a medal event). Five of the eight quarterfinalists from 1988 returned: gold medalist (and 1984 bronze medalist) Stefano Cerioni of Italy, silver medalist Udo Wagner of East Germany, fourth-place finisher Ulrich Schreck of West Germany, and fifth-place finishers Zsolt Érsek of Hungary and Mauro Numa (also the 1984 gold medalist) of Italy. Philippe Omnès of France had been a quarterfinalist in 1984 but had been defeated earlier in 1988; he medaled at all three of the world championships between the Seoul and Barcelona Games, including winning in 1990.[2]

The Philippines and Singapore each made their debut in the men's foil; some former Soviet republics competed as the Unified Team. France and the United States each made their 19th appearance, tied for most of any nation; France had missed only the 1904 (with fencers not traveling to St. Louis) and the 1912 (boycotted due to a dispute over rules) foil competitions, while the United States had missed the inaugural 1896 competition and boycotted the 1980 Games altogether.

Competition formatEdit

The 1992 tournament used a three-phase format roughly similar to prior years in consisting of a group phase, a double-elimination phase, and a single-elimination phase, but each phase was very different from previous formats.

The first phase was a single round (vs. 3 rounds in 1988) round-robin pool play format; each fencer in a pool faced each other fencer in that pool once. There were 9 pools with 6 or 7 fencers each. The fencers' ranks within the pool were ignored; the overall winning percentage (with touch differential and then touches against used as tie-breakers) were used to rank the fencers. The top 46 advanced to the second phase, while the other fencers were eliminated.

The second phase was a modified, truncated double-elimination tournament. 14 fencers received a bye to the second round (round of 32), while the 32 fencers ranked 15–46 played in the round of 64. Fencers losing in the round of 64 were eliminated, while the remaining rounds were double elimination via repechages. The repechages (but not the main brackets) used a complicated reseeding mechanism. Ultimately, the 4 fencers remaining undefeated after the round of 8 advanced to the quarterfinals along with 4 fencers who advanced through the repechages after one loss.

The final phase was a single elimination tournament with quarterfinals, semifinals, and a final and bronze medal match.

All bouts were to 5 touches. In the second and third phases, matches were best-of-three bouts.

ScheduleEdit

All times are Central European Summer Time (UTC+2)

Date Time Round
Friday, 31 July 1992 Group round
Elimination round
Final round

ResultsEdit

Group roundEdit

Fencers were ranked by win percent, then touch differential, then touches against. This ranking, with adjustments to ensure that no two fencers of the same nation were in the same bracket (noted in parentheses), was used to seed the elimination round brackets.

Rank Fencer Nation Pool Rank Wins Losses Win % TF TA TF - TA Qual.
1 Stefano Cerioni   Italy 7 1 6 0 1.000 30 8 22 Q
2 Ye Chong   China 1 1 6 0 1.000 30 11 19 Q
3 Dmitry Shevchenko   Unified Team 2 1 6 0 1.000 30 11 19 Q
4 Philippe Omnès   France 7 2 5 1 .833 26 11 15 Q
5 Andrea Borella   Italy 4 1 5 1 .833 27 13 14 Q
6 Zsolt Érsek   Hungary 3 1 5 1 .833 29 15 14 Q
7 Piotr Kiełpikowski   Poland 4 2 5 1 .833 25 15 10 Q
8 Marian Sypniewski   Poland 2 2 5 1 .833 28 19 9 Q
9 Serhiy Holubytskiy   Unified Team 5 1 4 1 .800 24 11 13 Q
10 Guillermo Betancourt   Cuba 9 1 4 1 .800 23 12 11 Q
11 Joachim Wendt   Austria 8 1 4 1 .800 24 13 11 Q
12 (14) Mauro Numa   Italy 8 2 4 1 .800 23 14 9 Q
13 (12) Ulrich Schreck   Germany 6 1 4 1 .800 22 17 5 Q
14 (13) Jonathan Davis   Great Britain 3 2 4 2 .667 27 14 13 Q
15 Thorsten Weidner   Germany 1 2 4 2 .667 27 16 11 Q
16 Elvis Gregory   Cuba 4 3 4 2 .667 24 16 8 Q
17 Udo Wagner   Germany 3 3 4 2 .667 24 19 5 Q
18 Anatol Richter   Austria 3 4 4 2 .667 22 18 4 Q
19 Hiroki Ichigatani   Japan 7 3 4 2 .667 20 17 3 Q
20 Vyacheslav Grigoryev   Unified Team 1 3 4 2 .667 22 19 3 Q
21 Oscar García   Cuba 6 2 3 2 .600 21 15 6 Q
22 Patrick Groc   France 5 2 3 2 .600 20 15 5 Q
23 Patrice Lhôtellier   France 9 2 3 2 .600 19 15 4 Q
24 Yu Bong-Hyeong   South Korea 5 3 3 2 .600 17 14 3 Q
25 Kinya Abe   Japan 9 3 3 2 .600 17 17 0 Q
26 Mike Marx   United States 1 4 3 3 .500 23 17 6 Q
27 (28) István Busa   Hungary 7 4 3 3 .500 24 21 3 Q
28 (27) Ramiro Bravo   Spain 4 4 3 3 .500 21 20 1 Q
29 Kim Yeong-Ho   South Korea 1 5 3 3 .500 20 20 0 Q
30 (31) Róbert Kiss   Hungary 2 3 3 3 .500 22 22 0 Q
31 (30) Wang Haibin   China 4 5 3 3 .500 21 22 -1 Q
32 Nick Bravin   United States 3 5 3 3 .500 19 22 -3 Q
33 Lo Moon Tong   Hong Kong 9 4 2 3 .400 18 19 -1 Q
34 (36) Michael Ludwig   Austria 6 3 2 3 .400 21 22 -1 Q
35 (34) Ola Kajbjer   Sweden 5 4 2 3 .400 18 20 -2 Q
36 (37) José Francisco Guerra   Spain 8 3 2 3 .400 17 20 -3 Q
37 (35) Maged Abdallah   Egypt 8 3 2 3 .400 17 20 -3 Q
38 Wu Xing Yao   Hong Kong 6 4 2 3 .400 18 21 -3 Q
39 Yoshihide Nagano   Japan 6 4 2 3 .400 18 21 -3 Q
40 Bill Gosbee   Great Britain 5 5 2 3 .400 14 18 -4 Q
41 Benoît Giasson   Canada 9 5 2 3 .400 16 20 -4 Q
42 Donnie McKenzie   Great Britain 6 6 2 3 .400 17 21 -4 Q
43 Adam Krzesiński   Poland 8 5 2 3 .400 17 21 -4 Q
44 Zaddick Longenbach   United States 2 4 2 4 .333 21 25 -4 Q
45 Wang Lihong   China 2 4 2 4 .333 21 25 -4 Q
46 Andrés García   Spain 7 5 2 4 .333 16 21 -5 Q
47 Kim Seung-Pyo   South Korea 2 6 2 4 .333 20 28 -8
48 Zahi El-Khoury   Lebanon 9 6 1 4 .200 11 21 -10
49 Tang Kwong Hau   Hong Kong 8 6 1 4 .200 12 22 -10
50 Alberto González   Argentina 5 6 1 4 .200 9 24 -15
51 Hein van Garderen   South Africa 7 6 1 5 .167 14 25 -11
52 José Guimarães   Portugal 2 7 1 6 .167 15 27 -12
53 Walter Torres   Philippines 1 6 1 5 .167 10 26 -16
54 Enzo da Ponte   Paraguay 3 6 1 5 .167 11 29 -18
Dario Torrente   South Africa 4 6 1 5 .167 11 29 -18
56 José Marcelo Álvarez   Paraguay 4 7 0 6 .000 16 30 -14
57 Wong James   Singapore 3 7 0 6 .000 15 30 -15
58 Tan Ronald   Singapore 1 7 0 6 .000 7 30 -23
59 Michel Youssef   Lebanon 7 7 0 6 .000 3 30 -27

Elimination roundsEdit

Main bracketsEdit

Main bracket 1Edit

Bravin, Giasson, and Abe were eliminated after the round of 64. The losers in the round of 32 faced off, with Lo beating Wagner and Gosbee beating Abe to advance to the repechage. The losers of the round of 16, Cerioni and Holubytskiy, advanced directly to the first round of the repechage. Gregory, having lost in the round of 8, went to the third round of the repechage. Sypniewski won the bracket, advancing to the quarterfinals.

Round of 64 Round of 32 Round of 16 Round of 8
1   Stefano Cerioni (ITA) 5 5
33   Lo Moon Tong (HKG) 5 6 33   Lo Moon Tong (HKG) 2 2
32   Nick Bravin (USA) 3 4 1   Stefano Cerioni (ITA) 3 3
16   Elvis Gregory (CUB) 5 5
17   Udo Wagner (GER) 6 1 4
16   Elvis Gregory (CUB) 4 5 6
16   Elvis Gregory (CUB) 5 3 1
8   Marian Sypniewski (POL) 3 5 5
9   Serhiy Holubytskiy (EUN) 2 6 5
41   Benoît Giasson (CAN) 1 1 24   Yu Bong-Hyeong (KOR) 5 4 0
24   Yu Bong-Hyeong (KOR) 5 5 9   Serhiy Holubytskiy (EUN) 3 5 3
25   Kinya Abe (JPN) 5 0 8   Marian Sypniewski (POL) 5 2 5
40   Bill Gosbee (GBR) 6 5 40   Bill Gosbee (GBR) 5 4 2
8   Marian Sypniewski (POL) 3 6 5
Repechage qualifiers 1Edit
Repechage qualifier
     
33   Lo Moon Tong (HKG) 1 0
17   Udo Wagner (GER) 5 5
Repechage qualifier
     
24   Yu Bong-Hyeong (KOR) 5 5 5
40   Bill Gosbee (GBR) 1 6 6
Main bracket 2Edit

Guerra, Longenbach, Wang L., and Kim were eliminated after the round of 64. The losers in the round of 32 faced off, with O. García beating Busa and Davis beating Ludwig to advance to the repechage. The losers of the round of 16, Schreck and Grigoryev, advanced directly to the first round of the repechage. Omnès, having lost in the round of 8, went to the third round of the repechage. Borella won the bracket, advancing to the quarterfinals.

Round of 64 Round of 32 Round of 16 Round of 8
5   Andrea Borella (ITA) 5 5
37   José Francisco Guerra (ESP) 0 5 5 28   István Busa (HUN) 3 2
28   István Busa (HUN) 5 2 6 5   Andrea Borella (ITA) 6 5
21   Oscar García (CUB) 5 5 12   Ulrich Schreck (GER) 4 3
44   Zaddick Longenbach (USA) 3 2 21   Oscar García (CUB) 6 1 0
12   Ulrich Schreck (GER) 4 5 5
5   Andrea Borella (ITA) 0 6 5
4   Philippe Omnès (FRA) 5 5 2
13   Jonathan Davis (GBR) 1 1
45   Wang Lihong (CHN) 2 1 20   Vyacheslav Grigoryev (EUN) 5 5 0
20   Vyacheslav Grigoryev (EUN) 5 5 20   Vyacheslav Grigoryev (EUN) 2 5 2
29   Kim Yeong-Ho (KOR) 2 5 4 4   Philippe Omnès (FRA) 5 2 5
36   Michael Ludwig (AUT) 5 1 6 36   Michael Ludwig (AUT) 1 3
4   Philippe Omnès (FRA) 5 5
Repechage qualifiers 2Edit
Repechage qualifier
     
28   István Busa (HUN) 0 2
21   Oscar García (CUB) 5 5
Repechage qualifier
     
13   Jonathan Davis (GBR) 5 5
36   Michael Ludwig (AUT) 2 3
Main bracket 3Edit

Abdallah, Ichigatani, Krzesiński, and Wu were eliminated after the round of 64. The losers in the round of 32 faced off, with A. García beating Wang H. and Groc beating Bravo to advance to the repechage. The losers of the round of 16, Shevchenko and Érsek, advanced directly to the first round of the repechage. Numa, having lost in the round of 8, went to the third round of the repechage. Wendt won the bracket, advancing to the quarterfinals.

Round of 64 Round of 32 Round of 16 Round of 8
3   Dmitry Shevchenko (EUN) 5 5
35   Maged Abdallah (EGY) 4 3 30   Wang Haibin (CHN) 3 1
30   Wang Haibin (CHN) 6 5 3   Dmitry Shevchenko (EUN) 2 5 0
19   Hiroki Ichigatani (JPN) 5 0 1 14   Mauro Numa (ITA) 5 1 5
46   Andrés García (ESP) 3 5 5 46   Andrés García (ESP) 2 0
14   Mauro Numa (ITA) 5 5
14   Mauro Numa (ITA) 6 1 2
11   Joachim Wendt (AUT) 5 5 5
11   Joachim Wendt (AUT) 1 5 5
43   Adam Krzesiński (POL) 3 1 22   Patrick Groc (FRA) 5 1 3
22   Patrick Groc (FRA) 5 5 11   Joachim Wendt (AUT) 5 2 5
27   Ramiro Bravo (ESP) 6 3 5 6   Zsolt Érsek (HUN) 3 5 3
38   Wu Xing Yao (HKG) 4 5 3 27   Ramiro Bravo (ESP) 1 6 2
6   Zsolt Érsek (HUN) 5 5 5
Repechage qualifiers 3Edit
Repechage qualifier
     
30   Wang Haibin (CHN) 3 1
46   Andrés García (ESP) 5 5
Repechage qualifier
     
22   Patrick Groc (FRA) 5 4 6
27   Ramiro Bravo (ESP) 1 6 4
Main bracket 4Edit

Marx, Lhôtellier, and Kiss were eliminated after the round of 64. The losers in the round of 32 faced off, with Nagano beating McKenzie and Ye beating Weidner to advance to the repechage. The losers of the round of 16, Kiełpikowski and Richter, advanced directly to the first round of the repechage. Kajbjer, having lost in the round of 8, went to the third round of the repechage. Betancourt won the bracket, advancing to the quarterfinals.

Round of 64 Round of 32 Round of 16 Round of 8
7   Piotr Kiełpikowski (POL) 5 5
39   Yoshihide Nagano (JPN) 5 5 39   Yoshihide Nagano (JPN) 2 3
26   Mike Marx (USA) 2 3 7   Piotr Kiełpikowski (POL) 1 4
23   Patrice Lhôtellier (FRA) 2 3 10   Guillermo Betancourt (CUB) 5 6
42   Donnie McKenzie (GBR) 5 5 42   Donnie McKenzie (GBR) 1 0
10   Guillermo Betancourt (CUB) 5 5
10   Guillermo Betancourt (CUB) 5 3 5
34   Ola Kajbjer (SWE) 3 5 3
15   Thorsten Weidner (GER) 5 5 4
18   Anatol Richter (AUT) 6 3 6
18   Anatol Richter (AUT) 5 3 1
31   Róbert Kiss (HUN) 5 1 34   Ola Kajbjer (SWE) 3 5 5
34   Ola Kajbjer (SWE) 6 5 34   Ola Kajbjer (SWE) 2 6 5
2   Ye Chong (CHN) 5 4 3
Repechage qualifiers 4Edit
Repechage qualifier
     
39   Yoshihide Nagano (JPN) 5 5
42   Donnie McKenzie (GBR) 3 0
Repechage qualifier
     
15   Thorsten Weidner (GER) 2 3
2   Ye Chong (CHN) 5 5

Repechage rounds 1 and 2Edit

The fencers were reseeded: the eight fencers who had lost in the round of 16 were reseeded as 1–8 while the eight fencers who had lost in the round of 32 but won the repechage qualifiers were reseeded as 9–16. For example, original seed #2 Ye was reseeded as #9 because he was the top-seeded fencer who had advanced through the repechage qualifiers. Original seeds are shown in parentheses in the brackets.

R1 seed O seed Fencer Nation
From round of 16
1 1 Stefano Cerioni   Italy
2 3 Dmitry Shevchenko   Unified Team
3 6 Zsolt Érsek   Hungary
4 7 Piotr Kiełpikowski   Poland
5 9 Serhiy Holubytskiy   Unified Team
6 12 Ulrich Schreck   Germany
7 18 Anatol Richter   Austria
8 20 Vyacheslav Grigoryev   Unified Team
From round of 32 and qualifiers
9 2 Ye Chong   China
10 13 Jonathan Davis   Great Britain
11 17 Udo Wagner   Germany
12 21 Oscar García   Cuba
13 22 Patrick Groc   France
14 39 Yoshihide Nagano   Japan
15 40 Bill Gosbee   Great Britain
16 46 Andrés García   Spain
Repechage rounds 1 and 2 bracket 1Edit

García faced the top two fencers from the group round, beating Cerioni before falling to Ye.

Repechage round 1 Repechage round 2
1 (1)   Stefano Cerioni (ITA) 1 6 4
16 (46)   Andrés García (ESP) 5 4 6 16 (46)   Andrés García (ESP) 2 2
9 (2)   Ye Chong (CHN) 5 3 5 9 (2)   Ye Chong (CHN) 5 5
8 (20)   Vyacheslav Grigoryev (EUN) 0 5 0
Repechage rounds 1 and 2 bracket 2Edit
Repechage round 1 Repechage round 2
5 (9)   Serhiy Holubytskiy (EUN) 6 5
12 (21)   Oscar García (CUB) 5 0 5 (9)   Serhiy Holubytskiy (EUN) 5 5
13 (22)   Patrick Groc (FRA) 1 5 3 4 (7)   Piotr Kiełpikowski (POL) 3 2
4 (7)   Piotr Kiełpikowski (POL) 5 2 5
Repechage rounds 1 and 2 bracket 3Edit
Repechage round 1 Repechage round 2
3 (6)   Zsolt Érsek (HUN) 5 5 5
14 (39)   Yoshihide Nagano (JPN) 6 3 3 3 (6)   Zsolt Érsek (HUN) 5 4
11 (17)   Udo Wagner (GER) 5 5 6 11 (17)   Udo Wagner (GER) 6 6
6 (12)   Ulrich Schreck (GER) 2 6 5
Repechage rounds 1 and 2 bracket 4Edit
Repechage round 1 Repechage round 2
7 (18)   Anatol Richter (AUT) 5 6
10 (13)   Jonathan Davis (GBR) 1 4 7 (18)   Anatol Richter (AUT) 6 6
15 (40)   Bill Gosbee (GBR) 0 6 2 2 (3)   Dmitry Shevchenko (EUN) 4 5
2 (3)   Dmitry Shevchenko (EUN) 5 5 5

Repechage round 3Edit

The fencers were reseeded again. Seeds 1–4 were given to round 8 losers, based on their original seeds. Seeds 5–8 were given to the winners of the second round of the repechage, based on their original seeds—except that Ye was moved from #5 to #6 to avoid a rematch with Kajbjer.

R3 seed R1 seed O seed Fencer Nation
From round of 8
1 4 Philippe Omnès   France
2 14 Mauro Numa   Italy
3 16 Elvis Gregory   Cuba
4 34 Ola Kajbjer   Sweden
From repechage round 2
5 5 9 Serhiy Holubytskiy   Unified Team
6 9 2 Ye Chong   China
7 11 17 Udo Wagner   Germany
8 7 18 Anatol Richter   Austria
Repechage round 3 bracket 1Edit
Repechage round 3
     
1 (4)   Philippe Omnès (FRA) 5 5
8 (18)   Anatol Richter (AUT) 1 3
Repechage round 3 bracket 2Edit
Repechage round 3
     
5 (9)   Serhiy Holubytskiy (EUN) 5 6
4 (34)   Ola Kajbjer (SWE) 1 5
Repechage round 3 bracket 3Edit
Repechage round 3
     
3 (16)   Elvis Gregory (CUB) 5 5
6 (2)   Ye Chong (CHN) 1 1
Repechage round 3 bracket 4Edit
Repechage round 3
     
7 (17)   Udo Wagner (GER) 6 2 5
2 (14)   Mauro Numa (ITA) 5 5 3

Final roundsEdit

The fencers were reseeded a final time. Seeds 1–4 were given to the round of 8 winners, based on their original seeds. Seeds 5–8 were given to the winners of the third round of the repechage, based on their original seeds.

F seed R3 seed R1 seed O seed Fencer Nation
From round of 8
1 5 Andrea Borella   Italy
2 8 Marian Sypniewski   Poland
3 10 Guillermo Betancourt   Cuba
4 11 Joachim Wendt   Austria
From repechage round 3
5 1 4 Philippe Omnès   France
6 5 5 9 Serhiy Holubytskiy   Unified Team
7 3 16 Elvis Gregory   Cuba
8 7 11 17 Udo Wagner   Germany
Quarterfinals Semifinals Final
               
1 (5)   Andrea Borella (ITA) 6 4 0
8 (17)   Udo Wagner (GER) 4 6 5
8 (17)   Udo Wagner (GER) 3 6 3
5 (4)   Philippe Omnès (FRA) 5 5 5
5 (4)   Philippe Omnès (FRA) 5 5
4 (11)   Joachim Wendt (AUT) 3 3
5 (4)   Philippe Omnès (FRA) 6 3 5
6 (9)   Serhiy Holubytskiy (EUN) 5 5 2
3 (10)   Guillermo Betancourt (CUB) 2 0
6 (9)   Serhiy Holubytskiy (EUN) 5 5
6 (9)   Serhiy Holubytskiy (EUN) 3 5 5 Bronze match
7 (16)   Elvis Gregory (CUB) 5 2 1
7 (16)   Elvis Gregory (CUB) 5 6 8 (17)   Udo Wagner (GER) 3 5 3
2 (8)   Marian Sypniewski (POL) 0 5 7 (16)   Elvis Gregory (CUB) 5 2 5

Final classificationEdit

Fencer Nation
Philippe Omnès   France
Serhiy Holubytskiy   Unified Team
Elvis Gregory   Cuba
Udo Wagner   Germany
Andrea Borella   Italy
Marian Sypniewski   Poland
Guillermo Betancourt   Cuba
Joachim Wendt   Austria
Ye Chong   China
Mauro Numa   Italy
Anatol Richter   Austria
Ola Kajbjer   Sweden
Dmitry Shevchenko   Unified Team
Zsolt Érsek   Hungary
Piotr Kiełpikowski   Poland
Andrés García   Spain
Stefano Cerioni   Italy
Ulrich Schreck   Germany
Jonathan Davis   Great Britain
Vyacheslav Grigoryev   Unified Team
Oscar García   Cuba
Patrick Groc   France
Yoshihide Nagano   Japan
Bill Gosbee   Great Britain
Thorsten Weidner   Germany
Yu Bong-Hyeong   South Korea
István Busa   Hungary
Ramiro Bravo   Spain
Wang Haibin   China
Lo Moon Tong   Hong Kong
Michael Ludwig   Austria
Donnie McKenzie   Great Britain
Hiroki Ichigatani   Japan
Patrice Lhôtellier   France
Kinya Abe   Japan
Mike Marx   United States
Kim Yeong-Ho   South Korea
Róbert Kiss   Hungary
Nick Bravin   United States
José Francisco Guerra   Spain
Maged Abdallah   Egypt
Wu Xing Yao   Hong Kong
Benoît Giasson   Canada
Adam Krzesiński   Poland
Zaddick Longenbach   United States
Wang Lihong   China
Kim Seung-Pyo   South Korea
Zahi El-Khoury   Lebanon
Tang Kwong Hau   Hong Kong
Alberto González   Argentina
Hein van Garderen   South Africa
José Guimarães   Portugal
Walter Torres   Philippines
Enzo da Ponte   Paraguay
Dario Torrente   South Africa
José Marcelo Álvarez   Paraguay
Wong James   Singapore
Tan Ronald   Singapore
Michel Youssef   Lebanon

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Fencing: 1992 Olympic Results - Men's foil". sports-reference.com. Archived from the original on 17 April 2020. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
  2. ^ "Foil, Individual, Men". Olympedia. Retrieved 20 November 2020.