Fatimah bint Musa

Fatimah bint Musa (Arabic: فَاطِمَة بِنْت مُوسَىٰ‎, Fāṭimah ibnat Mūsā; born 1st Dhu al-Qi'dah 173 AH – 10th or 12th of Rabi' al-Thani 201 AH; approximately March 22, 790 AD – November 7 or 9, 816 AD),[1] commonly known as Fatimah al-Masumah (Arabic: فَاطِمَة ٱلْمَعْصُومَة‎, Fāṭimah al-Maʿṣūmah) was the daughter of the seventh Twelver Shia Imam, Musa al-Kadhim and sister of the eighth Twelver Shia Imams, Ali al-Rida.[2] Every year, millions of Shia Muslims travel to Qom to honor Fatima Masumeh at her shrine.

Fatemeh Masoumeh is the eldest daughter of Musa Kazem, whom the Shiites consider to be the holiest child of Musa Kazem after her brother Ali Reza.

Fatemeh Masoumeh has been highly praised in the narrations and speeches of four Shiite Imams, so much so that JafarSadegh, the sixth Imam of Shiites in two narrations, Ali Reza, the eighth Imam of Shiites in five narrations And Mohammad Taqi, the ninth Imam of the Shiites, has emphasized in a narration that whoever visits Masoumeh in Qom will go to heaven.

Another prominent feature of Fatemeh Masoumeh is her position of intercession. According to the narration of Jafar Sadegh and Ali Reza, he will intercede for the Shiites on the Day of Judgment so that all of them will enter Paradise.

Another prominent feature of Fatemeh Masoumeh is her birth prediction. This feature has not happened to any of the children of Shiite Imams.

There are two reports from two different people that Jafar Sadegh, the sixth Imam of the Shiites, predicted Fatima's birth 45 years before her birth. These predictions mention his name and that of his father and his burial place.

Another advantage of Fatemeh Masoumeh, as Jafar Sadegh pointed out, is that (the shrine of Fatemeh Masoumeh in Qom is the shrine of all Shiite Imams).

This means that all twelve Shiite Imams are present in the shrine of Fatemeh Masoumeh and whoever visits Fatemeh Masoumeh in Qom seems to have visited all twelve Shiite Imams.

Another very valuable feature of Fatemeh Masoumeh is the title of her (Masoumeh) by Ali Reza

Masoumeh in Arabic means pure and innocent. Ali Reza's purpose in giving this name to his sister was to prove that Fatemeh Masoumeh is a pure and innocent human being, which is very valuable for Shiites. And shows that Fatemeh Masoumeh has a degree of infallibility

History of Fatima MasumehEdit

It is written that even before she was born, Shi'i Imams foretold Fatima Masumeh's holiness and piety.[3] Fatima was born into Shi'i legacy, raised under the care of two Imams - her father and her brother - and she is said to have absorbed their knowledge and holiness. Fatima Masumeh was born in Medina in 173 AH and spent the first six years of her life learning alongside her father, Imam Musa al-Kadhim.[3] Scholars have written that she had a "special gift" of knowledge and spiritual awareness, even in childhood.[3] When she was ten years old, Harun al-Rashid, the 5th caliph of the Abbasid Caliphate sent her father to prison.[3] This separation was very difficult for Fatima, but her brother 'Ali was 25 years her senior and took care of her.[3]

'Ali and Fatima are among Imam Musa al-Kadhim's 37 children, but they are the only two children from the Imam's marriage to Najmah Khatun. Their mother was a former slave from North Africa who became very learned in Islamic teachings under the guidance of Imam Musa al-Kadim's mother, Lady Hamidah.[3] Ali would later become the 8th Imam and gain the title Imam 'Ali al-Rida. The historian al-Tabari states that 'Al-Rida' means "The One Well-pleasing [to God] from the House of Muhammad."[4] He was appointed successor to the Abassid Caliph al-Mamun, though he was hesitant in accepting this role.[5] As 'Ali al-Rida gained the title of "Crowned Prince" , some people refused to accept his role amidst civil war.[4] 'Ali al-Rida revealed the extent of this revolt to al-Mamun, stating that people considered him(al-mamun) "bewitched and mentally deranged," were hiding reports from him, and had given their allegiance to his paternal uncle Ibrahim bint al-Madhi instead of him.[4]

In 200 AH, al-Mamun called for 'Ali al-Rida to leave for Khorasan and Fatima Masumeh was forced to live apart from her brother.[3] After one year of separation from her brother, Fatima Masumeh decided to join him. She did not leave solely because of her wish to live near her brother; scholars also suggest that Fatima Masumeh's knowledge and religiosity would help her brother in his political office, especially in decisions regarding women.[3] In 201 AH she set off in a caravan of 23 family and friends of Imam 'Ali al-Rida, alongside another caravan of 12,000 people traveling to Khorasan.[3] The caravans never made it to Khorasan, though, and Fatima Masumeh never reached her brother. They were attacked by agents of the caliph while at Saveh; some fled, but many were wounded, taken prisoner, or killed. Fatima Masumeh survived, but was forced to watch the murders of 23 close family members and friends. It is written that Fatima Masumeh was then poisoned by a woman.[3] Fatima became ill and asked to be taken to Qom, where she died and was buried in her host's land.[3][6]

Birth predictionsEdit

There are two reports recorded from two different people that Imam Ja`far al-Sādiq predicted the birth of Fatima.[7] Both predictions mention that she will intercede on behalf of the Shi` a or help gain admittance to Heaven by visiting her Shrine.[7] These two predictions were also made before her father was born as well, so about 45 years before her birth.[7]

Lady Hamīdah was the mother of Fatima’s father as well as the owner of Fatima’s mother, Lady Najmah.[7] Lady Hamīdah had a dream that the Prophet told her that Najmah needed to become the wife of her son, so that she could birth “the best people in the world”.[8] While Najmah was more focused on the son, Imam al-Ridā, she would birth Fatima also as a product of the marriage.[8]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Jaffer, Masuma (2003). "1". Lady Fatima Masuma (a) of Qum Masuma Jaffer. Qom: Jami‘at al-Zahra. ISBN 964-438-455-5.
  2. ^ "Imam al-Rida Network (Arabic)". Archived from the original on December 23, 2007. Retrieved September 13, 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Jaffer, Masuma (2003). Lady Fatima Masuma (a) of Qom. Qum: Jami'at al-Zahra: Islamic Seminary for Women.
  4. ^ a b c Tabari (1987). Translated by C.E. Bosworth (ed.). The History of al-Tabari: The Reunification of the 'Abassid Caliphate: Vol. 32. New York: SUNY.
  5. ^ Lewis, B. "Ali al-Rida". Encyclopedia of Islam, Second Edition. BrillOnline Reference Works.
  6. ^ Canby, Sheila R. (2009). Shah 'Abbas: The Remaking of Iran. London: The British Museum Press.
  7. ^ a b c d "The Biography of Lady Fatima Masuma". al-islam.org. Retrieved April 27, 2017.
  8. ^ a b "The Biography of Lady Fatima". al-islam.org. Retrieved April 27, 2017.

LiteratureEdit

  • Zohreh Sadeghi: Fāṭima von Qum: Ein Beispiel für die Verehrung heiliger Frauen im Volksglauben der Zwölfer-Schia. K.Schwarz Verlag, Berlin 1996, ISBN 978-3-87997255-5.