Farringdon, London

Farringdon is a small district in Central London, the southern part of the London Borough of Islington. The term is used to describe the area around Farringdon station. Historically the district corresponded to southern Clerkenwell and the small parish of St Sepulchre Middlesex.

Farringdon
Farringdon is located in Greater London
Farringdon
Farringdon
Location within Greater London
OS grid referenceTQ315818
London borough
Ceremonial countyGreater London
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townLONDON
Postcode districtEC1
Dialling code020
PoliceMetropolitan
FireLondon
AmbulanceLondon
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
UK
England
London
51°31′15″N 0°06′13″W / 51.520905°N 0.103675°W / 51.520905; -0.103675Coordinates: 51°31′15″N 0°06′13″W / 51.520905°N 0.103675°W / 51.520905; -0.103675

The area's name is a back-formation: It takes its name from the station, which was in turn named after Farringdon Street. To the south lie the City of London wards of Farringdon Within and Farringdon Without. The City Wards, which were once a single unit, are unconnected to the distinct area of Farringdon to their north, though there is an etymological connection.

HistoryEdit

ToponymyEdit

There are numerous places in England called Farringdon; all meaning fern covered hill. William and Nicholas de Faringdon, whose name is likely to have originated from one of these places, were two related prominent citizens and Aldermen in the early 13th century.[1] Nicholas purchased the area of the Farringdon ward of the City of London in 1279 and became its Alderman in 1281.[2] In 1394 the ward was split into the still extant Farringdon Within[3] and Farringdon Without.[4]

Farringdon Street was built by covering part of the River Fleet in the Farringdon Without Ward of the City. The street was named after either the Ward[2] or after the Nicholas de Faringdon.[1] Farringdon Road was an extension of Farringdon Street, also built over the River Fleet, but lying northward, beyond the City.

Farringdon Station was built close to Farringdon Road, and originally named Farringdon Street Station.[5] The presence of the railway station has led to the surrounding areas of southern Clerkenwell being referred to as Farringdon.

AdministrationEdit

Farringdon station and its environs historically corresponded to southern Clerkenwell and the parish of St Sepulchre Middlesex. Due to its small size and population, St Sepulchre Middlesex was grouped into the Holborn District for certain infrastructure purposes from 1855-1900, though it remained an independent civil parish. Clerkenwell remained a single parish for local government with an administrative vestry.

When the Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury was formed in 1900 both St Sepulchre Middlesex and Clerkenwell were absorbed by the new borough.[6] In 1965 the area became part of the London Borough of Islington.[7]

Street name etymologiesEdit

  • Albion Place – thought to be simply a suitably patriotic name; formerly George Court[8][9]
  • Aldersgate Street – the name Aldersgate is first recorded around 1000 in the form Ealdredesgate, i.e. "gate associated with a man named Ealdrād". The gate, constructed by the Romans in the 2nd or 3rd centuries when London Wall was constructed, probably acquired its name in the late Saxon period.[10][11][12]
  • Benjamin Street – unknown; thought to probably be for a local landowner/builder[8][13]
  • Briset Street – after Jordan de Briset, local 12th-century landowner who gave land to the Order of St John for their headquarters here[14][15]
  • Britton Street – after Thomas Britton, local coal seller and prominent patron of the arts, who lived nearby in the 17th – 18th century; it was formerly known as Red Lion Street, after a local inn[14][16]
  • Broad Yard[citation needed]
  • Carthusian Street – after the Carthusian monks who lived near here in the Middle Ages[17][18]
  • Charterhouse Buildings, Charterhouse Mews, Charterhouse Square and Charterhouse StreetAnglicisation of Chartreuse, from Grande Chartreuse, head monastery of the Carthusians in France; a nearby abbey was founded by monks of this order in 1371[19][18]
  • Cowcross Street – this street was path for cattle being taken to nearby Smithfield market[20][21]
  • Dickens Mews – presumably after Victorian author Charles Dickens[citation needed]
  • Eagle Court – after Eagle, Lincolnshire; the Order of Knights of St John owned land in this village and the Bailiff of Eagle owned a house near here[22][23]
  • Farringdon Road – from Sir William or Nicholas de Farnedon/Faringdon, local sheriffs or aldermen in the 13th century[24][1][25]
  • Faulkners Alley[citation needed]
  • Fox and Knot Street – after the Fox and Knot tavern of the 18th century[26][27]
  • Francis Court[citation needed]
  • Glasshouse Yard – after a 17th-century glass factory on this site[28][29]
  • Goswell Road – There is dispute over the origins of the name, with some sources claiming the road was named after a nearby garden called 'Goswelle' or 'Goderell' which belonged to Robert de Ufford, 1st Earl of Suffolk, and others a well called the Gode Well[30] whilst others state it derives from "God's Well", and the traditional pagan practice of well-worship.[31][32]
  • Greenhill's Rents – after John Greenhill, local 18th-century property owner[33][34]
  • Hat and Mitre Court – after an 18th-century tavern of this name[35]
  • Passing Alley – altered from the descriptive Pissing Alley, renamed at some point prior to the 1790s[36][37]
  • Peter's Lane – after the former St Peter's Key pub on this site[38][39]
  • Rutland Place – after the Manners family, earls of Rutland, local property owners of the 17th century[40][18]
  • St John's Lane, St John's Path, St John's Place, St John's Square and St John Street – after the Monastic Order of the Knights Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem, who set up their English headquarters here in the 12th century[41][23]
  • Smokehouse Yard – after the bacon stoves formerly located here[42]
  • Stable Court[citation needed]
  • Turk's Head Yard – after an 18th-century tavern of this name here[43]
  • Turnmill Street – originally 13th-century ‘Trimullstrete’ or ‘Three Mills Street’, after three mills that stood near here by the river Fleet[44][45]
  • White Horse Alley[citation needed]

GeographyEdit

The station and its immediate environs are located in the southern extremity of the London Borough of Islington very close to the northern boundary of the City of London and the eastern boundary of the London Borough of Camden.[46]

BoundariesEdit

Farringdon has no formally defined boundaries, but can be approximated as extending to Clerkenwell Road to the north, Goswell Road and Aldersgate Street to the east, Charterhouse Street, Charterhouse Square and Carthusian Street to the south and Farringdon Road to the west.

Boundary with the CityEdit

A map based on Stow c 1600[47] shows the Fagswell Brook south of Cowcross Street as the northern boundary of the City. At Long Lane, by the brook, were the now lost ornamental boundary markers known as West Smithfield Bars, first documented in 1170[48] and 1197.[49]

Until 1993, a small triangle of land south of Cowcross Street was within the City of London and formed part of the Farringdon Without ward.[50][51] The boundary between the City of London and the London Borough of Islington was locally realigned in 1993 with small exchanges of land between each; in this area the boundary was moved slightly south to align with Charterhouse Street.[52][53]

TransportEdit

Planned redevelopment and expansion of Farringdon Station is expected to have a significant effect on the local area. The station is currently served by the Thameslink north-south rail route; it is planned that this will be supplemented by a future east-west Crossrail service which will require the construction of additional station entrances.[54] This will be part of the Elizabeth line, and was due to open in December 2018 but will now be in 2021.[55] A proposed upgrade of the Thameslink route would also affect the local area, including the construction of further station entrances, the pedestrianisation of Cowcross Street and the demolition of several buildings.[56]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Mills, A., Oxford Dictionary of London Place Names (2000)
  2. ^ a b Smith, A., Dictionary of City of London street names (1970)
  3. ^ Victorian London – Farringdon Within. Retrieved 26 October 2006.
  4. ^ Victorian London – Farringdon Without. Retrieved 26 October 2006.
  5. ^ Rose, Douglas (1999). The London Underground: A diagrammatic history. Capital Transport Publishing. ISBN 1-85414-219-4.
  6. ^ Vision of Britain Archived 30 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine – Historic boundaries of the Metropolitan Borough of Finsbury. Retrieved 28 October 2006.
  7. ^ Islington London Borough Council, Islington development plan (1978)
  8. ^ a b "British History Online – Britton Street". Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  9. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p19
  10. ^ Mills, A.D. (2010). A Dictionary of London Place-Names. Oxford University Press. p. 4. ISBN 9780199566785.
  11. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p6
  12. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p20
  13. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p44
  14. ^ a b Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p42
  15. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p287
  16. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p57-8
  17. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p60
  18. ^ a b c Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p82
  19. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p65
  20. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p84
  21. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p100-01
  22. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p106
  23. ^ a b Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p287-8
  24. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p118
  25. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p128-9
  26. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p124
  27. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p136
  28. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p134
  29. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p143
  30. ^ "Goswell Road". Golden Lane Estate. Retrieved 10 May 2007.
  31. ^ "Smithfield Fair". Barbican Living. Archived from the original on 10 February 2006. Retrieved 11 May 2007.
  32. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p147
  33. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p144
  34. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p154
  35. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p167
  36. ^ "British History Online – St John's Gate and St John's Lane". Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  37. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p249-50
  38. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p246
  39. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p253
  40. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p274
  41. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p280
  42. ^ "British History Online – St John Street: East side". Retrieved 11 October 2017.
  43. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p327
  44. ^ Fairfield, S. The Streets of London – A dictionary of the names and their origins, p322
  45. ^ Bebbington, G. (1972) London Street Names, p327-8
  46. ^ Islington London Borough Council Archived 5 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine – High detail map with City/Islington boundary shown (PDF). Retrieved 26 October 2006.
  47. ^ Ekwall, E., Street-names of the City of London (1954)
  48. ^ 'St John Street: Introduction; west side', in Survey of London: Volume 46, South and East Clerkenwell, ed. Philip Temple (London, 2008), pp. 203-221. British History Online http://www.british-history.ac.uk/survey-london/vol46/pp203-221 [accessed 27 July 2020].
  49. ^ London, its origin and early development William Page 1923 (including reference to the primary source). Link: https://archive.org/details/londonitsorigine00pageuoft/page/178/mode/2up/search/bishopsgate
  50. ^ Corporation of London, City of London unitary development plan (1984)
  51. ^ Corporation of London, City of London unitary development plan (1989)
  52. ^ OPSI Archived 20 June 2010 at the Wayback MachineThe City and London Borough Boundaries Order 1993. Retrieved 20 October 2006.
  53. ^ Corporation of London, City of London unitary development plan (1993)
  54. ^ Crossrail Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine – Farringdon (PDF). 28 October 2006
  55. ^ Evening Standard article 2020https://www.standard.co.uk/news/transport/crossrail-opening-date-summer-2021-a4331131.html
  56. ^ Network Rail Archived 27 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine – Statement of Case (PDF). Retrieved 28 October 2006.