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FamilyTreeDNA is a division of Gene by Gene, a commercial genetic testing company based in Houston, Texas. FamilyTreeDNA offers analysis of autosomal DNA, Y-DNA, and mitochondrial DNA to individuals for genealogical purpose. With a database of more than two million records, it is the most popular company worldwide for Y-DNA and mitochondrial DNA, and the fourth most popular for autosomal DNA. In Europe, it is the most common also for autosomal DNA.[2][3]

FamilyTreeDNA
IndustryGenealogical DNA testing
Founded2000
FounderBennett Greenspan, Max Blankfeld, and Jim Warren[1]
HeadquartersHouston, TX
Area served
International
ProductsatDNA testing, mtDNA Tests, Y-DNA testing
OwnersBennett Greenspan and Max Blankfeld
Websitewww.familytreedna.com

Contents

HistoryEdit

Concept and founding (2000–2002)Edit

FamilyTreeDNA was founded based on an idea conceived by Bennett Greenspan, a lifelong entrepreneur and genealogy enthusiast. In 1999, Greenspan had entered semi-retirement and was working on his family history. He began work on his mother's Nitz lineage.[4][5][6] When faced with a roadblock in his work, he remembered two cases of genetics being used to prove ancestry that had recently been covered by the media. These were a study by University of Arizona researchers showing that many Cohen men from both Ashkenazic and Sephardic groups share the same Y-chromosome[7] and a study that showed that male descendants of US President Thomas Jefferson and male descendants of his freed slave Sally Hemings shared the same Y-chromosome and a recent common ancestry.[8]

Greenspan had both Nitz cousins in California and had discovered someone in Argentina with the same ancestral surname and the same ancestral location in Eastern Europe. Wishing to use the same method of DNA comparison for his own genealogy, he contacted Dr. Michael Hammer at the University of Arizona. Greenspan discovered that academic labs did not offer testing directly to the public and that in general direct to consumer testing for genealogy was not commercially available either. Their conversation inspired him to start a company dedicated to using genetics to solve genealogy problems.[6][9][10]

It was early 2000 when Greenspan with his business partners Max Blankfeld and Jim Warren officially launched FamilyTreeDNA.[1] Initially, the Arizona Research Labs at the University of Arizona performed all testing for FamilyTreeDNA. FamilyTreeDNA includes among its scientific staff, Dr. Michael Hammer (PhD), one of a team of scientists that first published on the Cohen Modal Haplotype in 1997 in the journal Nature.[7]

FamilyTreeDNA began with a proof in concept group of twenty-four that returned results in January. They began by offering 12 Y-chromosome STR marker tests much like those used in many scientific publications of the time in March 2000. FamilyTreeDNA became widely known for its Y-chromosome STR testing for the Cohen Modal Haplotype.[11]

Soon, they were offering not only DNA tests but an interface by which dedicated genealogists could run surname research studies. The first person to create such a project through the FamilyTreeDNA site was Doug Mumma, hence it was called the Mumma project.[11]

Early testing (2000–2006)Edit

The first tests offered by FamilyTreeDNA were Y-chromosome STR and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) tests like those used by published academic studies at the time.[12]

FamilyTreeDNA's initial Y-chromosome tests were described as 11 marker tests. They eventually began to call this a 12 STR marker test as one of the STRS (DYS385) almost always had two copies. This they billed as a method to affirm or disprove a genealogical connection on the direct paternal line.[citation needed]

FamilyTreeDNA's first mtDNA tests were for HVR1 (hypervariable region 1) of the mtDNA.[citation needed] Eventually, they added a Plus test that tested for both HVR1 and HVR2.[citation needed]

In the early days, they did not confirm haplogroups for either mtDNA or Y-DNA.[citation needed]

Opening of the Genomics Research CenterEdit

In 2006, FamilyTreeDNA bought out the assets of DNA-Fingerprint, which was a German paternity testing company that offered à la carte testing to the genetic genealogy testing community. With this buyout, Thomas and Astrid Krahn, who had owned DNA-Fingerprint, moved to Houston, Texas, and helped open the Genomics Research Center.[citation needed]

The Genomics Research Center initially did testing for many of the same products that had been sold by DNA-Fingerprint. They began to offer individual and panels of Y-chromosome SNP tests using Sanger testing methods. They also offered the mtDNA full genome test and upgrades to it using the Sanger testing method.[citation needed]

Soon came the launch of the Walk Through the Y (WTY) test. The WTY test offered the most adventurous of citizen scientists the chance to seek the discovery of new Y-chromosome SNPs.[13]

Meanwhile, most testing continued to be done at the University of Arizona lab. The demand for additional test types led Greenspan and Blankfeld to move all testing to their own testing lab in Houston, Texas under the Genealogy by Genetics, Ltd. parent company.[1]

PartnershipsEdit

Between 2007 and 2010, FamilyTreeDNA forged several new partnerships that allowed them to access additional international markets.

iGENEA

The first of FamilyTreeDNA's new partnerships was with the Switzerland-based iGENEA company. It was formed alongside the closing of DNA-Fingerprint and Thomas Krahn's helping open the Genomic Research Center in Houston. Their website is available in English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish.[14][15]

African DNA

In late 2007, Henry Louis Gates, PhD created African DNA in partnership with FamilyTreeDNA to help promote genetic testing for personal ancestry among African Americans.[16]

DNA Ancestry & Family Origin

DNA Ancestry & Family Origin DNA Ancestry & Family Origin is a genetic genealogy testing partnership between FamilyTreeDNA and Eastern Biotech & Life Sciences. Their website is available in both English and Arabic.[17]

MyHeritage

In November 2008, a dynamic partnership with MyHeritage was launched, allowing users to incorporate DNA testing and advanced family tree technologies into their family history research. MyHeritage is a website offering online, mobile and software platforms for discovering, preserving and sharing family history worldwide.[18]

DNA testing productsEdit

Autosomal DNA testingEdit

In May 2010, FamilyTreeDNA launched an autosomal microarray chip based DNA test. They called the new product Family Finder. The initial product used an Affymetrix microarray chip, but FamilyTreeDNA changed to the Illumina OmniExpress chip and retested all customers who had results from the Affymetrix chip for forward compatibility.[19]

Family Finder allows customers to match relatives as distant as about fifth cousins. Family Finder also includes a component called myOrigins. The results of this test provide percentages of a DNA associated with general regions or specific ethnic groups (e.g. Western Europe, Asia, Jewish, Native American, etc.). Notably, unlike other testing companies, they chose to strip out markers for mendelian medical issues,[20][21][22] mtDNA results, and Y-DNA SNP results.

Y DNA testingEdit

The company markets a range of Y-DNA tests. the Y-chromosome is inherited from father to son, so testers can discover relatives with the same patrilineage. In many cultures these relatives will often share the same surname, since surnames are also inherited father to son. These tests cover 37-111 STR markers depending on the test, and vary in price according to the number of markers covered.[19] Once an individual has tested at least 12 STR markers,[23] he may take the "Big Y" test. Big Y tests approximately 20,000 SNPs.

mtDNA testingEdit

FamilyTreeDNA also sells mtDNA testing, offering the choice of either a limited hypervariable region test, or a full sequence test of the entire mitochondrial DNA chromosome.[19]

Genographic ProjectEdit

FamilyTreeDNA staff were instrumental in developing the Geno 2.0 Next Generation product for the second phase of the Genographic Project.[24] Geno 2.0 samples for both public and scientific study were run at the Genomics Research Center in Houston, Texas (operated by FamilyTreeDNA's parent company, Gene by Gene, Ltd.) until 2016, when Geno 2.0 began utilizing Helix for DNA sequencing.[25][26]

Gene by GeneEdit

In September 2012, Greenspan and Blankfeld restructured FamilyTreeDNA's parent company, Genealogy by Genetics, Ltd. This included their renaming Genealogy by Genetics, Ltd. as Gene by Gene, Ltd.[27][28][29][30] After restructuring, the business comprises four divisions one of these being FamilyTreeDNA for genealogical DNA tests. It is Gene by Gene, Ltd. that now operates the Genomics Research Center (GRC) lab in Houston, Texas.[27][30][31]

Data policy and usage by law enforcementEdit

In December 2018, FamilyTreeDNA changed its terms of service to allow law enforcement to use their service to identify suspects of "a violent crime" or identify the remains of victims. The company confirmed it was working with the FBI on at least a handful of cases.[32][33][34] As of March 2019, the company instituted a policy allowing its customers to opt out of law enforcement access to their genetic data, although must customers will automatically be opted in to such exposure. Law enforcement officers will be required to go through a more rigorous process in order to access the database, while customers who opt out of allowing the FBI to access their data will still be able to search for possible relatives as before. “Users now have the ability to opt out of matching with DNA relatives whose accounts are flagged as being created to identify the remains of a deceased individual or a perpetrator of homicide or sexual assault, also referred to as Law Enforcement Matching (LEM),” the company wrote in an email to customers.[35] In May 2019 Family Tree DNA prevented access to its Y-DNA database ysearch.org and its mtDNA data base mitosearch making it more difficult for law enforcement agencies to identify crime suspects.[36]

List of arrest or identifications made with FamilyTreeDnaEdit

  • In January 2019, California police arrested Kevin Konther for the brutal rape of a nine year old girl and a 31 year old woman at Orange County, California in 1998 and said they had used FamilyTreeDNA services and genetic genealogy techniques to help identify him.[37] Konther has an identical twin brother, and the DNA profile had initially implicated both men, but further detective investigation led authorities to release the brother and focus on Konther as their main suspect. He was also accused of Molesting a 12-year old girl between January 2002 and December 2003.[38]
  • In February 2019, FamilyTreeDNA helped police with the arrest of James Neal for the 1977 abduction and murder by strangulation of 11-year-old schoolgirl Linda O'Keefe in Newport Beach, California as well as multiple sexual assaults against minors.[39] He pleaded not guilty and faced a maximum sentence of 82 years to life in state prison if convicted.[40]
  • In February 2019, Jerry Westrom was arrested as the suspect behind the 1993 murder of Jeanne Ann Childs in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Police had used genealogy and Family Tree DNA data to lead them to Westrom.[41] In an interview after his arrest, Westrom denied being in the apartment. He said he did not know the victim, and said he did not have sex with any women in Minneapolis in 1993. When confronted with the DNA evidence, he told investigators he had no idea why his DNA would be present at that scene.[42][43][44]
  • Michael A. Saures was arrested in February 2019 for the murder of John Fay, 66, a jogger, in Warwick, Rhode Island in 2013. Police had used Family Tree DNA to narrow down the suspect to Saures.[41] Fay had been ambushed with a hammer.[45]
  • In April 2019, Law Enforcement working with Family Tree DNA Positively identified the remains of two young women found in oil fields in 1986 and 1991 in an area known as the "Texas Killing Fields" near League City, Texas.[46] They were 30-year-old Audrey Lee Cook and 34-year-old mother of two Donna Prudhomme.[47]
  • In May 2019, Christopher VanBuskirk was arrested in Goodyear Arizona for the sexual assaults of six women at knife-point from 1995-2004 in San Diego and Riverside Counties, California. He had been identified with the help of the FBI Forensic Genetic Genealogy Team and Family Tree DNA. VanBuskirk pleaded not guilty to the crimes and faces 190 years to life in prison.[48][49]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Bradford, Nicole (February 24, 2008). "Riding the 'genetic revolution'". Houston Business Journal. Retrieved June 19, 2013.
  2. ^ "Family Tree DNA Learning Center". Autosomal DNA testing comparison chart. ISOGG. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
  3. ^ Haag, Matthew (2019-02-04). "FamilyTreeDNA Admits to Sharing Genetic Data With F.B.I." New York Times. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  4. ^ Capper, Russ (November 15, 2008). "Bennett Greenspan of FamilyTreeDNA.com". The BusinessMakers Radio Show. Retrieved June 14, 2013.
  5. ^ Dardashti, Schelly Talalay (March 30, 2008). "When oral history meets genetics". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved June 14, 2013. Greenspan, born and raised in Omaha, Nebraska, has been interested in genealogy from a very young age; he drew his first family tree at age 11.
  6. ^ a b Lomax, John Nova (April 14, 2005). "Who's Your Daddy?". Houston Press. Retrieved June 14, 2013. A real estate developer and entrepreneur, Greenspan has been interested in genealogy since his preteen days.
  7. ^ a b Skorecki, Karl; Selig, Sara; Blazer, Shraga; Bradman, Robert; Bradman, Neil; Waburton, P. J.; Ismajlowicz, Monica; Hammer, Michael F. (January 1, 1997). "Y chromosomes of Jewish priests". Nature. 385 (6611): 32. Bibcode:1997Natur.385...32S. doi:10.1038/385032a0. PMID 8985243.
  8. ^ "National Genealogical Society Quarterly". 93 (1–4). National Genealogical Society. 2005: 248. Businessman Bennett Greenspan hoped that the approach used in the Jefferson and Cohen research would help family historians. After reaching a brick wall on his mother's surname, Nitz, he discovered and Argentine researching the same surname. Greenspan enlisted the help of a male Nitz cousin. A scientist involved in the original Cohen investigation tested the Argentine's and Greenspan's cousin's Y chromosomes. Their haplotypes matched perfectly.
  9. ^ Gibbens, Pam (April 2006). "Talk of The Town – At Familytree DNA, it's all Relative". Greater Houston Weekly / Houston Chronicle. Retrieved February 15, 2012.
  10. ^ Belli, Anne (January 18, 2005). "Moneymakers: Bennett Greenspan". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved June 14, 2013. Years of researching his family tree through records and documents revealed roots in Argentina, but he ran out of leads looking for his maternal great-grandfather. After hearing about new genetic testing at the University of Arizona, he persuaded a scientist there to test DNA samples from a known cousin in California and a suspected distant cousin in Buenos Aires. It was a match. But the real find was the idea for Family Tree DNA, which the former film salesman launched in early 2000 to provide the same kind of service for others searching for their ancestors.
  11. ^ a b Bopp, Georgia. "DNA Genealogy Timeline Genetic Genealogy".
  12. ^ "FamilyTreeDNA Review - Everything You Need to Know About FTDNA Tests". smarterhobby.com. 2017-08-14. Retrieved 2017-09-12.
  13. ^ Walk Through the Y (WTY)
  14. ^ "Family Tree DNA takes root in Europe". Houston Business Journal. Houston, TX.
  15. ^ iGENEA web site, accessed February 23, 2015
  16. ^ "Harvard Professor Henry Louis Gates, Jr. Joins Forces With Family Tree DNA To Launch africandna.com". Retrieved June 23, 2007.
  17. ^ "DNA Ancestry Website, Homepage". Retrieved June 23, 2013.
  18. ^ "Try our family offer to trace your ancestors using genetics and FamilyTreeDNA". MyHeritage. November 2008.
  19. ^ a b c "DNA Testing Kits for Ancestry & Finding Relatives". familytreedna.com. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  20. ^ Roberta Estes (30 December 2013). "Promethease – Genetic Health Information Alternative". DNAeXplained - Genetic Genealogy. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  21. ^ firemylasers. "SNP coverage analysis/comparisons (23andme v3/v4, AncestryDNA, FTDNA) • r/23andme". reddit. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  22. ^ "I hate the way they delete data from autosomal test - Family Tree DNA Forums". forums.familytreedna.com. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
  23. ^ "Is BIG Y the only Y-DNA test That You Will Ever Need?". DNA Testing Choice. 2015. Retrieved 2016-09-01.
  24. ^ Elhaik, E.; Greenspan, E.; Staats, S.; Krahn, T.; Tyler-Smith, C.; Xue, Y.; Tofanelli, S.; Francalacci, P.; et al. (2013). "The GenoChip: A New Tool for Genetic Anthropology". Genome Biology and Evolution. 5 (5): 1021–31. doi:10.1093/gbe/evt066. PMC 3673633. PMID 23666864.
  25. ^ Geno 2.0 Next Generation National Geographic. June 28, 2018. Retrieved June 28, 2018.
  26. ^ Helix DNA Sequencing and Geno 2.0 Helix. January 26, 2018. Retrieved June 28, 2018.
  27. ^ a b Moore, Charles (April 24, 2013). "Houston-Based Gene By Gene To Provide Student Clinical Phase Instruction, Training, And Supervision At MD Anderson Cancer Center". BioNews Texas. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
  28. ^ "Gene by Gene". Gene by Gene. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  29. ^ "Supreme Court Ruling Today Allows DNATraits to Offer Low Cost BRCA Breast and Ovarian Cancer Gene Testing in U.S." Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 19, 2013. DNA DTC is the Research Use Only (RUO) division serving both direct-to-consumer and institutional clients worldwide. Gene By Gene offers AABB certified relationship tests through its paternity testing division, DNA Findings. The privately held company is headquartered in Houston, which is also home to its state-of-the-art Genomics Research Center.
  30. ^ a b Estes, Roberta (November 13, 2012). "Family Tree DNA Conference 2012 – Nits and Grits". dna-explained.com. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  31. ^ Moore, CeCe (February 9, 2013). "A Visit to Family Tree DNA's State-of-the-Art Lab". Your Genetic Genealogist. Retrieved June 18, 2013.
  32. ^ Greenspan, Bennett (February 2019). "Connecting Families and Saving Lives". FamilyTreeDNA Press Release. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  33. ^ Hernandez, Salvador (January 31, 2019). "One Of The Biggest At-Home DNA Testing Companies Is Working With The FBI". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved February 2, 2019.
  34. ^ Haag, Matthew (2019-02-04). "FamilyTreeDNA Admits to Sharing Genetic Data With F.B.I." The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  35. ^ "Home DNA testing company agrees to shield genetic data from FBI". 2019-03-14.
  36. ^ Augenstein, Seth (2018-05-24). "Golden State Killer Backlash? Public Databases Shutting Down in Wake of Arrest". Forensic Magazine. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  37. ^ Silva, Precious (2019-02-04). "DNA Testing Company FamilyTreeDNA Gives FBI Access To Nearly Two Million Profiles". International Business Times. Retrieved 2019-02-11.
  38. ^ "Sorry, this content is not available in your region".
  39. ^ Grewe, Lindsey (2019-02-21). "Witnesses asked to come forward in cold case murder, suspect arrested in El Paso County". KKTV 11 News, Colorado Springs, Co. Retrieved 2019-02-22.
  40. ^ "Man accused of 1973 slaying of Linda O'Keefe and child sexual assaults pleads not guilty".
  41. ^ a b Augenstein, Seth (2019-03-19). "Exclusive: The FBI Had Already Accessed Family Tree DNA's Database Before Cooperation". Forensic Magazine. Retrieved 2019-05-08.
  42. ^ "Bail Set For Man Suspected In Jeanne Ann Childs' 1993 Murder". Valley News Live, Fargo, ND. 2019-02-15. Retrieved 2019-03-01.
  43. ^ Champan, Ref (2019-02-13). "Attorney Gets Extension To File Charges In Jeanne Ann Childs' 1993 Murder". CBS. Retrieved 2019-03-01.
  44. ^ Sepic, Matt (2019-02-15). "Defense attorney disputes evidence against Jerry Westrom". MPR News. Retrieved 2019-03-01.
  45. ^ Andersen, Travis (2019-02-16). "DNA leads to arrest in Warwick, R.I., murder case from 2013". Boston Globe. Retrieved 2019-05-08.
  46. ^ "FamilyTreeDNA Helps Identify Two Victims from the "Texas Killing Fields"". Cision. 11 April 2019.
  47. ^ Flynn, Meagan (2019-04-17). "Bodies found in the 'killing fields' haunted Southeast Texas for decades. Will new clues lead to a suspect?". The Washington Post.
  48. ^ "Arizona man faces 8 counts in 24-year-old rape cases in San Diego". azcentral. Retrieved 2019-05-24.
  49. ^ Avitabile, Rafael; Ojeda, Artie; Garske, Monica. "New Details Emerge on Suspect in 1995 Sex Assault Series". NBC 7 San Diego. Retrieved 2019-05-24.

External linksEdit