Fairfield is a city in western Jefferson County, Alabama, United States. It is part of the Birmingham metropolitan area and is located southeast of Pleasant Grove. The population was 11,117 at the 2010 census.
Location of Fairfield in Jefferson County, Alabama.
|• Mayor||Eddie Penny|
|• Total||3.47 sq mi (8.99 km2)|
|• Land||3.47 sq mi (8.99 km2)|
|• Water||0.00 sq mi (0.00 km2)|
|Elevation||561 ft (171 m)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||3,045.53/sq mi (1,175.90/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC-6 (Central (CST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC-5 (CDT)|
|Area code(s)||205 & 659|
|GNIS feature ID||0118113|
This city was founded in 1910 in which the featured speaker at the dedication ceremony was former President Theodore Roosevelt. It was originally named Corey, after an executive of U.S. Steel Corporation. The name was later changed to the city in which the President of U.S. Steel lived, Fairfield, Connecticut. It was planned as a model city by the Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Company to house workers in their new Fairfield Works plant, now owned by U.S. Steel, similar to its northeastern city of Ensley.
It was incorporated on January 1, 1919.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.5 square miles (9.1 km2), all land.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
At the 2000 census, there were 12,381 people, 4,600 households, and 3,141 families living in the city. The population density was 3,503.8 people per square mile (1,354.2/km2). There were 4,960 housing units at an average density of 1,403.7 per square mile (542.5/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 8.90% White, 90.23% Black or African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, and 0.48% from two or more races. 0.59% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
Of the 4,600 households 34.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.6% were married couples living together, 28.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.7% were non-families. 29.2% of households were one person and 12.0% were one person aged 65 or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.17.
The age distribution was 26.7% under the age of 18, 11.9% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 22.3% from 45 to 64, and 13.8% 65 or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 79.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 73.4 males.
The median household income was $27,845 and the median family income was $38,552. Males had a median income of $30,833 versus $25,143 for females. The per capita income for the city was $14,607. About 16.5% of families and 21.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.7% of those under age 18 and 25.3% of those age 65 or over.
At the 2010 census, there were 11,117 people, 4,229 households, and 2,738 families living in the city. The population density was 3,176.3 people per square mile (1,208.4/km2). There were 4,935 housing units at an average density of 1,410 per square mile (536.4/,/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 94.6% Black or African American, 4.2% White, 0.0% Native American, 0.0% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.7% from other races, and 0.4% from two or more races. 1.1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
Of the 4,229 households 24.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 28.3% were married couples living together, 31.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.3% were non-families. 32.7% of households were one person and 12.4% were one person aged 65 or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.10.
The age distribution was 23.0% under the age of 18, 14.3% from 18 to 24, 20.7% from 25 to 44, 28.9% from 45 to 64, and 13.0% 65 or older. The median age was 36.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 79.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.1 males.
The median household income was $34,242 and the median family income was $41,841. Males had a median income of $34,854 versus $29,788 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,221. About 22.2% of families and 24.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 40.5% of those under age 18 and 21.7% of those age 65 or over.
Fairfield has its own school system, independent from Jefferson County. The system includes three elementary schools, Forest Hills Middle School, Fairfield High Preparatory School (formerly Fairfield High School), and an alternative all-grades school.
Industry and businessEdit
Though the United States steel making industry has gone through a decline through the last half of the 20th Century, U.S. Steel's Fairfield Works continues to be a major employer, though not in the levels seen around the 1950s. Advances in steel-making technology have enabled the works to produce roughly the same amount of product as during that era, but with a much smaller workforce.
Portions of the Works have been closed over the years, but many parts of the complex have been reopened by smaller industries, some of which are steel-related.
Fairfield is traversed by I-20/I-59. Three railroads serve the area: CSX Transportation (former Louisville and Nashville Railroad), Norfolk Southern Railway (former Southern Railway), and short-line Birmingham Southern Railroad, which is headquartered in Fairfield.
The city's downtown area features a number of small businesses, primarily service-related. Other retail businesses are concentrated along Aronov Drive, northwest of Western Hills Mall, though those strip malls have declined due to closures of Kmart, Winn-Dixie, and Sears locations. Walmart shut its doors in early 2016 . All public bus transportation was terminated in July 2016 for failure to pay the bill. The water board has threatened to cut off all water to public buildings because of non payment. On May 20, 2020, the city of Fairfield filed for bankruptcy.
Western Hills MallEdit
Western Hills Mall is the city's major shopping mall.
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- Federal judge U. W. Clemon was born in Fairfield.
- Former NFL players Red Cochran and Jim Tolbert were born in Fairfield.
- Major General Oliver W. Dillard, US Army Retired, graduated as the Fairfield Industrial High School valedictorian in 1942. A Tuskegee Institute alumnus, he became the Army's fifth Black general officer on February 1, 1972, and was elected into the Army's Military Intelligence Hall of Fame, Class of 2012.
- Jazz musician Cleveland Eaton (Count Basie Orchestra) was born in Fairfield.
- Singer Dennis Edwards, frontman of The Temptations, was born in Fairfield.
- Walter Gilbert, member of the College Football Hall of Fame.
- Tim Johnson, former professional football linebacker.
- Doug Jones, lawyer, former United States Attorney, and United States Senator. Born in Fairfield.
- Former Fairfield Mayor, Jefferson County Commission President, and Mayor of Birmingham Larry Langford resided in Fairfield.
- Actor George Lindsey (The Andy Griffith Show) was born in Fairfield. He is buried in Jasper.
- Georgia congressman and environmental advocate James MacKay was born in Fairfield.
- Photographer Spider Martin was born in Fairfield.
- Willie Mays attended school in Fairfield, graduating from Fairfield Industrial High School in 1950. As a student, he played baseball, football, and basketball, and even played professionally for the Birmingham Black Barons of the Negro American League while still a student.
- Demetrius Newton, civil rights lawyer and member of the Alabama House of Representatives.
- Actress Allene Roberts (The Red House) was born in Fairfield.
- Carol, Robinson (February 13, 2019). "Fairfield mayor ousted from office". Advance Local. Retrieved February 28, 2020.
- "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. May 24, 2020. Retrieved May 27, 2020.
- "Fairfield". Encyclopedia of Alabama.
- "Fairfield files bankruptcy citing millions in debt". The Cullman Times. Associated Press. 20 May 2020. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
- United States Census Bureau. "Census of Population and Housing". Archived from the original on April 26, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2013.
- Fairfield Main Street Inc
- Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) No. AL-110, "City of Fairfield, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL", 4 photos, 8 data pages, 1 photo caption page