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F minor is a minor scale based on F, consisting of the pitches F, G, A, B, C, D, and E. Its key signature consists of four flats. Its relative major is A-flat major and its parallel major is F major. Its enharmonic equivalent, E-sharp minor, has eight sharps, including the double sharp Fdouble sharp, which makes it rarely used.

F minor
A-flat-major f-minor.svg
Relative keyA-flat major
Parallel keyF major
Dominant keyC minor
SubdominantB-flat minor
Component pitches
F, G, A, B, C, D, E

The F natural minor scale is:

 {
\override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f
\relative c' {
  \clef treble \key f \minor \time 7/4
  f4^\markup "F natural minor scale" g aes bes c des es f es des c bes aes g f2
  \clef bass \key f \minor
} }

Changes needed for the melodic and harmonic versions of the scale are written in with accidentals as necessary. The F harmonic minor and melodic minor scales are:

 {
\override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f
\relative c' {
  \clef treble \key f \minor \time 7/4
  f4^\markup "F harmonic minor scale" g aes bes c des e f e des c bes aes g f2
} }
 {
\override Score.TimeSignature #'stencil = ##f
\relative c' {
  \clef treble \key f \minor \time 7/4
  f4^\markup "F melodic minor scale (ascending and descending)" g aes bes c d e f es! des! c bes aes g f2
} }

Music in F minorEdit

Three famous pieces in the key of F minor are Beethoven's Appassionata Sonata, Chopin's Piano Concerto No. 2 and Haydn's Symphony No. 49, La Passione.

Glenn Gould once said if he could be any key, he would be F minor, because "it's rather dour, halfway between complex and stable, between upright and lascivious, between gray and highly tinted... There is a certain obliqueness."[1]

Helmholtz once described F minor as harrowing and melancholy. Schubart described this key as "Deep depression, funereal lament, groans of misery and longing for the grave". [2]

Notable compositionsEdit

E-sharp minorEdit

E-sharp minor
 
Relative keyG-sharp major
enharmonic: A-flat major
Parallel keyE-sharp major
enharmonic: F major
Dominant keyB-sharp minor
enharmonic: C minor
SubdominantA-sharp minor
enharmonic: B-flat minor
EnharmonicF minor
Component pitches
E, F , G, A, B, C, D

E-sharp minor is a theoretical key based on the musical note E and consisting of the pitches E, F , G, A, B, C and D. Its key signature has six sharps and one double sharp (or eight sharps).

The E-sharp natural minor scale is:

 

Changes needed for the melodic and harmonic versions of the scale are written in with accidentals as necessary. The E-sharp harmonic minor and melodic minor scales are:

 
 

Its relative major is G-sharp major, which is usually replaced by A-flat major. Its parallel major, E-sharp major, is usually replaced by F major, due to the presence of 4 double-sharps in the E-sharp major scale causing it to be one of the more impractical key signatures in music to use. Although E-sharp minor is usually notated as F minor, it could be used on a local level, such as bars 17 to 22 in Johann Sebastian Bach's The Well-Tempered Clavier, Book 1, Prelude and Fugue No. 3 in C-sharp major. (E-sharp minor is the mediant minor key of C-sharp major.)

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Cathering Meng, Tonight's the Night (Apostrophe Books, 2007): 21
  2. ^ https://www.wmich.edu/mus-theo/courses/keys.html

External linksEdit

  •   Media related to F minor at Wikimedia Commons