Steyr AUG(Redirected from F88 Steyr)
The Steyr AUG (Armee-Universal-Gewehr—"universal army rifle") is an Austrian 5.56×45mm NATO bullpup assault rifle, designed in the 1960s by Steyr-Daimler-Puch and now manufactured by Steyr Mannlicher GmbH & Co KG.
Steyr AUG A1 with 508 mm (20.0 in) barrel
|Type||Bullpup assault rifle|
Light machine gun
Squad automatic weapon
|Place of origin||Austria|
|Used by||See Users|
Thales Australia, Lithgow Facility
|Action||Gas-operated, rotating bolt|
|Rate of fire||680–750 RPM|
|Muzzle velocity||Standard rifle: 970 m/s (3,182 ft/s)|
|Effective firing range||300 metres (980 ft)|
|Maximum firing range||2,700 metres (8,900 ft)|
|Sights||Swarovski 1.5× telescopic sight, emergency battle sights, and Picatinny rail for various optics|
It was adopted by the Austrian Army as the StG 77 (Sturmgewehr 77) in 1978, where it replaced the 7.62×51mm NATO StG 58 automatic rifle (a licence-built FN FAL). In production since 1978, it is the standard small arm of the Austrian Bundesheer and various national police units. Its variants have also been adopted by the armed forces of dozens of countries.
The Steyr AUG is a selective-fire, bullpup weapon with a conventional gas-piston-operated action that fires from a closed bolt. It is designed as a Modular Weapon System that could be quickly configured as a rifle, a carbine, a sniper rifle, a sub-machine gun and even an open-bolt squad automatic weapon. The AUG employs a very high level of advanced firearms technology and is made with the extensive use of polymers and aluminum components. It is chambered in 5.56×45mm NATO cartridge and has the standard 1:9 rifling twist that will stabilize both SS109/M855 and M193 rounds. Some nations including Australia, Ireland and New Zealand use a version with a 1:7 twist optimized for the SS109 NATO round. The SMG versions are chambered for 9mm Parabellum. The AUG consists of six interchangeable assemblies: the barrel, receiver with integrated telescopic sight or Picatinny rail, bolt carrier assembly, trigger mechanism, stock and magazine.
The AUG has a rotating bolt that features 7 radial locking lugs and is unlocked by means of a pin on the bolt body and a recessed camming guide machined into the bolt carrier. The bolt carrier itself is guided by two guide rods brazed to it and these rods run inside steel bearings in the receiver. The guide rods are hollow and contain the return springs. The bolt also contains a claw extractor that forms the eighth locking lug and a spring-loaded "bump"-type casing ejector.
The gas cylinder is offset to the right side of the barrel and works with one of the two guide rods. The AUG uses a short-stroke piston system where the right guide rod serves as the action rod, transmitting the rearward motion of the gas-driven piston to the bolt carrier. The left-hand rod provides retracting handle pressure when connected by the forward assist and can also be utilized as a reamer to remove fouling in the gas cylinder. The firearm uses a 3-position gas valve. The first setting, marked with a small dot, is used for normal operation. The second setting, illustrated with a large dot, indicates fouled conditions. The third, "GR" closed position is used to launch rifle grenades (of the non-bullet trap type).
The AUG is hammer-fired and the firing mechanism is contained in the rear of the stock, near the butt, covered by a synthetic rubber shoulder plate. The hammer group is made entirely of plastics except for the springs and pins and is contained in an open-topped plastic box which lies between the magazine and the buttplate. During firing the recoiling bolt group travels over the top of it, resetting the hammer. Since the trigger is located some distance away, it transmits its energy through a sear lever which passes by the side of the magazine. The firing pin is operated by a plastic hammer under pressure from a coil spring.
The AUG comes standard with four magazines, a muzzle cap, spare bolt for left-handed shooters, blank-firing adaptor, cleaning kit, sling and either an American M7 or German KCB-77 M1 bayonet.
Muzzle devices and barrel lengthsEdit
A three-pronged, open-type flash suppressors were used on the 350 mm (13.8 in), 407 mm (16.0 in) and 508 mm (20.0 in) length barrels, whereas the 621 mm (24.4 in) light machine gun barrel received a closed-type ported muzzle device (combination flash suppressor and compensator) and an integral, lightweight folding bipod. The flash suppressors are screwed to the muzzle and internally threaded to take a blank-firing attachment.
The AUG features an Spz-kr type progressive trigger (pulling the trigger halfway produces semi-automatic fire, pulling the trigger all the way to the rear produces fully automatic fire) and a safety mechanism (cross-bolt, button type), located immediately above the hand grip. In its "safe" position (white dot) the trigger is mechanically disabled; pressing the safety button to the left exposes a red dot and indicates the weapon is ready to fire. Some versions have an ALO or "automatic lockout", a small projection at the base of the trigger. This was first included on the Irish Defence Forces variant of the rifle, and soon after, the Australian Defence Forces variant. In the exposed position the ALO stops the trigger being squeezed past the semi-automatic position. If needed, the ALO can be pushed up to permit automatic fire.
The AUG is fed from a translucent, double-column box magazines (molded from a high-strength polymer) with a 30-round capacity and an empty weight of 130 g (4.6 oz). The light machine gun version of the AUG uses an extended 42-round magazine. An Argentine variant of the FN FAL chambered in 5.56×45mm NATO cartridge and known as the FALMP III Type 2 also uses the same magazine.
The AUG has a 1.5× telescopic sight that is integrated with the receiver casting and is made by Swarovski Optik. It contains a simple black ring reticle with a basic rangefinder that is designed so that at 300 m (984.3 ft) a 180 cm (5ft 11in) tall man-size target will completely fill it, giving the shooter an accurate method of estimating range. The sight cannot be set to a specific range but can be adjusted for windage and elevation for an initial zero and is designed to be calibrated for 300 m. So when it is set, aiming at the center of a target will produce a hit at all ranges out to 300 m. It also has a backup iron sight with a rear notch and front blade, cast into the top of the aluminium optical sight housing, used in case of failure or damage to the primary optical sight. The sight is also equipped with a set of three illuminated dots (one on the front blade and two at the rear) for use in low-level lighting conditions. In order to mount a wide range of optics and accessories, a receiver with a NATO-standard Picatinny rail and detachable carrying handle was also developed and introduced in December 1997.
The quick-change barrel used in the AUG is cold hammer-forged by GFM-GmbH of Steyr Austria for increased precision and durability, its bore, chamber and certain components of the gas system are chrome-plated. The standard rifle-length barrel features 6 right-hand grooves and a rifling twist rate of 228 mm (1:9 in). An external sleeve is shrunk on to the barrel and carries the gas port and cylinder, gas valve and forward grip hinge jaw. There is a short cylinder which contains a piston and its associated return spring. The barrel locks into a steel insert inside the receiver through a system of eight lugs arranged around the chamber end and is equipped with a folding, vertical grip that helps to pivot and withdraw the barrel during barrel changes. The most compact of the barrels has a fixed vertical grip.
The receiver housing is a steel-reinforced aluminium extrusion finished with a baked enamel coating. It holds the steel bearings for the barrel lugs and the guide rods. The non-reciprocating plastic cocking handle works in a slot on the left side of the receiver and is connected to the bolt carrier's left guide rod. The cocking handle has a forward assist feature—alternatively called a "silent cocking device"—used for pushing the bolt shut without recocking the rifle. A bolt hold-open device locks the bolt carrier assembly back after the last round has been fired. The newer AUG A3s possess a bolt release button, prior to this development all AUGs and the USR required the cocking handle being retracted to release the bolt group after a new magazine has been inserted. Older versions of the AUG can be upgraded to use the newer A3 stock and in turn the button release; however, it requires they also upgrade other key parts as well including the hammer pack.
The rifle's stock is made from fibreglass-reinforced polyamide 66. At the forward end is the pistol grip with an enlarged forward trigger guard completely enclosing the firing hand that allows the rifle to be operated with winter gloves. The trigger is hung permanently on the pistol grip, together with its two operating rods which run in guides past the magazine housing. Behind that is the locking catch for the stock group. Pressing this to the right will separate the receiver and stock. The magazine catch is behind the housing, on the underside of the stock. Above the housing are the two ejector openings, one of which is always covered by a removable strip of plastic. The rear of the stock forms the actual shoulder rest which contains the hammer unit and the end of the bolt path. The butt is closed by an endplate which is held in place by the rear sling swivel. This swivel is attached to a pin which pushes in across the butt and secures the plate. There is a cavity under the buttplate that holds a cleaning kit.
While the AUG is not fully ambidextrous, it can still be configured to be use for left- or right-handed operators by changing the bolt with one that has the extractor and ejector on the appropriate side, and moving the blanking plate to cover the ejection port not in use. However, there exists also a right-hand-only stock that allows for the use of M16 type STANAG magazines.
The AUG's receiver may also be changed from the standard model with a carrying handle and built-in 1.5× optical sight, to the "T" model receiver which has a universal scope mount to allow for the use of a variety of scopes and sights. The rifle also has several different types of receivers with Picatinny rails. It has proven to be an effective sniper or designated marksman rifle when configured with the 621 mm (24.4 in) light machine gun barrel, the universal scope mount fitted with a Kahles ZF69 6×42 optical sight and the semi-auto-only trigger group.
The AUG's firing mechanism may also be changed at will, into a variety of configurations, including semi-auto and full-auto, semi-auto and three-round-burst, semi-auto-only, or any other combination that the user may desire. It may also be converted into an open-bolt full-auto-only mode of fire, which allows for improved cooling and eliminates cook off problems when the AUG is used as a light machine gun or squad automatic weapon.
All AUGs are equipped with quick detachable barrels; including compact 350 mm (13.8 in) barrels, 407 mm (16.0 in) carbine barrels, 508 mm (20.0 in) standard rifle-length barrels and 621 mm (24.4 in) light machine gun barrels. Rifles equipped with 508 mm (20.0 in) pattern barrels produced for military purposes are also equipped with bayonet lugs. The 407 mm (16.0 in) and 508 mm (20.0 in) barrels are capable of launching NATO STANAG type 22 mm rifle grenades from their integral flash hiders without the use of an adapter. AUG barrels can also mount 40 mm M203 or AG36 grenade launchers. Steyr also offers 508 mm (20.0 in) barrel configurations fitted with a fixed, post front-sight used on the standard rifle version with aperture iron sights.
Irish Army upgradesEdit
In 2014 the Irish Army began issuing upgraded Steyr AUG bullpup assault rifles to its operational units. The modularity of the AUG allowed the Irish AUG A1 model rifles to be modernized without any gunsmithing, by replacing the original A1 housing/receiver group (with 1.5× optical sight) with an A3 housing/receiver group (with MIL-STD-1913 Picatinny rail on top and right side) allowing a modern optical sight to be fitted. The Trijicon ACOG 4× sight was selected as the new optical sight. The upgraded rifles are called the Steyr AUG Mod 14.
The Australian's F88 version of the AUG was tested with a new grenade launcher specifically designed for it called the ML40AUS GLA (Grenade Launcher Assembly), one of the lightest underbarrel grenade launchers at less than 1 kg (2.2 lb) due to steel, aluminium, and synthetic parts. The GLA is mounted on the rifle's bottom accessory rail with the trigger moving through a removable plug in the trigger guard that allows for operation of the launcher inside of it, moving it further back than other launchers to maintain center of balance and improve handling. The ML40AUS differs from the M203 by having a side-opening breech to allow for longer grenade rounds, a cross-bolt safety, and a new quadrant sight that mounts to the top rail alongside the rifle's optics. On 21 January 2014 however, Thales announced they had instead selected the Steyr SL40 grenade launcher due to "significant" engineering concerns with the ML40AUS. The SL40 is a derivative of the Steyr GL40 launcher designed specifically for the EF88. It weighs 1.025 kg (2.26 lb) and has a 180 mm (7.1 in) long barrel. Though marginally heavier than the ML40AUS, it has the same attachment, firing mechanism, and control layout.
New Zealand Army adoptionEdit
The New Zealand Army adopted the F88 Austeyr and made some modifications. It differs from the Australian version in several ways. One of the more notable is that it has three fire settings (off, single, auto), whereas the Australian version has two (off, and a single-auto setting depending on how far the trigger is pressed).[dead link]
The Austrian Army adopted the Steyr AUG and designated it as the Sturmgewehr 77 (StG 77).
- StG 77: Austrian Army designation for the Steyr AUG and was adopted in 1978.
- StG 77 A2: Austrian Army designation for the Steyr AUG A3 SF and was adopted in 2007.
- StG 77 KPE: Austrian Army designation for an upgraded StG 77, A1 housing group replaced with A3 SF housing and was adopted in 2017
- StG 77 A1 MP: Austrian Army designation for the StG 77 used by military police. The rifles differ from the standard StG 77 by having a Picatinny rail for an Aimpoint Micro T1 Red Dot Sight and magnifier, a flash hider from Ase-Utra, and Rheinmetall Vario Ray laser and light module mounted on the right side. Adopted in 2018.
Assault rifle variantsEdit
- AUG: The Steyr AUG is the standard assault rifle model and is chambered in 5.56×45mm cartridge. It was introduced in 1978 and was adopted by the Austrian Army and designated it as the StG 77 in 1978, then it was later adopted by several military agencies around the world.
- AUG A1: The Steyr AUG A1 is an improved variant of the AUG and was introduced in 1982. It is available with a choice of olive or black furniture.
- AUG A2: The Steyr AUG A2 is similar to the AUG A1 but features a redesigned charging handle and a detachable telescopic sight which can be replaced with a MIL-STD-1913 rail. It was introduced in December 1997.
- AUG A3: The Steyr AUG A3 is similar to the AUG A2 but features a MIL-STD-1913 rail on top of the receiver and an external bolt release.
- AUG A3 SF: The Steyr AUG A3 SF, also known as the AUG A2 Commando or StG 77 A2, is similar to the AUG A2 but features MIL-STD-1913 rails mounted on the telescopic sight and on the right side of the receiver, and includes an external bolt release. The integrated telescopic sight is offered in 1.5× or 3× magnification. It was adopted by the Austrian Special Forces (Jagdkommando) in late 2007.
- AUG M203: An AUG A1 with the M203 grenade launcher.
- AUG AG-C: An AUG A1 with AG-C grenade launcher.
- Steyr AUG Mod 14: Irish Army upgrade for AUG A1, A1 housing group replaced with A3 housing fitted with ACOG 4× sight.
- StG 77 KPE: Austrian Army upgrade for AUG A1, A1 housing group replaced with A3 SF housing.
Submachine gun variantsEdit
Based on the AUG, Steyr developed the 9mm AUG submachine gun variant. It is an automatic, blowback-operated model that fires from a closed bolt, and is chambered in 9×19mm Parabellum cartridge. Unlike the rifle variants, it has a unique 420 mm (16.5 in) barrel with six right-hand grooves at a 250 mm (1:9.8 in) rifling twist rate, ended with a recoil compensator, a slightly different charging handle and a magazine well conversion insert enabling the use of standard 25-round box magazines from the Steyr MPi 81 and TMP submachine guns. A conversion kit used to transform any rifle variant into the submachine gun is also available. It consists of a barrel, bolt, adapter insert and magazine.
- AUG Para: The Steyr AUG Para, also known as the AUG SMG or AUG 9mm is chambered in 9×19mm Parabellum cartridge and has been produced since 1988. It differs from the A1 model by the barrel, bolt, magazine and a magazine well adapter, which allows the rifle to feed from Steyr MPi 69 magazines. This variant operates as a blowback firearm, without the use of the rifle's gas system. For some time a kit of the above components was available to convert any AUG into a 9mm variant.
- AUG A3 Para XS: The Steyr AUG A3 Para XS is 9mm variant of the AUG A3 and is similar to the AUG Para. It features a 325 mm (12.8 in) barrel and a Picatinny rail system.
Light machine gun and sniper variantsEdit
The light machine gun variant can be modified to fire from an open bolt (called the AUG LMG in this configuration). To accomplish this, a modified bolt carrier, striker and trigger mechanism with sear are used.
- AUG LSW: The Steyr AUG LSW (Light Support Weapon) is a family of light support versions of the AUG A1.
- AUG HBAR: The Steyr AUG HBAR (Heavy Barreled Automatic Rifle) is a longer, heavier-barreled variant for use as a light machine gun or squad automatic weapon.
- AUG LMG The Steyr AUG LMG (Light Machine Gun) is based on the AUG HBAR and fires from an open bolt to allow sustained fire, its telescoping sight has a 4× magnification rather than the 1.5× magnification of the base AUG.
- AUG LMG–T: The Steyr AUG LMG–T (Light Machine Gun-Telescope)is similar to the AUG LMG but with the Special Receiver for a telescopic sight.
- AUG HBAR–T: The Steyr AUG HBAR–T is a (Heavy Barreled Automatic Rifle-Telescope) based on the HBAR but with the Special Receiver and fitted with a Kahles ZF69 6×42 optical sight.
- Steyr AUG DMR The Steyr AUG DMR is a designated marksman rifle similar to the HBAR but with the bipod attached to the front of the barrel grip instead of the muzzle end of the barrel.
Semi-automatic only variantsEdit
A semi-automatic version of the rifle known as the AUG P is available to the civilian and law enforcement markets. It features a shorter, 407 mm (16.0 in) barrel and a modified bolt, carrier and trigger assembly that will only allow semi-automatic fire. The rifle also has a slightly different optical sight that features a reticule with a fine dot in the centre of the aiming circle, allowing for more precise aiming.
- AUG P: A Police semi-automatic only variant of the AUG A1 with a shorter 407 mm (16.0 in) barrel.
- AUG P Special Receiver: Similar to the AUG P but features a MIL-STD-1913 rail on top of the receiver.
- AUG SA: A semi-automatic only variant of the AUG A1; built for civilian use and import to the US before being banned from importation in 1989.
- AUG Z: A semi-automatic only variant, somewhat similar to the AUG A2 and is intended primarily for civilian use.
- AUG Z Sport: A semi-automatic only variant, somewhat similar to the AUG Z for shooting use by the BKA in Germany. This version has a special handguard without the typical front grip.
- AUG Z A3: First appeared in 2010, a semi-automatic AUG A3 variant.
- USR: An AUG A2 modified to meet the former Federal Assault Weapons Ban (AWB) (or Public Safety and Recreational Firearms Use Protection Act) regulations. The primary difference is the omission of the flash hider.
- AUG A3 SA USA: A semi-automatic only variant of the AUG A3 with a 407 mm (16.0 in) barrel, made available for the U.S. civilian market in April 2009.
- AUG A3 SA NATO: Similar to the AUG A3 SA USA but uses a right-hand-only, NATO STANAG magazine stock assembly.
- AUG A3-CQC: The Steyr AUG A3-CQC was a prototype development of the AUG A3 and was first displayed by Steyr at the SHOT Show 2006. It differs in having a railed handguard attached ahead of the receiver. Due to the need to remove this extra railed section in order to strip the rifle for cleaning it had a quick detach lever mounted on the left side. Due to the concerns over the extra cost and weight, along with potential issues with the reliability and consistency of the detachable handguard, the prototypes received little interest and were last seen promoted by Steyr in 2008 and likely has been cancelled. In total only 5 prototypes were made, four with standard 18-inch barrels, and one with a longer heavy marksman barrel and a 20-round magazine.
- AUG A3 M1: A semi-automatic only variant of the AUG A3 SF but with a detachable optical sight which can be replaced with MIL-STD-1913 rails, manufactured in the US by Steyr Arms since October 2014.
Straight pull only variantsEdit
- SPR: A straight pull only variant, somewhat similar to the AUG A2 and is intended primarily for civilian use.
The Australian Army adopted the Steyr AUG A1 and made some modifications, and designated it as the F88 Austeyr.
- F88: The F88 Austeyr is the standard individual weapon of the Australia Defence Force. It is manufactured under licence from Steyr Mannlicher AG at the Thales Lithgow Small Arms Factory, which is now owned by Thales Australia. It is issued and supplied to the armed forces of Australia and New Zealand and incorporate a crosshair doughnut sight, it is also in service in 30 different countries. There are changes and differences between the Austrian version and the Australian version. The changes for the Australian version includes a bayonet lug, a 1:7 in rifling pitch as found in the M16A2 assault rifle, optimized for the heavier 62-grain NATO-standard SS109/M855 round and an "automatic lockout" selector that can physically disable the fully automatic position of the two-stage trigger mechanism found on the standard AUG. It has a cyclic rate of fire of around 680–850 rounds per minute (RPM). It also won a competition against the prototype of what would become the Bushmaster M17S.
- F88C: The F88A1C Austeyr is a carbine variant of the F88 Austeyr that features a shorter 407 mm (16.0 in) barrel. It is generally used as a personal defensive weapon where manoeuvrability is an issue, such as in armoured vehicles.
- F88SA1: The F88SA1 Austeyr is a variant of the F88 Austeyr with an integrated Picatinny rail in place of the standard optical sight that allows the attachment of various other sighting devices (night vision scopes, magnified and non-magnified optics such as the ELCAN C79, Trijicon ACOG or Aimpoint).
- F88SA1C: The F88SA1C Austeyr is a compact variant of the F88 Austeyr fitted with a Picatinny rail. The rifle has a 407 mm (16.0 in) barrel. Typically issued to front-line combat infantry units with room and weight constraints such as cavalry, Military Police, reconnaissance, light horse, paratroopers and airfield defence guards (RAAF).
- F88 GLA: The F88 GLA Austeyr variant is for the Australian Army with an M203 grenade launcher. It features an Inter-bar (armourer attached) interface, an RM Equipment M203PI grenade launcher, and a Knight's Armament quadrant sight assembly to which a Firepoint red dot sight is attached. The bayonet lug and forward vertical grip are not present in this model.
- F88T: ADI has developed a training rifle that is chambered in .22 Long Rifle cartridge to be use by the Australian Army. The rifle provides an economical training alternative, with very low ammunition cost, which can be used in environmentally sensitive training areas and ranges where "overshooting" is an issue, and there is a lower risk of injuring instructors and other persons.
- DSTO Advanced Individual Combat Weapon: Experimental weapon combining the barrel, action and magazine of an F88 Austeyr with an enlarged receiver and stock/body that also incorporates a multiple-shot 40 mm grenade launcher.
- F88SA2: The F88SA2 Austeyr is an evolutionary upgrade of the current rifle to fulfill an operational capability gap. Deliveries of several thousand were completed in late-2009 to selected units for overseas service. (Afghanistan) Technical improvements in the F88S-A2 include: Modified gas system for increased reliability and increased interoperability with U.S ammo. An enlarged ejection port. A longer Picatinny Rail on top of the weapon, a modified sight housing, a side rail mount for a torch and Night Aiming Device (NAD). The Color of the barrel, sight and barrel assembly has been changed to khaki to reduce the recognition signature.
- EF88: The Enhanced F88 (EF88) is part of the LAND 125 Soldier Combat System project and is a significant upgrade to the F88SA2. It was developed and produced at the Australian Defense Industries factory in Lithgow Small Arms Factory, which is now owned by Thales Australia to fulfill current and near future requirements for the Australian Defence Force and is also intended for export (F90). It was first displayed to the public in the middle of 2012 and the initial production was scheduled for 2013, its final design and testing ended later on that year. While internally and externally the EF88 is still similar to the Steyr AUG, it has received many distinctive upgrades and changes. Upgrades include the following:
- 1. Length of pull has been shortened by 15 mm. (The distance between the stock backplate and the grip; too long and it becomes difficult to handle on close quarters)
- 2. Longer top rail and a modular lower forend with side and bottom rails.
- 3. Floating barrel which increases accuracy.
- 4. Fluted Barrel which dissipates heat from automatic fire.
- 5. Folding charging handle.
- 6. Improved butt design which has increased strength and a recessed ejection port cover to improve reliability.
- 7. Bolt-together butt for easier disassembly.
- 8. Cyclic rate of fire of 850 rounds per minute (RPM).
- 9. Provision for electronic architecture to allow centralized control and power management of ancillary devices.
- 10. Primarily uses the side-loading grenade launcher (Steyr-Mannlicher SL40) which can fire all currently available 40 mm low velocity grenades.
- 11. Improved grenade launcher mount which improves the balance of the weapon.
- 12. Improved grenade launcher safety, the new KORD RIC (Rifle Input Control) electronic control system made by Thales will also be integrated into the rifle.
- F90: The intended for export version of the EF88. In June 2012, Thales debuted the F90 at the Eurosatory military exhibition in Paris. Key additions include a bottom rail and a detachable side rail, optional compatibility with STANAG magazines, weight savings over the F88SA2 with a base weight of 3.25 kg (7 lb) and the large trigger guard has been reshaped to serve as a vertical foregrip. Thales in partnership with Steyr-Mannlicher are pursuing small arms procurement programs such as the planned replacement of FAMAS rifle used by the French military. F90 variants include Grenadier, Marksman (508 mm (20 in) barrel) and Close Quarters Battle (360 mm (14 in) barrel). Low Rate Initial Production of the F90 began in September 2014. Dasan Manufacturing will be licensed to manufacture them in an effort to bid them to the South Korean military for future replacements of the Daewoo K2. At the Defexpo 2018 convention, MKU has Indian licensing rights to manufacture the F90 for Indian contracts.
- ATRAX: USA version of the F90.
- STG-556: Introduced at the 2007 SHOT Show, the MSAR STG-556 was manufactured by Microtech Small Arms Research Inc. (a subsidiary of Microtech Knives) a AUG A1 clone significantly re-engineered in its working system and principle as it features a bolt hold-open device as seen on the M16 rifle; otherwise the MSAR STG-556 retains the original AUG features, such as feeding from proprietary translucent plastic magazines and having the quick-change barrel option. The STG-556 rifle can be converted from either having a telescopic sight or a MIL-STD-1913 rail. It is available in either civilian (semi-automatic only) configuration, and military and law enforcement (selective fire) configuration.
- AXR: Revealed at the 2007 SHOT Show, the TPD USA AXR was manufactured by Tactical Products Design Inc. as an AUG A2 clone capable of semi-automatic only fire, aimed for both the civilian and law enforcement markets, and fed by STANAG magazines; the manufacturer sells clear plastic magazines which are STANAG 4179 compliant and will readily fit in any rifle with a compatible magazine catch. The rifle does not have the integral scope, allowing users to use any kind of scopes or laser sights on the Picatinny railing.
- Type 68: Taiwanese copy of the AUG with notable differences including a smaller trigger guard and the use of iron sights instead of the original's telescopic sight, but it ultimately did not enter service.
The Steyr AUG has been used in the following conflicts:
- Gulf War
- 1999 and 2006 East Timorese crises
- War in Afghanistan
- Iraq War
- Syrian Civil War
- 2013 Lahad Datu standoff
- Yemeni Civil War (2015–present)
- Saudi-led intervention in Yemen (2015–present)
- Conflict in Najran, Jizan and Asir
- Algeria: Special Intervention Detachment
- Argentina: Argentine Armed Forces.
- Australia: Entered service in 1989 as the new issue weapon of the Australian Defence Force to replace the M16A1 and the L1A1 Self Loading Rifle.[not in citation given] The first regular unit to be issued with the F88 was 6RAR, who received them in January 1989. The rifles are built locally by Thales Australia under licence from Steyr Mannlicher.
- Austria: Standard service weapon of the Bundesheer, serving as the StG 77 in official army nomenclature. Also used by EKO Cobra.
- Bangladesh:
- Belgium: 9mm SMG variant is used by the Federal Police.
- Brazil: In use by Agência Brasileira de Inteligência since November 2011.[not in citation given]
- Bulgaria: SOBT (counter-terrorist unit) only.[not in citation given]
- Croatia: Used by the Croatian Special Forces.
- Czech Republic: Steyr AUG Carbine in 9×19mm Parabellum used by several Czech police units (as of 2011).
- Germany: Bavarian SEK.
- Indonesia: Komando Pasukan Katak (Kopaska) tactical diver group and Komando Pasukan Khusus (Kopassus) special forces group. Also used by the Mobile Brigade Corps (Brimob) special forces group of the Indonesian National Police, including Detasemen Khusus 88 counter-terrorist unit.
- Ireland: Standard service rifle of the Irish Defence Forces. The Army Ranger Wing special forces uses the Steyr AUG A2 and A3.
- Italy: Carabinieri Special Forces: Gruppo di Intervento Speciale and 1st "Tuscania" Regiment
- Kazakhstan:
- Lithuania: Used by Lithuanian police anti-terrorist unit ARAS. Steyr AUG A1/P
- Luxembourg: Standard infantry rifle of the Luxembourg Army. The HBAR variant is also employed as the section support weapon. The Unité Spéciale de la Police intervention unit of the Grand Ducal Police employs the AUG A2 variant.
- Malaysia: Made under license from Steyr by SME Ordnance. Local production of the AUG rifle series started in 1991 with a joint production with Steyr that started in 2004. Lawsuits from Steyr emerged when Malaysia decided to withdraw from joint production. Also used by 69 Commando of Pasukan Gerakan Khas counter-terrorist unit of the Royal Malaysia Police.
- Netherlands (trials only, the C7 won the contest)
- New Zealand: Used from 1988 until 2017. The first 5,000 weapons delivered were manufactured in Austria by Steyr Daimler Puch. The majority of weapons now in service are the Australian ADI-made Austeyr F88 variant. It is called the IW Steyr (Individual Weapon Steyr) in service of the New Zealand Defence Force. On 12 August 2015 it was announced the Lewis Machine Tools 5.56 mm MARS-L will replace the Steyr AUG after concerns about its performance in Afghanistan.
- Pakistan: Used by Special Services Group, Special Services Group Navy, Frontier Constabulary, and Airport Security Force (ASF).
- Papua New Guinea: F88 variant.
- Philippines: Used by the Scout Rangers.
- Poland: JW Grom special forces group.
- Saudi Arabia
- Serbia: 72nd Reconnaissance-Commando Battalion.
- Republic of China
- Thailand: Used by Royal Thai Army Special Forces.
- Timor Leste National Police of East Timor
- Tunisia The Steyr AUG was chosen since 1978 to be the Primary weapon of the Tunisian Army, The first regular unit to be issued with the AUG A1 was the GTS, later on, the leadership started to arming the National Guard with Sturmgewehr 58 (FN FAL) and the army with the AUG A1/A2/A3 variants, including the Army's Special Forces.
- Turkey: Maroon Berets and Police Special Operations Department.
- Ukraine: AUG H-BAR is used by the Sokil Special Forces.
- United Kingdom
- United States: U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (weapon replaced by Colt M4).
- Uruguay: Received 15,000 Steyr AUG A2UR bullpup assault rifles (with the 1.5× telescopic sight) to be used by the Uruguayan infantry battalions.
- Venezuela: Used by SEBIN.
- Hogg, Ian (2002). Jane's Guns Recognition Guide. Jane's Recognition Guides. Glasgow: Jane's Information Group and Collins Press. ISBN 978-0-00-712760-3.
- "STEYR AUG A1 / A2" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 April 2012. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- BMLVS – Abteilung Kommunikation – Referat 3. "Bundesheer". bmlv.gv.at.
- Ezell (1993) p. 223
- Ezell(1993) p. 224
- Manual of the Steyr rifle, Irish Defence Forces
- Choat, Chris (March 2008). "Microtech's STG-556 An Exclusive First Look". The Small Arms Review. 11 (6): 43–50.
- "Steyr AUG NATO Conversion kit – AUG Accessories – Accessories". Retrieved 14 November 2014.[permanent dead link]
- Jane's Guns Recognition Guide, Ian Hogg & Terry Gander, HarperCollins Publisher, 2005, pp. 273 and 361
- "Steyr AUG A3 M1". steyrarms.com. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
- Testing & Evaluating the EF88 Assault Rifle – SAdefensejournal.com, 4 March 2013
- Thales selects Steyr SL40 grenade launcher for EF88 – Rogueadventurer.com, 21 January 2014
- Patrick Sweeney (25 February 2011). Gun Digest Book of The Tactical Rifle: A User's Guide. Gun Digest Books. pp. 144–. ISBN 1-4402-1898-6.
- "Steyr AUG A1 / A2" (PDF). Steyr Mannlicher. Retrieved 4 June 2009.
- "Steyr AUG A3" (PDF). Steyr Mannlicher. Retrieved 4 June 2009.
- "Steyr AUG A3 SF" (PDF). Steyr Mannlicher. Retrieved 4 June 2009.
- "Steyr AUG A2 Commando". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Steyr AUG 9mm" (PDF). Steyr Mannlicher. Retrieved 4 June 2009.
- "AUG 9mm". REMTEK. Retrieved 4 June 2009.[self-published source]
- "Steyr AUG A3 9mm XS" (PDF). Steyr Mannlicher. Retrieved 4 June 2009.
- "Steyr AUG/A3 SA USA". Steyr Mannlicher US. Steyr Mannlicher. Retrieved 4 June 2009.
- "Steyr AUG/A3 USA".
- "Steyr AUG – Internet Movie Firearms Database – Guns in Movies, TV and Video Games". imfdb.org. Retrieved 20 June 2017.
- "Hunter Outdoor Communications". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Navy, corporateName=Royal Australian. "F88 Austeyr". navy.gov.au. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
- ChrisBurritt (21 September 2016). "F88 Austeyr – F88A2 with ring sight and F88A2 with ACOG RMR and GLA". army.gov.au. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
- "Steyr". adi-limited.com. Archived from the original on 7 June 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "Improving In-Service Small Arms Systems: An Australian Experience" (PDF). Defence Material Organisation. 1 June 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 October 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2016.
- "Modern Firearms – Thales EF88 / F90 assault rifle (Australia)". modernfirearms.net. Retrieved 22 June 2017.
- "EF88 Rail Configuration". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Australia's Next Generation Rifle". Indian Defence Forum. Retrieved 19 June 2016.[permanent dead link]
- "Thales debuts new assault rifle – the F90". Press release. Thales. 11 June 2012. Archived from the original on 3 February 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
The F90 is identical to the EF88-designated weapon currently being developed by the company for Australia's LAND 125 program, and is based on the F88 platform that has been in service and evolved in Australia since the late 1980s. ... Thales is in cooperation with Austrian company Steyr Mannlicher to pursue specific opportunities, such as the French DGA FAMAS replacement project, utilising Steyr Mannlicher's manufacturing experience and facilities.
- Thales Australia F90 assault rifle to enter low rate initial production – Armyrecognition.com, 24 September 2014
- "ADEX 2015". Small Arms Defense Journal. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "[SHOT 2018] Lithgow Atrax IN PRODUCTION in USA Now". The Firearm Blog. Retrieved 22 May 2018.
- "MSAR – Microtech Small Arms Research Inc". Microtech Small Arms Research. Retrieved 12 October 2007.
- TPD-USA – Tactical Products Design Inc. Archived 17 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 12 October 2007.
- Modern Firearms' TPD AXR Rifle. Archived 20 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 27 October 2008.
- Jones, Richard D. Jane's Infantry Weapons 2009/2010. Jane's Information Group; 35 edition (27 January 2009). ISBN 978-0-7106-2869-5.
- Kemp, Ian (2009). "A New 5.56mm Generation or a Changing of the Guard?" (PDF). http://asianmilitaryreview.com – Asian Military Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2010. External link in
- Military Hardware of R.O.C. Armed Forces, Land-based Systems (國軍武裝報告書(下)/陸上系統篇). 雲皓出版社; 1st Edition (January 1998). ISBN 957-8902-22-0.
- "二○二兵工廠兵器館巡禮". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Rottman, Gordon L. (1993). Armies of the Gulf War. Elite 45. Osprey Publishing. p. 58. ISBN 9781855322776.
- Small Arms Survey (2008). "Arsenals Adrift: Arms and Ammunition Diversion" (PDF). Small Arms Survey 2008: Risk and Resilience. Cambridge University Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-521-88040-4.
- "Impact of War on Children in Yemen. Report by ABC correspondent". Eye on Yemen War. 20 October 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2017 – via YouTube.
- Vivenot, Emmanuel (March 2013). "Prise d'otages massive au Sahara". RAIDS (in French). No. 322. Histoire & Collections. p. 56. ISSN 0769-4814.
- "ADM: Land Warfare – Austeyr: Small arms big business – ADM Oct 08". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "F88 AUSteyr – Army Internet – ARMY". Defence.gov.au. 14 July 2009. Archived from the original on 9 November 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
- "Steyr". adi-limited.com. Archived from the original on 7 June 2008. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- Weiss, Jim. "COBRA: Austria's Special Forces" (PDF). Law and Order (July 2009): 48–52.
- "Belgian Police adopt S&W M&P 9mm". The Firearm Blog. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Abin recebe novas armas de última geração". abin.gov.br. Archived from the original on 28 September 2012. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- Професия – антитерорист. Capital.bg, 23 May 1998
- "The STEYR AUG A3 SF". Tactical Life. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Vybavení střelnými zbraněmi, použití zbraně – Policie České republiky". policie.cz. Retrieved 18 January 2017.
- Kokalis, Peter (February 1985). "STEYR AUG; This Bullpup's No Dog". Soldier of Fortune magazine. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
- Reinhard Scholzen: SEK, Spezialeinsatzkommandos der deutschen Polizei. 5. Auflage. Motorbuch-Verlag, Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-613-02016-0, S. 59.
- "Kopassus & Kopaska – Specijalne Postrojbe Republike Indonezije" (in Croatian). Hrvatski Vojnik Magazine. Archived from the original on 28 October 2012. Retrieved 12 June 2010.
- "Defence Forces – Army Steyr Assault Rifle". military.ie. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "Steyr AUG (Armee Universal Gewehr – Universal Army Gun)". Archived from the original on 17 October 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Steyr Mannlicher US: Our History". Steyrarms.com. Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
- FireArm Training System. "Militaria – Corpi Elite (12)". Inilossum.it. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
- "Lëtzebuerger Arméi – Matériel – Armement". armee.lu. Archived from the original on 13 September 2009. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "Equipement :: Unité Spéciale de la Police ::". USP.LU. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
- "SME Ordnance SDN BHD Products & Services". Archived from the original on 23 November 2010. Retrieved 22 March 2010.
- Watters, Daniel E. "The 5.56 X 45mm: 1990–1994". The Gun Zone. Archived from the original on 4 January 2010. Retrieved 22 March 2010.
- Watters, Daniel E. "The 5.56 X 45mm: 2004". The Gun Zone. Archived from the original on 16 March 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2008.
- "Austria to shift assault rifle Steyr production to Malaysia". Defence Talk. 12 April 2004. Retrieved 22 March 2010.
- Watters, Daniel E. "The 5.56 X 45mm: 2005". The Gun Zone. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2010.
- "From the picture is 69 Commando counter-terrorist unit of Royal Malaysia Police with Steyr AUG on standby during the Lahad Datu standoff".
- "NZ Army – Personal Weapons". army.mil.nz. Archived from the original on 18 December 2009. Retrieved 21 May 2017.
- "Hated army assault rifles unlikely to be sold". The New Zealand Herald. Archived from the original on 20 June 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- Burgonio, TJ (8 August 2003). "Mutineers Used Hi-Tech Guns Given By US". Philippine Daily Inquirer. GlobalSecurity.org.
- Wilk (REMOV), Remigiusz. "Nowe gromy GROM". Archived from the original on 26 March 2010.
- "GROM Utility and Equipment". Archived from the original on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2009.
- "ThaiFighterClub 2013".
- Robert Muggah and Emile LeBrun, ed. (October 2010). Timor-Leste Armed Violence Assessment Final Report (PDF). Special Report No. 12. Small Arms Survey. p. 17. ISBN 978-2-940415-43-4.
- "SURİYE'DEKİ MUHALİF ÖRGÜTLERİN ASKERİ KAPASİTESİ: SİLAH TÜRLERİ VE SİLAHLANMA". docplayer.biz.tr. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
- "World Infantry Weapons: Ukraine". Google. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
- "Special Forces (Land) (Falkland Islands) – Jane's Amphibious and Special Forces". Janes.com. 15 September 2008. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
- "Steyr AUG". Rifles n Guns. 8 December 2006. Archived from the original on 7 June 2008.
- "Light and heavy weapons". Retrieved 14 November 2014.
- "Armamento de las FF.AA Uruguayas – Steyr AUG A2UR". taringa.net. Retrieved 21 February 2017.
- "Servicio Bolivariano de Inteligencia Nacional". diariodelpueblo.com. 15 January 2013. Archived from the original on 30 June 2013. Retrieved 15 January 2013.
- "Servicio Bolivariano de Inteligencia Nacional". Foro Militar General. 9 February 2013. Archived from the original on 4 May 2014. Retrieved 9 February 2013.
- "August 22, 2016 – Al-Qassam Brigades, the military wing of Hamas organized a military parade in Rafah southern Gaza strip of on the anniversary of the martyrdom of some leaders of Qassams". alamy. 22 October 2016.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Steyr AUG.|
- Steyr Mannlicher—military and law enforcement
- Operators manual – Steyr-Mannlicher
- Buddy Hinton Collection
- Modern Firearms – Steyr AUG
- The Steyr AUG in the Austrian Army
- on YouTube
- on YouTube (in Japanese)
- "Australia ready to sign EF88 Austeyr rifle contract" by Julian Kerr, IHS Jane's Defence Weekly
- Official Fact Sheet of the EF88/F90
- Modern Firearms – EF88/F90
- MSAR STG-556 Pictorial