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In military tactics, extraction (also exfiltration or exfil), is the process of removing personnel when it is considered imperative that they be immediately relocated out of a hostile environment and taken to a secure area.
There are primarily two kinds of extraction:
- Hostile: The subject involved is unwilling and is being moved by forceful coercion with the expectation of resistance.
- Friendly: The subject involved is willing and is expected to cooperate with the personnel in the operation.
An example of a hostile extraction was the capture and transportation to Israel for trial of the German Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann by Israel's Mossad agents on May 11, 1960. An example of a friendly example was the joint U.S. Central Intelligence Agency-Canadian government operation to smuggle six fugitive American diplomatic personnel out of revolutionary Iran in 1980 in an operation later known as the Canadian Caper.