The ExoMars Kazachok (formerly ExoMars 2020 Surface Platform) is a planned robotic Mars lander led by Roscosmos, part of the ExoMars 2020 joint mission with the European Space Agency. Kazachok translates as "Little Cossack", and is also the name of a Russian folk dance.
|Names||ExoMars 2020 Surface Platform|
|Mission type||Mars lander and rover|
|Operator||Roscosmos & ESA|
|Mission duration||Planned: 2 Earth years|
|Launch mass||Lander: 827.9 kg (1,825 lb) |
Rover: 310 kg (680 lb)
|Payload mass||Lander: 45 kg (99 lb)|
|Start of mission|
|Launch date||25 July 2020|
|Landing date||March 2021|
The plan calls for a Russian Proton-M rocket to launch the Russian-built lander that will deliver the Rosalind Franklin rover to the surface of Mars. Once safely landed, Kazachok will deploy the rover and will start a one Earth-year mission to investigate the surface environment at the landing site.
The spacecraft was scheduled to launch in 2018 and land on Mars in early 2019, but due to delays in European and Russian industrial activities and deliveries of the scientific payload, it was moved to the launch window in July 2020.
The Kazachok lander project is led by the Roscosmos, but will also include two ESA instruments and four components in Russian instruments. The science payload mass is about 45 kg and consists of: 
- The Lander Radioscience experiment (LaRa) will study the internal structure of Mars, will help to understand the sublimation/condensation cycle of atmospheric CO2, and will make precise measurements of the rotation and orientation of the planet by monitoring two-way Doppler frequency shifts between the lander and Earth. It will also detect variations in angular momentum due to the redistribution of masses, such as the migration of ice from the polar caps to the atmosphere. Developed by Belgium.
- The Habitability, Brine, Irradiation and Temperature (HABIT) package will investigate the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere, daily and seasonal variations in ground and air temperatures, and the UV radiation environment. Developed by Sweden.
- Meteorological package (METEO-M). Developed by Russia. The instrument will incorporate the following sensor packages:
- Pressure and humidity sensors (METEO-P, METEO-H). Developed by Finland. The instrument has extensive heritage from those in the Curiosity rover, Schiaparelli lander and Phoenix lander.
- Radiation and dust sensors (RDM). Developed by Spain.
- Anisotropic magneto-resistance (AMR) sensor to measure magnetic fields. Developed by Spain.
- A magnetometer named MAIGRET, developed by Russia. The instrument will incorporate the Wave Analyser Module (WAM), developed by the Czech Republic.
- A set of cameras to characterise the landing site environment (TSPP). Developed by Russia.
- Instrument interface and memory unit (BIP). Developed by Russia.
- An IR Fourier spectrometer to study the atmosphere (FAST). Developed by Russia.
- Active Detection of Radiation of Nuclei-ExoMars (ADRON-EM). Developed by Russia.
- Multi-channel Diode-Laser Spectrometer for atmospheric investigations (M-DLS). Developed by Russia.
- Radio thermometer for soil temperatures (PAT-M). Developed by Russia.
- Dust particle size, impact, and atmospheric charging instrument suite (Dust Suite). Developed by Russia.
- A seismometer named SEM. Developed by Russia.
- Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for atmospheric analysis (MGAK). Developed by Russia.
- Power source
The science and communication instruments on the lander will be powered by solar panels and rechargeable batteries. The automated voltage power system is being developed and build by ISS Reshetnev.
Russia previously evaluated the option of using a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) to power the science instruments, and a radioisotope heater unit (RHU) to provide thermal control while on the frozen Martian surface.
Landing site selectionEdit
On 21 October 2015, Oxia Planum was chosen as the preferred landing site for the ExoMars rover assuming a 2018 launch. Since the launch was postponed to 2020, Aram Dorsum and Mawrth Vallis are also being considered. ESA convened further workshops to re-evaluate the three remaining options and in March 2017 selected two sites to study in detail:
The final selection is scheduled to occur approximately in mid-2019.
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- Meet 'Kazachok': Landing Platform for ExoMars Rover Gets a Name. Mike Wall, Spaceflight. 22 March 2019.
- ExoMars-2020 Surface Platform scientific investigation. Daniel Rodionov, Lev Zelenyi, Oleg Korablev, Ilya Chuldov and Jorge Vago. EPSC Abstracts. Vol. 12, EPSC2018-732, European Planetary Science Congress 2018.
- ISS-Reshetnev chosen for ExoMars-2020 project. ISS-Reshetnev. 23 November 2016.
- "Russian Launch Manifest". sworld.com.au. Retrieved 11 October 2019.
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- PLANS FOR THE EXOMARS 2020 ROVER DATA ARCHIVE WITHIN THE PSA. T. L. Lim, R. Docasal, L. Metcalfe, S. Besse, I. Barbarisi, D. Coia1. 4th Planetary Data Workshop 2019 (LPI Contrib. No. 2151).
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- LaRa (Lander Radioscience) on the ExoMars 2020 Surface Platform. (PDF) Véronique Dehant, Sébastien Le Maistre, Rose-Marie Baland, et al. EPSC Abstracts. Vol. 12, EPSC2018-31, 2018. European Planetary Science Congress 2018.
- Controller for in-situ pressure and humidity measurements on board ExoMars 2020 Surface Platform. Nikkanen, Timo; Genzer, Maria; Hieta, Maria; Harri, Ari-Matti; Haukka, Harri; Polkko, Jouni; Meskanen, Matias. 20th EGU General Assembly, EGU2018, Proceedings from the conference held 4-13 April, 2018 in Vienna, Austria, p.7507. April 2018.
- Wave analyzer module of the MAIGRET instrument onboard Surface Platform of the ExoMars 2020 mission. Santolik, Ondrej; Kolmasova, Ivana; Uhlir, Ludek; Skalsky, Alexander; Soucek, Jan; Lan, Radek. 42nd COSPAR Scientific Assembly. Held 14-22 July 2018, in Pasadena, California, USA, Abstract id. B4.2-39-18. July 2018.
- Amos, Jonthan (21 June 2013). "Looking forward to Europe's 'seven minutes of terror'". BBC News.
- Zak, Anatoly (3 March 2016). "ExoMars 2018". Russian Space Web. Retrieved 15 March 2016.
- "Four Candidate Landing Sites for ExoMars 2018". ESA. Space Ref. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- "Recommendation for the Narrowing of ExoMars 2018 Landing Sites". ESA. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
- Amos, Jonathan (21 October 2015). "ExoMars rover: Landing preference is for Oxia Planum". BBC News. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
- Atkinson, Nancy (21 October 2015). "Scientists Want ExoMars Rover to Land at Oxia Planum". Universe Today. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
- Bauer, Markus; Vago, Jorge (28 March 2017). "Final two ExoMars landing sites chosen". European Space Agency. Archived from the original on 1 April 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2017.