Ewine van Dishoeck

Ewine Fleur van Dishoeck (born 13 June 1955, in Leiden) is a Dutch astronomer and chemist.[1] She is Professor of Molecular Astrophysics at Leiden Observatory,[1][2] and served as the President of the International Astronomical Union (2018–2021) and a co-editor of the Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics (2012–present).[3] She is one of the pioneers of astrochemistry, and her research is aimed at determination of the structure of cosmic objects using their molecular spectra.

Ewine van Dishoeck
Ewine van Dishoeck.tif
Ewine van Dishoeck (2014)
Born (1955-06-13) 13 June 1955 (age 67)
SpouseTim de Zeeuw
Awards
Scientific career
FieldsAstrochemistry, Astronomy, Chemistry
Doctoral advisors
Websitehome.strw.leidenuniv.nl/~ewine/

Early lifeEdit

Ewine Fleur van Dishoeck was born on June 13, 1955 in Leiden, Netherlands. With her father being a professor of ear, nose, and throat medicine, her love of science was inspired at the young age of 12. During this time, her father was invited to spend six months in San Diego, CA. Her first science class ever was through the San Diego Public School system. She fondly remembers that her science teacher, a female and African-American in the 1960s, was forced to overcome many obstacles to reach the position she is at now. Her upbringing inspired van Dishoeck to gain an interest in science and have the desire to do great things in the world of chemistry. When she went back to the Netherlands, she was motivated to pursue a career in chemistry, with the University of Leiden being the launchpad for her research.[4]

Education and careerEdit

Ewine van Dishoeck studied chemistry at the University of Leiden. At Leiden, van Dishoeck found that physics interested her as well. Her interests began shifting toward chemical physics soon after, with quantum chemistry being one of the main focal points of her senior project research. Tragedy struck when the professor who specialized in quantum chemistry at Leiden died. PhD programs in Holland require only doing a thesis under a full professor. If van Dishoeck wanted to stay at Leiden for her graduate work, she needed to find another field of study. At that time, van Dishoeck’s boyfriend, Tim de Zeeuw, studied astronomy and finished a course on discoveries of interstellar molecules. From de Zeeuw, she learned that the expert of the interstellar medium was Alex Dalgarno at Harvard University.[5] While studying with Dalgarno in 1980, she switched her major to astrochemistry and completed her PhD on the excitation and breaking up of molecules within interstellar gas clouds. She then returned to Cambridge, MA, to receive a position in Harvard’s Society of Fellows to continue her outstanding research on the interstellar medium. She has been the scientific director of the Netherlands Research School for Astronomy (NOVA) since 2007.[6]

ResearchEdit

Van Dishoeck works on interstellar molecules; physical and chemical evolution during star formation and planet formation; submillimeter and mid-infrared astronomy; basic molecular processes; and the radiative transfer of line and continuum radiation.[1] In 2021 she was awarded an ERC Advanced Grant to study chemistry and physics in the planet-forming disks around stars other than our Sun.[7]

She is the most cited molecular astrophysicist in the world.[8][9]

ImpactEdit

Ewine van Dishoeck’s work on astrochemistry was instrumental in answering how interstellar gas and dust can transform into living organisms. Life is dependent on carbon, and space has an abundance of this in the form of carbon monoxide. However, carbon monoxide could be broken up by ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Because of stars in the galaxy, UV light was abundant to break up the carbon monoxide. At her PhD studies, no one was aware of how some carbon monoxide molecules could remain alive in space. In her lab research, van Dishoeck set up interstellar cloud models; she compared her tests against actual observations.[10] She concluded that carbon monoxide is not vulnerable to all UV light through her trials. It is only susceptible to the wavelengths that it can absorb. As completed by her and John Black, dust and other molecules can block UV light, leading to carbon monoxide protection. Her findings answered why some carbon monoxide molecules were able to survive long enough to contribute to living organisms.[11]

AwardsEdit

Van Dishoeck was a Junior Fellow of the Harvard Society of Fellows in 1984, where she worked with Alex Dalgarno.[2] She was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Netherlands Chemical Society in 1994, the Spinoza Prize (Netherlands) in 2000,[12] and the Bourke Award of the Royal Society of Chemistry (UK) in 2001.[13] Since 2001, she is a Member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences[14] as well of the United States National Academy of Sciences.[15] In 2013, she became a member of the Academy of Sciences Leopoldina.[16] She received the Gothenburg Lise Meitner Award (Sweden) in 2014,[17][18] and the Albert Einstein World Award of Science (Mexico) in 2015.[19][20][21] In 2018, Van Dishoeck was awarded the James Craig Watson Medal (US)[22] and the Kavli Prize (Norway) for astrophysics.[23] In the same year, she also has been elected an Honorary Member of the Royal Netherlands Chemical Society.[24] She was elected to the American Philosophical Society[25] and was awarded the Prix Jules Janssen, both in 2020.[26] In 2021 Pope Francis appointed her to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences[27] and she was also awarded the Nick Kylafis Lectureship.[28] In 2022 Van Dishoeck was awarded the Fritz Zwicky Prize for Astrophysics and Cosmology[29] and the Niels Bohr International Gold Medal.[30]

Personal lifeEdit

Van Dishoeck is married to Tim de Zeeuw,[2] a professor of astronomy at Leiden University who was Director General of the European Southern Observatory from September 2007 to 2017.[31]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Curriculum Vitae". Retrieved 27 January 2010.
  2. ^ a b c Zagorski, N. (2006). "Profile of Ewine F. Van Dishoeck". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (33): 12229–12231. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10312229Z. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604740103. PMC 1567862. PMID 16894155.
  3. ^ "Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Planning Editorial Committee – Volume 50, 2012". Annual Reviews Directory. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
  4. ^ Zagorski, Nick (15 August 2006). "Profile of Ewine F. van Dishoeck". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 (33): 12229–12231. Bibcode:2006PNAS..10312229Z. doi:10.1073/pnas.0604740103. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 1567862. PMID 16894155.
  5. ^ "Ewine van Dishoeck". www.kavliprize.org. 22 May 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2021.
  6. ^ Ewine F. van Dishoeck, Biosketch, National Academy of Sciences.
  7. ^ "Ewine van Dishoeck receives ERC Advanced Grant for research into the chemistry of new worlds". Leiden University. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  8. ^ "Building stars, planets and the ingredients for life in space". 30 October 2018. Retrieved 14 July 2021.
  9. ^ "Ewine van Dishoeck". scholar.google.com. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  10. ^ Black, John H.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F. (1 November 1987). "Fluorescent Excitation of Interstellar H 2". The Astrophysical Journal. 322: 412. Bibcode:1987ApJ...322..412B. doi:10.1086/165740. hdl:1887/1982. ISSN 0004-637X.
  11. ^ van Dishoeck, E. F.; Black, J. H. (1 September 1986). "Comprehensive Models of Diffuse Interstellar Clouds: Physical Conditions and Molecular Abundances". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 62: 109. Bibcode:1986ApJS...62..109V. doi:10.1086/191135. hdl:1887/1980. ISSN 0067-0049.
  12. ^ "NWO/Spinoza Prizes". Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research. Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 27 January 2010.
  13. ^ "RSC Bourke Award Previous Winners". Retrieved 27 January 2010.
  14. ^ "Ewine van Dishoeck". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 17 July 2015.
  15. ^ "National Academy of Sciences – Members Directory: Ewine F. van Dishoeck". Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  16. ^ Ewine van Dishoeck, Academy of Sciences Leopoldina, retrieved 5 January 2019
  17. ^ "Gothenburg Lise Meitner Award 2014, Ewine van Dishoeck". Gothenburg Physics Centre. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  18. ^ "Astrochemist Ewine van Dishoeck receives Gothenburg Lise Meitner Award 2014". Astronomie.nl. 19 September 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2014.
  19. ^ "2015 World Cultural Council Awards". EurekAlert!. 10 June 2015. Retrieved 10 June 2015.
  20. ^ "Einstein World Award of Science voor Ewine van Dishoeck" (in Dutch). Leiden University. 10 June 2015. Archived from the original on 12 June 2015. Retrieved 11 June 2015.
  21. ^ Hämmerle, Hannelore (22 June 2015). "Two international awards for Ewine van Dishoeck". Innovations Report. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
  22. ^ "News from the National Academy of Sciences". National Academy of Sciences. 17 January 2018. Retrieved 26 May 2018.
  23. ^ "Kavli Prize for astrophysics". 22 May 2018.
  24. ^ Honorary members – website of the Royal Netherlands Chemical Society
  25. ^ "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved 4 February 2021.
  26. ^ "IAU President Ewine van Dishoeck Awarded the 2020 Jules Janssen Prize". International Astronomical Union. 8 January 2021.
  27. ^ "Ewine van Dishoeck after pontifical appointment: 'Science and religion can coexist'". Leiden University. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  28. ^ "Nick Kylafis Lectureship | Institute of Astrophysics". www.ia.forth.gr. Retrieved 25 October 2021.
  29. ^ "European Astronomical Society 2022 Prizes" (PDF). European Astronomical Society. 11 March 2022. Retrieved 11 March 2022.
  30. ^ "Ewine van Dishoeck receives Niels Bohr International Gold Medal". www.mpe.mpg.de. 7 October 2022.
  31. ^ "ESO – Director General". Retrieved 27 January 2010.

External linksEdit