Evangelii gaudium (English: The Joy of the Gospel) is a 2013 apostolic exhortation by Pope Francis on "the church's primary mission of evangelization in the modern world." In its opening paragraph, Pope Francis urged the entire Church "to embark on a new chapter of evangelism". According to the exhortation, the Church must understand itself as a "community of missionary disciples", who are "permanently in a state of mission". It has been described as a "remarkable and radical document, one that ranges widely and challenges complacency at every level", as well as "the manifesto of Francis" and a "Magna Carta for church reform."
Latin for 'The Joy of the Gospel'
Apostolic exhortation of Pope Francis
|Date||24 November 2013|
|Subject||On the proclamation of the Gospel in today's world|
|Number||1 of 4 of the pontificate|
Evangelii gaudium touches on many of the themes of Francis' papacy, including obligations Christians have to the poor and the duty to establish and maintain just economic, political, and legal orders. Francis says that the world "can no longer trust in the unseen forces and the invisible hand of the market" and calls for action "beyond a simple welfare mentality" that "attack[s] the structural causes of inequality." Refocusing society's priorities, he asks how "it is not a news item when an elderly homeless person dies of exposure, but it is news when the stock market loses two points?"
Calling for an "ecclesial renewal which cannot be deferred", Francis is critical of the over-centralization of church bureaucracy, unthinking preaching, and excessive emphasis on doctrine. Throughout the exhortation he calls for more pastoral creativity and openness, insisting that the entire Church realize "a missionary impulse capable of transforming everything".... "the path of a pastoral and missionary conversion which cannot leave things as they presently are." (paragraph 25) In regard to what he perceives is a current negative dependence on over-centralization in the Church's structure as opposed to an open and missionary spirit flowing through every level, he writes, "I too must think about a conversion of the papacy.... The papacy and the central structures of the universal Church also need to hear the call to pastoral conversion." (paragraph 32)
In contrast to the writing style of previous popes, Evangelii gaudium is not written in an academic style but "in language that is both easily understood and captivating." In the 47,560 word document, Francis uses the word "love" 154 times, "joy" 109 times, "the poor" 91 times, "peace" 58 times, "justice" 37 times, and "common good" 15 times.
In the first chapters the Pope cites several Bible passages that show the relationship between the joy of receiving the Christian faith and the joy of missionary activity. Francis then offers several themes for the exhortation of the reform of the Church in her missionary outreach; the temptations faced by pastoral workers; the Church, understood as the entire People of God which evangelizes; the homily and its preparation; the inclusion of the poor in society; peace and dialogue within society; the spiritual motivations for mission.
Chapter I: The Church's Missionary Transformation (19-49)Edit
In this chapter Francis underlines the importance of the parish, which "can assume quite different contours depending on the openness and missionary creativity of the pastor and community", and asks oratories, ecclesiastical movements, prelatures, and other communities in the Church to join the activities of the local parish. He shows the responsibility that bishops have for the missionary activities in their own diocese. In this context, in paragraph 32 the Pope says, "Since I am called to put into practice what I ask of others, I too must think about a conversion of the papacy", and that he is, as he notes Pope John Paul II had been, "open to suggestions which can help make the exercise of my ministry more faithful to the meaning which Jesus Christ wished to give it and to the present needs of evangelization".
Chapter II: Amid the Crisis of Communal Commitment (50-109)Edit
The chapter is divided in two sections: the first one, Some challenges of today’s world, deals with economic matters, poverty, and modern culture. It also mentions the new religious movements and moral relativism. The second section, Temptations faced by pastoral workers, describes two errors commonly faced by Christians: first the "attraction of Gnosticism" that offers "a faith whose only interest is a certain experience or a set of ideas and bits of information"; the second is "the self-absorbed promethean neopelagianism" of those who "feel superior to others because they observe certain rules or remain intransigently faithful to a particular Catholic style from the past" with "a narcissistic and authoritarian elitism". He also noted that "In some people we see an ostentatious preoccupation for the liturgy".
Chapter III: The Proclamation of the Gospel (110-175)Edit
Francis describes thoroughly the importance of the homily, which "should be brief and avoid taking on the semblance of a speech or a lecture", and should be prepared with care: "Preparation for preaching is so important a task that a prolonged time of study, prayer, reflection and pastoral creativity should be devoted to it [....] A preacher who does not prepare is not 'spiritual'; he is dishonest and irresponsible with the gifts he has received".
"Missionary discipleship": "In virtue of their baptism, all the members of the People of God have become missionary disciples (cf. Mt 28:19). All the baptized, whatever their position in the Church or their level of instruction in the faith, are agents of evangelization, and it would be insufficient to envisage a plan of evangelization to be carried out by professionals while the rest of the faithful would simply be passive recipients. The new evangelization calls for personal involvement on the part of each of the baptized. Every Christian is challenged, here and now, to be actively engaged in evangelization"
Chapter IV: The Social Dimension of Evangelization (176-258)Edit
The fourth chapter deals with many topics: care for the weakest persons ("the homeless, the addicted, refugees, indigenous peoples, the elderly who are increasingly isolated and abandoned, and many others"), long term politics, and social dialogue: the dialogue between faith and reason, ecumenical dialogue, and inter-religious dialogue.
In paragraph 246, Francis calls for ecumenical unity and trust among Christian missionaries because they must speak in one voice: "Given the seriousness of the counter-witness among Christians, particularly in Asia and Africa, the search for paths to unity becomes all the more urgent.... If we concentrate on the convictions we share, and if we keep in mind the principle of the hierarchy of truths, we will be able to progress decidedly toward common expressions of proclamation, service and witness." In paragraph 247 he affirms that "As Christians, we cannot consider Judaism as a foreign religion; nor do we include the Jews among those called to turn from idols and to serve the true God (cf. 1 Thes 1:9). With them, we believe in the one God who acts in history, and with them we accept his revealed word." In paragraph 249 he writes, "While it is true that certain Christian beliefs are unacceptable to Judaism, and that the Church cannot refrain from proclaiming Jesus as Lord and Messiah, there exists as well a rich complementarity which allows us to read the texts of the Hebrew Scriptures together and to help one another to mine the riches of God’s word. We can also share many ethical convictions and a common concern for justice and the development of peoples".
In paragraph 254 he teaches that non-Christian rituals of any religion can have a divine origin, that they are "a communitarian experience of journeying towards God" and can be "channels which the Holy Spirit raises up in order to liberate non-Christians from atheistic immanentism or from purely individual religious experiences".
Chapter V: Spirit-filled Evangelizers (259-288)Edit
Most of the exhortation is Francis' own personal insight. His text cites several sources.
The main source is the Propositions of the synodal fathers of the XIII assembly of the Synod of Bishops, cited 27 times. Among Church Fathers, Francis cites Irenaeus of Lyon, Ambrose of Milan and Augustine of Hippo. Among medieval teachers he cites Isaac of Stella, Thomas Kempis, and Saint Thomas Aquinas. Modern authors cited by the Pope include John Henry Newman, Henri de Lubac, Romano Guardini and Georges Bernanos.
On 10 May 2015, Raúl Castro met Pope Francis at the Vatican and was presented a copy. When Donald Trump visited Vatican City on 25 May 2017, Pope Francis presented to him copies of Evangelii gaudium and Laudato Si.
In May 2007, at the Fifth Episcopal Conference of Latin America in Aparecida, Brazil, Cardinal Jorge Bergoglio, later Pope Francis was elected by his brother bishops to chair the important committee charged with drafting the final document.. The Aparecida document includes themes concerning evangelism, care for the poor and more that are also found in Evangelii Gaudium.
On behalf of the Diocese of Limburg, Peter Reulein wrote the music for the oratorio Laudato si' - a Franciscan Magnificat to the libretto by Helmut Schlegel OFM. This work is based on the Latin version of the Magnificat, corresponds to the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy, and includes texts from the apostolic exhortation Evangelii gaudium and the encyclical Laudato si'. The premiere of the oratorio took place in the Limburg Cathedral on 6 November 2016.
Response and criticismEdit
Adam Rasmussen, an openly "pro-Francis partisan" at Georgetown University, favors Evangelii gaudium, wherein "Francis already spoke positively of religious pluralism", over the Document on Human Fraternity: "Despite the commotion this document has made, what it says about religions is actually less noteworthy than what is in Evangelii Gaudium. I don't think many people noticed section 254 when it came out because they were too busy arguing about other sections of EG!" But that "Francis takes up and even advances Vatican II's teachings on other religions" "in his first official document", did not fail to be noticed: "[A] very active evangelizer of Muslims and Internet apologist […] noted that this pontifical statement contained
|“||a terrifying inaccuracy. […]
[because, according to Muslims,] Allah alone knows the interpretation of the Koran
(Koran 3:7). […]
This is so because Islam has no magisterial authority. Likewise, the Koran's tolerant verses were abrogated by the 'sword verse (Koran 9:5, 29)', and 'over half of the Koran's 6,235 verses scorn non-Muslims and manifest the ominous intention of killing or subjecting them'. Finally, history and current events flatly belie the pope's claim of Islam's supposedly peaceful nature." Guy Pagès reminds Pope Francis of the central question about the incompatibility between religion and violence, as it was done by the Byzantine emperor Manuel II addressing an educated Persian Moslem:
Montre moi ce que Mahomet a apporté de nouveau et tu ne trouveras que du mauvais et de l'inhumain comme ceci, qu'il a prescrit de répandre par l'épée la foi qu'il prêchait.
Show me just what Mohammed brought that was new, and there you will find things only evil and inhuman, such as his command to spread by the sword the faith he preached.
- Thavis, John (26 November 2013). "Pope Francis' document delivers wake-up call on evangelization". Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 1.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 24.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 25.
- Weigel, George (2013). Evangelical Catholicism: Deep Reform in the 21st-Century Church (paperback ed.). New York: Basic Books. p. 322. ISBN 9780465038916. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
- O'Leary, Naomi (26 November 2013). "Pope attacks 'tyranny' of markets in manifesto for papacy". Reuters. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 204.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 202.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 53.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 27.
- Lasky, Mike Jordan (26 November 2013). "Pope Francis' Evangelii Gaudium: Work for justice at the heart of discipleship". Millennial. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 17.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 28.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 29.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 31.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 32.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 94.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 95.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 138.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 145.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 120.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 210.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 254.
- Rino Fisichella in his press conference in the Vatican In English, IN LINGUA INGLESE
- Lorenzo Baldisseri in his press conference in the Vatican
- De Juana, Alvaro (11 May 2015). "Raul Castro to Pope: Thanks to You, I May Come Back to the Church". National Catholic Register.
- M.S.R. (25 May 2017). "Donald Trump meets Pope Francis". The Economist.
- Cavassa, SJ, Ernesto (30 October 2013). "On the Trail of Aparecida: Jorge Bergoglio and the Latin American ecclesial tradition". America Magazine. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
- Holy Father Francis 2013, § 124.
- Reulein, Peter; Schlegel, Helmut (2016). Laudato si' / Ein franziskanisches Magnificat. Limburg an der Lahn: Dehm Verlag. p. 230. ISBN 978-3-943302-34-9. ISMN 979-0-50226-047-7.
- "Festkonzert zum Jubiläum des Referates Kirchenmusik / Laudato si' — Oratorium von Peter Reulein (Uraufführung)" (in German). Liebfrauen, Frankfurt. 2016. Retrieved 25 December 2016.
- Rasmussen, Adam (6 February 2019). "Pope Francis and Grand Imam sign joint statement on Human Fraternity". Where Peter Is – there is the Church. Archived from the original on 14 February 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- "Adam Rasmussen". Georgetown University. Archived from the original on 14 February 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- Ureta, José Antonio (6 January 2019). "Questioning Francis's Support of Islam and Unrestricted Immigration". American TFP. Archived from the original on 3 March 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- Pagès, Guy (30 November 2015). "Deuxième Lettre ouverte au Pape François: Sur l'islam dans Evangelii Gaudium" [Second open letter to Pope Francis: On Islam in Evangelii Gaudium] (in French). Islam & Vérité. Archived from the original on 2 March 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
une terrifiante contrevérité […] « Allah seul connaît l'interprétation du Coran. » (Coran 3.7) ; Les versets réputés 'tolérants' de l'immuable Coran ont tous été abrogés par 'le verset du sabre' (Coran 9.5,29) […] il n'y a pas en Islam de magistère […] sur les 6235 versets du Coran, plus de la moitié vouent à l'exécration tous ceux qui ne sont pas musulmans, et expriment la funeste intention de les tuer ou de les soumettre ; L'histoire et l'actualité démentent, à l'envi, malheureusement, votre affirmation […].
- Manuel II Paléologue 1966, pp. 142–143.
- Saint-Père Benoît XVI 2006, ref 3.
- Holy Father Benedict XVI 2006, ref 3.
- Holy Father Francis (24 November 2013). "Evangelii Gaudium: Apostolic Exhortation on the Proclamation of the Gospel in Today's World". La Santa Sede: Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Archived from the original on 1 March 2019. Retrieved 3 March 2019.
- Manuel II Paléologue (1966). Khoury, Adel Théodore (ed.). Entretiens avec un Musulman. 7e Controverse [Dialogue with a Muslim. Controversy 7]. Sources Chrétiennes (in Medieval Greek and French). 115. Translated by Khoury, Adel Théodore (1st ed.). Paris: Éditions du Cerf. ISBN 978-2-204-03474-6. Archived from the original on 6 March 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019.CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) Quoted by the Discours de Ratisbonne (French for Regensburg lecture):
- Saint-Père Benoît XVI (12 September 2006). "Voyage apostolique à Munich, Altötting et Ratisbonne (3–14 septembre 2006): Rencontre avec les représentants du monde scientifique au grand amphithéâtre de l'université de Ratisbonne (12 septembre 2006)" (in French). La Santa Sede: Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Archived from the original on 20 February 2019. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
- Holy Father Benedict XVI (12 September 2006). "Apostolic Journey to München, Altötting and Regensburg (3–14 September 2006): Meeting with the representatives of science in the Aula Magna of the University of Regensburg (12 September 2006)". La Santa Sede: Libreria Editrice Vaticana. Archived from the original on 8 February 2019. Retrieved 5 March 2019.