Eurovision Song Contest 1997

The Eurovision Song Contest 1997 was the 42nd edition of the Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Dublin, Ireland, following the country's victory at the 1996 contest with the song "The Voice" by Eimear Quinn. It was the fourth time in five years that Ireland had hosted the contest – and a record sixth time that it was staged in Dublin. Organised by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) and host broadcaster Raidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ), the contest was yet again held at the Point Theatre (the venue for the 1994 and 1995 contests), on Saturday 3 May 1997. The contest was presented by Irish actress Carrie Crowley and Boyzone front-singer Ronan Keating who also sang in the interval act with Boyzone.[1]

Eurovision Song Contest 1997
Eurovision Song Contest Logo 1997.svg
Dates
Final3 May 1997
Host
VenuePoint Theatre,
Dublin, Ireland
Presenter(s)
Musical directorFrank McNamara
Directed byIan McGarry
Executive supervisorMarie-Claire Vionnet
Executive producerNoel Curran
Host broadcasterRaidió Teilifís Éireann (RTÉ)
Opening actGood luck messages from former Eurovision stars and winners.
Interval act"Let The Message Run Free" performed by Boyzone
Websiteeurovision.tv/event/dublin-1997 Edit this at Wikidata
Participants
Number of entries25
Debuting countriesNone
Returning countries
Non-returning countries
  • Belgium in the Eurovision Song ContestItaly in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Netherlands in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Switzerland in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Germany in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997United Kingdom in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Monaco in the Eurovision Song ContestLuxembourg in the Eurovision Song ContestSpain in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Ireland in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Denmark in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Finland in the Eurovision Song ContestNorway in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Portugal in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Sweden in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Israel in the Eurovision Song ContestGreece in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Malta in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Austria in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997France in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Turkey in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Yugoslavia in the Eurovision Song ContestMorocco in the Eurovision Song ContestCyprus in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Iceland in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Croatia in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Slovenia in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Estonia in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Slovakia in the Eurovision Song ContestHungary in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Romania in the Eurovision Song ContestLithuania in the Eurovision Song ContestPoland in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Russia in the Eurovision Song Contest 1997Macedonia in the Eurovision Song ContestA coloured map of the countries of Europe
    About this image
         Participating countries     Countries that participated in the past but not in 1997
Vote
Voting systemEach country awarded 12, 10, 8-1 points to their 10 favourite songs
Nul points in final
Winning song
1996 ← Eurovision Song Contest → 1998

Twenty-five countries participated in the contest, equalling the record of the 1993 and 1994 editions. Italy returned after their three-year absence.[2] Denmark, Germany, Hungary, and Russia, returned after their last participation in 1995, despite all of them taking part in the non-televised 1996 pre-qualifying round in which they failed to qualify and therefore were absent.[3] Belgium, Finland, and Slovakia were relegated due to having the lowest average scores over the previous four editions.[1]

The winner was the United Kingdom with the song "Love Shine a Light", performed by Katrina and the Waves and written by band member Kimberley Rew. Ireland, Turkey, Italy and Cyprus rounded out the top five. Turkey's third place finish was their best result in the contest at this point, finishing in the top five for the very first time.

LocationEdit

 
The Point Theatre, Dublin – host venue of the 1997 contest.

Having to host so many contests (sometimes in succession) put great financial pressure on host broadcaster RTÉ. There were early rumours stating that the Irish broadcaster was to team up with the BBC in Northern Ireland (BBC had previously offered to do this for the 1995 contest), however RTÉ eventually decided to host the event alone.[4]

Ireland hosted the contest for the fourth time in five years after winning the 1996 contest in Oslo. Dublin was again chosen to be the host city, making it the sixth time that the Eurovision Song Contest was staged in the Irish capital. The venue for the contest was the Point Theatre located on the North Wall Quay of the River Liffey, amongst the Dublin Docklands. The theatre previously hosted the 1994 and 1995 contests. The Point Theatre remains the only venue to have hosted the contest three times.[1]

FormatEdit

After the controversy over the 1996 pre-qualifying round, the European Broadcasting Union introduced a new system for 1997: countries with the lowest average scores over the previous four years would be excluded from the 1997 contest, and those with the lowest averages over the previous five years would be excluded from future contests (save that every country so excluded for one year would automatically be allowed to participate the following year), with so many countries being omitted as would reduce the number of participants each year to 25.[1] The running order was determined by a draw on 28 November 1996.[5]

Israel declined to participate, as the contest was held on its Holocaust Remembrance Day, granting a reprieve to Bosnia and Herzegovina, which would otherwise have been excluded owing to its low point average over the previous four years.[1] RTÉ once again produced a highly spectacular show, with a stage that had a smaller performance space for the artists than in previous years. This was the third Eurovision set to be designed by Paula Farrell, who had previously been involved with the 1988 and 1994 contests.[1]

There was a wide array of different styles this year. Denmark brought a rap song, Croatia came with their version of the Spice Girls and Sweden brought a mid-1980s style boy band. The music was in general more modern than before, and for the first time in six years, an up-tempo song won (the last time this happened was in Rome 1991, with Carola's song, Fångad av en stormvind).[1]

This year, televoting was tested in five countries: Austria, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The results of the televoting countries were, in some cases, different from those that used a jury. Iceland received 16 of its 18 points from these five countries.[1]

Also, for the first time in Eurovision history, there was a country where not one, but two spokespeople gave votes – France. Television reporter Frédéric Ferrer and 1977 Eurovision winner Marie Myriam each took turns at giving results from that country. Long-time Irish conductor Noel Kelehan was not the host conductor this year due to illness, the duty being fulfilled by Frank McNamara.

WinnersEdit

Katrina and the Waves, (with lead vocalist Katrina Leskanich) representing the United Kingdom, were the winners of the contest with the song "Love Shine a Light", written by that band's lead guitarist Kimberley Rew, and Marc Roberts from Ireland came second with "Mysterious Woman". Despite being the runner-up, it remarkably received only one 12-point score, which came from the United Kingdom. The UK spokesman Colin Berry remarked: "You're going to like this one: Ireland, twelve points!" causing Terry Wogan to reply: "Well, tit for tat!" The winning song scored an unprecedented 227 points; it received points from all participating countries, including five sets of 10 points and a record-breaking ten sets of the maximum 12 points.

"Love Shine a Light" is regarded as one of the most successful Eurovision winners,[a] and was the closing song in the medleys that opened the 50th anniversary show Congratulations in Copenhagen in 2005, and the ESC 2006 semi-final in Athens. With this victory, the United Kingdom has five Eurovision wins and it is to date the country's last win in the contest. After the 2020 contest was cancelled due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the European Broadcasting Union aired a replacement show titled Eurovision: Europe Shine a Light, part of which featured the 41 scheduled acts performing "Love Shine a Light", alongside footage of European landmarks being lit up in tribute to the contest.

Postcard greetingsEdit

Some of the postcards were preceded by greetings from past Eurovision stars. These stars were (in order of appearance):

Postcard themes and placesEdit

  1.   Cyprus – Arthouse Multimedia Centre
  2.   Turkey – Music
  3.   Norway – Literature
  4.   Austria – Kilkenny
  5.   Ireland – Limerick–Killaloe Canal
  6.   Slovenia – Armagh Observatory
  7.    Switzerland – Irish Museum of Modern Art
  8.   Netherlands – Animals
  9.   Italy – Guinness and Jameson
  10.   Spain – Calligraphy
  11.   Germany – West Region
  12.   Poland – Trinity College
  13.   Estonia – Waterford Castle
  14.   Bosnia and Herzegovina – Sport
  15.   Portugal – Street theatre
  16.   Sweden – Derry
  17.   Greece – Horses
  18.   Malta – Saint Patrick's Day
  19.   Hungary – Trains
  20.   Russia – Limerick
  21.   Denmark – Cafés
  22.   France – Prehistoric Ireland
  23.   Croatia – Telecommunications
  24.   United Kingdom – Irish Sea
  25.   Iceland – Fashion

Participating countriesEdit

QualificationEdit

The audio-only qualification round used in 1996 had been poorly received among the competing countries, and so a new relegation system was introduced by the EBU for the 1997 contest.[6] 25 participation places were on offer, to be filled by the host country Ireland and the 24 countries which had received the highest average total of points received over the past four contests (1993 to 1996).[5][6][7] Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Finland, Macedonia, Romania and Slovakia, as the countries with the lowest average scores, were therefore excluded from participating in 1997; however, following Israel's withdrawal due to the date of the final clashing with its Holocaust Remembrance Day, Bosnia and Herzegovina was subsequently reinstated to fill the final place.[1][6]

Key:

  Automatic qualifier
  Qualifier
  Replacement qualifier
  Withdrew
Calculation of average points to determine qualification for the 1997 contest
Rank Country Average Yearly Point Totals
1993 1994 1995 1996
1   Ireland 154.75 187 226 44 162
2   Norway 114.50 120 76 148 114
3   United Kingdom 95.00 164 63 76 77
4   Sweden 84.25 89 48 100 100
5   Malta 77.50 69 97 76 68
6   France 76.75 121 74 94 18
7   Poland 70.67 166 15 31
8   Hungary 62.50 122 3 DNQ
9   Croatia 61.75 31 27 91 98
10    Switzerland 61.67 148 15 22
11   Netherlands 58.00 92 4 78
12   Portugal 57.50 60 73 5 92
13   Cyprus 54.75 17 51 79 72
14   Greece 53.00 64 44 68 36
15   Spain 52.75 58 17 119 17
16   Denmark 50.50 9 92 DNQ
17   Germany 49.00 18 128 1 DNQ
18   Estonia 48.00 2 94
19   Austria 46.50 32 19 67 68
20   Italy 45.00 45
21   Russia 43.50 70 17 DNQ
22   Iceland 43.25 42 49 31 51
23   Israel[b] 42.50 4 81 DNQ
24   Slovenia 36.33 9 84 16
25   Turkey 29.33 10 21 57
26   Bosnia and Herzegovina[b] 23.25 27 39 14 13
27   Slovakia 17.00 15 19
28   Romania 14.00 14 DNQ
29   Finland 13.33 20 11 9
30   Belgium 11.00 3 8 22
31   Macedonia 0.00 DNQ

ConductorsEdit

Most performances had a conductor who directed the orchestra; four countries used a backing track instead of the orchestra.[8][6] This was also the first year where full playback was allowed in the contest.[6]

Returning artistsEdit

Artist Country Previous year(s)
Alma Čardžić   Bosnia and Herzegovina 1994
Maarja-Liis Ilus   Estonia 1996 (with Ivo Linna)
Şebnem Paker (with Grup Ethnic)   Turkey 1996

ResultsEdit

Draw Country Artist Song Language[9][10] Place[11] Points
01   Cyprus Hara and Andreas Konstantinou "Mana mou" (Μάνα μου) Greek 5 98
02   Turkey Şebnem Paker and Grup Ethnic "Dinle" Turkish 3 121
03   Norway Tor Endresen "San Francisco" Norwegian[c] 24 0
04   Austria Bettina Soriat "One Step" German[c] 21 12
05   Ireland Marc Roberts "Mysterious Woman" English 2 157
06   Slovenia Tanja Ribič "Zbudi se" Slovene 10 60
07    Switzerland Barbara Berta "Dentro di me" Italian 22 5
08   Netherlands Mrs. Einstein "Niemand heeft nog tijd" Dutch 22 5
09   Italy Jalisse "Fiumi di parole" Italian 4 114
10   Spain Marcos Llunas "Sin rencor" Spanish 6 96
11   Germany Bianca Shomburg "Zeit" German 18 22
12   Poland Anna Maria Jopek "Ale jestem" Polish 11 54
13   Estonia Maarja-Liis Ilus "Keelatud maa" Estonian 8 82
14   Bosnia and Herzegovina Alma Čardžić "Goodbye" Bosnian 18 22
15   Portugal Célia Lawson "Antes do adeus" Portuguese 24 0
16   Sweden Blond "Bara hon älskar mig" Swedish 14 36
17   Greece Marianna Zorba "Horepse" (Χόρεψε) Greek 12 39
18   Malta Debbie Scerri "Let Me Fly" English 9 66
19   Hungary V.I.P. "Miért kell, hogy elmenj?" Hungarian 12 39
20   Russia Alla Pugacheva "Primadonna" (Примадонна) Russian 15 33
21   Denmark Kølig Kaj "Stemmen i mit liv" Danish 16 25
22   France Fanny "Sentiments songes" French 7 95
23   Croatia E.N.I. "Probudi me" Croatian 17 24
24   United Kingdom Katrina and the Waves "Love Shine a Light" English 1 227
25   Iceland Paul Oscar "Minn hinsti dans" Icelandic 20 18

ScoreboardEdit

Each country had a jury that awarded 12, 10, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 points for their top ten songs, or a televote, where the top ten most voted for songs were awarded those points. Iceland got most of its 18 points from the 5 countries that used televoting. Ireland was ostensibly the best scoring country across the televoting countries, except they were able to score points from all 5 televoting countries. The United Kingdom was only eligible to receive points from 4 of them, since they couldn't vote for themselves. In fact, the UK received 12 points from all the other televoting countries except Germany, from whom they received 10 points: in other words, the UK earned 46 of 48 (95.83%) possible televote points that year; Ireland earned 47 of 60 (78.33%) possible televote points, including their only 12 from the UK.[12]

During the voting the United Kingdom received at least five points from every voting country, bar Malta who only gave the United Kingdom one point.

Voting results[12][13]
Voting procedure used:
  100% jury vote
  100% televoting
Total score
Cyprus
Turkey
Norway
Austria
Ireland
Slovenia
Switzerland
Netherlands
Italy
Spain
Germany
Poland
Estonia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Portugal
Sweden
Greece
Malta
Hungary
Russia
Denmark
France
Croatia
United Kingdom
Iceland
Contestants
Cyprus 98 2 3 4 4 10 4 10 5 1 3 12 7 1 7 4 4 5 12
Turkey 121 7 2 6 2 7 12 12 6 12 5 6 7 10 6 4 6 4 7
Norway 0
Austria 12 3 1 5 3
Ireland 157 8 6 3 10 1 7 4 10 6 8 7 8 8 10 10 8 5 10 10 6 12
Slovenia 60 2 10 2 4 7 4 3 5 10 7 3 3
Switzerland 5 2 3
Netherlands 5 1 4
Italy 114 6 5 1 1 10 10 7 8 4 8 6 12 3 5 3 7 4 10 3 1
Spain 96 10 4 6 5 8 6 3 2 4 8 6 12 10 8 2 2
Germany 22 3 5 5 3 1 5
Poland 54 4 8 7 1 1 2 6 3 4 2 1 7 5 3
Estonia 82 1 6 8 3 12 4 7 6 1 1 1 4 8 8 10 2
Bosnia and Herzegovina 22 8 4 2 3 4 1
Portugal 0
Sweden 36 8 5 6 6 7 4
Greece 39 12 5 7 6 2 7
Malta 66 5 12 10 7 6 1 5 8 3 1 8
Hungary 39 3 4 5 5 2 5 2 8 5
Russia 33 1 5 12 8 7
Denmark 25 7 1 7 2 2 6
France 95 3 2 12 10 2 3 5 12 12 3 6 2 4 2 6 1 10
Croatia 24 4 1 3 2 5 8 1
United Kingdom 227 7 7 6 12 12 8 12 12 8 5 10 10 10 10 7 12 10 1 12 12 12 12 12 8
Iceland 18 2 2 8 6

12 pointsEdit

Below is a summary of all 12-point in the final:[12]

N. Contestant Nation(s) giving 12 points
10   United Kingdom   Austria,   Croatia,   Denmark,   France,   Hungary,   Ireland,   Netherlands,   Russia,   Sweden,    Switzerland
3   France   Estonia,   Norway,   Poland
  Turkey   Bosnia and Herzegovina,   Germany,   Spain
2   Cyprus   Greece,   Iceland
1   Estonia   Italy
  Greece   Cyprus
  Ireland   United Kingdom
  Italy   Portugal
  Malta   Turkey
  Russia   Slovenia
  Spain   Malta

SpokespersonsEdit

The spokespersons announced the score from their respective country's national jury (or, in some cases, televote) in running order.

  1.   Cyprus – Marios Skordis[14]
  2.   Turkey – Ömer Önder
  3.   Norway – Ragnhild Sælthun Fjørtoft
  4.   Austria – Adriana Zartl [de]
  5.   Ireland – Eileen Dunne
  6.   Slovenia – Mojca Mavec [sl]
  7.    Switzerland – Sandy Altermatt [it]
  8.   Netherlands – Corry Brokken
  9.   Italy – Peppi Franzelin [it]
  10.   Spain – Belén Fernández de Henestrosa
  11.   Germany – Christina Mänz
  12.   Poland – Jan Chojnacki
  13.   Estonia – Helene Tedre[15]
  14.   Bosnia and Herzegovina – Segmedina Srna
  15.   Portugal – Cristina Rocha[16]
  16.   Sweden – Gösta Hanson[17]
  17.   Greece – Niki Venega[18]
  18.   Malta – Anna Bonanno
  19.   Hungary – Györgyi Albert [hu]
  20.   Russia – Arina Sharapova
  21.   Denmark – Bent Henius [da]
  22.   France – Frédéric Ferrer [fr] and Marie Myriam[19]
  23.   Croatia – Davor Meštrović [hr][20]
  24.   United Kingdom – Colin Berry[6]
  25.   Iceland – Svanhildur Konráðsdóttir

BroadcastsEdit

Most countries sent commentators to Dublin or commented from their own country, in order to add insight to the participants and, if necessary, the provision of voting information.

Broadcasters and commentators in participating countries
Country Broadcaster(s) Commentator(s) Ref(s)
  Austria ORF 1 Ernst Grissemann [de] [21]
FM4 Stermann & Grissemann [22]
  Bosnia and Herzegovina BHT Diana Grković-Foretić
  Croatia HRT 1 Aleksandar "Aco" Kostadinov [23]
HR2 Draginja Balaš
  Cyprus RIK 1 Evi Papamichail [14]
RIK Deftero Pavlos Pavlou
  Denmark DR1 Jørgen de Mylius [24]
DR P3 Ole Jacobsen [dk]
  Estonia ETV Jüri Pihel [et]
Raadio 2 Marko Reikop
  France France 2 Olivier Minne [25]
France Inter Frédéric Taddeï
  Germany Das Erste Peter Urban [26]
Deutschlandfunk/NDR Radio 2 Thomas Mohr [27]
  Greece ET1 Dafni Bokota [28]
ERA 1 Giorgos Mitropoulos
  Hungary MTV 1 István Vágó
  Iceland Sjónvarpið Jakob Frímann Magnússon [29]
  Ireland RTÉ One Pat Kenny
RTÉ Radio 1 Larry Gogan
  Italy Rai Uno Ettore Andenna
Rai Radio 2 Antonio De Robertis [30]
  Malta TVM Gino Cauchi
  Netherlands TV2 Willem van Beusekom [31]
Radio 2 Daniël Dekker and Hijlco Span
  Norway NRK1 Jostein Pedersen [32]
NRK P1 Kristian Lindeman [no] [33]
  Poland TVP1 Jan Wilkans
Polskie Radio Program I Artur Orzech
  Portugal RTP1 Carlos Ribiero [pt] [16]
  Russia ORT 1 Philipp Kirkorov and Sergei Antipov [34]
Voice of Russia Vadim Dolgachev
  Slovenia SLO1 Miša Molk
  Spain La Primera José Luis Uribarri [35]
  Sweden SVT2 Janne Jingryd [sv] [17]
SR P3 Claes-Johan Larsson and Susan Seidemar
   Switzerland SF DRS German: Sandra Studer [36]
TSR French: Pierre Grandjean [37]
TSI Italian: Jonathan Tedesco
  Turkey TRT 1 Bülend Özveren
TRT Radyo 3 Fatih Orbay
  United Kingdom BBC1 Terry Wogan [6]
BBC Radio 2 Ken Bruce [6]
Broadcasters and commentators in non-participating countries
Country Broadcaster(s) Commentator(s) Ref(s)
  Australia SBS TV Terry Wogan [38]
  Belgium BRTN TV1 Dutch: André Vermeulen [39]
RTBF La Une French: Jean-Pierre Hautier [25]
BRTN Radio 2 Dutch: Guy De Pré [nl]
RTBF La Première French: Alain Gerlache [fr] and Adrien Joveneau [fr]
  Finland YLE TV1 Aki Sirkesalo and Olli Ahvenlahti [40]
YLE Radio Suomi Iris Mattila and Sanna Kojo
  Israel Channel 1 No commentator
  Macedonia MTV 1 Dragan Kostik
  Romania TVR1 Doina Caramzulescu and Costin Grigore
  Slovakia STV2 Juraj Čurný
  Yugoslavia RTS2 Nikola Nešković [41]

Other awardsEdit

Barbara Dex AwardEdit

For the first time, the Barbara Dex Award was organised as a humorous fan award given to the worst dressed artist each year. Named after Belgium's representative who came last in the 1993 contest, wearing her self-designed dress, the award was presented by the fansite House of Eurovision until the 2016 contest, when the Belgian Eurovision fansite songfestival.be took the reins. Debbie Scerri of Malta is the inaugural winner of the award.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ As noted on a TOTP2 Eurovision special, it ranks third in the rankings of points achieved as a percentage of maximum available with 227 out of 288 or 78.81%, behind Nicole's "Ein bißchen Frieden" in 1982 (161 out of 204 or 78.92%) and Brotherhood of Man's "Save Your Kisses for Me" in 1976 (164 out of 204 or 80.39%). For comparison, Elena Paparizou's 2005 win took 230 points out of a possible 456, or only 50.04%.
  2. ^ a b Bosnia and Herzegovina were permitted entry into the 1997 contest following Israel's withdrawal.
  3. ^ a b Contains some lyrics in English

ReferencesEdit

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  4. ^ "#EurovisionAgain travels back to Dublin 1997". 18 April 2020.
  5. ^ a b "Rules of the 42nd Eurovision Song Contest 1997".
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Roxburgh, Gordon (2020). Songs For Europe - The United Kingdom at the Eurovision Song Contest. Volume Four: The 1990s. UK: Telos Publishing. pp. 296–309. ISBN 978-1-84583-163-9.
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  8. ^ "And the conductor is..." Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  9. ^ "Eurovision Song Contest 1997". The Diggiloo Thrush. Retrieved 5 March 2012.
  10. ^ "Eurovision Song Contest 1997". 4Lyrics.eu. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
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  12. ^ a b c "Results of the Final of Dublin 1997". European Broadcasting Union. Archived from the original on 14 April 2021. Retrieved 14 April 2021.
  13. ^ "Eurovision Song Contest 1997 – Scoreboard". European Broadcasting Union. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  14. ^ a b Savvidis, Christos (OGAE Cyprus)
  15. ^ [1] Archived 22 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ a b "Comentadores Do ESC - escportugalforum.pt.vu | o forum eurovisivo português". 21595.activeboard.com. Archived from the original on 21 April 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
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  19. ^ "Concours Eurovision de la Chanson • Consulter le sujet - Porte-paroles des jurys des pays francophones". Eurovision.vosforums.com. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  20. ^ "Pogledaj temu - SPOKESPERSONS". Forum.hrt.hr. 29 February 2008. Archived from the original on 14 March 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  21. ^ [2] Archived 24 October 2007 at the Wayback Machine
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  24. ^ "Forside". esconnet.dk. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  25. ^ a b Christian Masson. "1997 - Dublin". Songcontest.free.fr. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  26. ^ "Dr. Peter Urban kommentiert - Düsseldorf 2011". Duesseldorf2011.de. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  27. ^ "Thomas Mohr: Mit Dschinghis Khan im Garten". Eurovision.de. 14 May 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  28. ^ "Η Δάφνη Μπόκοτα και η EUROVISION (1987-2004)". Retromaniax.gr. Archived from the original on 12 September 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
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  32. ^ "Alt du trenger å vite om MGP - Melodi Grand Prix - Melodi Grand Prix - NRK". Nrk.no. 27 May 2003. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  33. ^ "NRK P1 1997.05.03 : programrapport". urn.nb.no. 3 May 1997. Retrieved 19 August 2017.
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  35. ^ "FORO FESTIVAL DE EUROVISIÓN • Ver Tema - Uribarri comentarista Eurovision 2010". Eurosongcontest.phpbb3.es. Archived from the original on 17 March 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
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  38. ^ Squires, Tony (10 May 1997). "Plucka Duck – why the Logies are strictly for the birds". The Sydney Morning Herald. No. 49824. Fairfax.
  39. ^ "Hasselt 2005: Jarige André Vermeulen verzorgt commentaar met Ilse Van Hoecke –". Eurosong.be. 25 October 2005. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
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External linksEdit