European Square (Kyiv)
European Square (Ukrainian: Європейська площа, romanized: Yevropeiska ploshcha) is a square located in what is known as the Old Town (Stare Misto) or the Upper Town, in Kyiv, the capital of Ukraine. It is also located at the north-eastern end of the Khreschatyk, the city's main thoroughfare. Other streets connected to the square are Tryokhsvyatytelska Street, Volodymyrskyi Descent, and Hrushevsky Street.
The square was known under at least nine different names during the last two hundred years.
- Originally, the square was called the Horse's Square (Konnaya Ploschad), because its location was used for horse trading.
- 1806 - Theatre Square (Teatralnaya Ploschad), after the 1805–1806 construction of the first theater in Kyiv by the architect Andriy Melensky located at the current place of Ukrainian House.
- 1851 - European Square ('Yevropeyskaya Ploschad), when the Yevropeysky Hotel was built to the designs of the architect Alexander Vikentievich Beretti.
- 1869 - Tsar Square (Tsarskaya Ploschad, due to the monument of Alexander II of Russia erected there). During that time the square was also referred to as Aleksandrovskaya for the same reason and because through it was passing ulitsa Aleksandrovskaya (today split Mykhailo Hrushevsky Street, Volodymyr Descent, and Petro Sahaidachny Street).
- 1919 - Third International's Square (Ploschad Tretieva Internatsionala), after the Soviet occupation of Ukraine.
- 1941 - Adolf Hitler Square (Adolf Hitler Platz), German occupation
- 1944 - Stalin Square (Stalinskaya Ploschad), Soviet return
- 1961 - Lenin's Komsomol Square (Ploschad Leninskava Komsomola), destalinization process
List of streets that connect to the square.
- Live updates of the protests, Kyiv Post (27, 28 & 29 November 2013)
- Students in Ukraine threaten indefinite national strike, Euronews (26 November 2013)
- Students from various cities across Ukraine are joining the protests, Ukrayinska Pravda (27 November 2013)
- Protests continue in Kyiv ahead of Vilnius EU summit, Euronews (27 November 2013)
- In Ukraine, Protests Highlight 'Generational Rift' , Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (27 November 2013)
- Ukraine: tension in Kyiv as pro and anti government protesters hold rallies, Euronews (29 November 2013)
- Ukraine opposition demands leader resign after EU snub Archived December 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine, Seven News (30 November 2013)
- Streets and squares of Kyiv in times of German and Soviet occupations Archived 2013-11-09 at the Wayback Machine. OUN-UPA website.
- European Square at Kiev History Site (in English, Russian, and Ukrainian)
- An optimistic avenue in Vokrug Sveta (Around the World), November, 2005. (in Russian)
- Yevropeyska Ploscha in Wiki-Encyclopedia Kyiv (in Ukrainian)