European People's Party

(Redirected from European Peoples Party)

The European People's Party (EPP) is a European political party with Christian-democratic,[4] conservative,[5][6] and liberal-conservative[4] member parties. A transnational organisation, it is composed of other political parties. Founded by primarily Christian-democratic parties in 1976, it has since broadened its membership to include liberal-conservative parties and parties with other centre-right political perspectives.[6][7][8][9][10] On 31 May 2022, the party elected as its President Manfred Weber, who was also EPP's Spitzenkandidat in 2019.

European People's Party
PresidentManfred Weber (DE)
Secretary-GeneralThanasis Bakolas (GR)
Group leaderManfred Weber MEP (DE)
Founded8 July 1976 (1976-07-08)
HeadquartersRue du Commerce 10, 1000 Brussels, European Quarter, Belgium
Think tankMartens Centre
Student wingEuropean Democrat Students
Youth wingYouth of the European People's Party
Women's wingWomen of the European People's Party
Ideology
Political positionCentre-right
International affiliation
European Parliament groupEuropean People's Party
Colours
  •   Dark blue
  •   Selective yellow
  •   Sky blue (customary)
European Parliament
175 / 705
European Council
7 / 27
European Commission
10 / 27
European Lower Houses
1,687 / 6,512
European Upper Houses
463 / 1,507
Website
www.epp.eu Edit this at Wikidata

The EPP has been the largest party in the European Parliament since 1999 and in the European Council since 2002. It is also the largest party in the current European Commission. The President of the European Commission Ursula von der Leyen and the President of the European Parliament Roberta Metsola are from the EPP. Many of the founding fathers of the European Union were also from parties that later formed the EPP. Outside the EU the party also controls a majority in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe.

The EPP includes major centre-right parties such as the CDU/CSU of Germany, The Republicans of France, CD&V of Belgium, PNL of Romania, Fine Gael of Ireland, National Coalition Party of Finland, New Democracy of Greece, Forza Italia of Italy, the People's Party (PP) of Spain, the Civic Platform of Poland and the Social Democratic Party of Portugal.

HistoryEdit

 
Logo of European People's Party from 2005 to 2015
 
President Manfred Weber, 2022 Rotterdam EPP Congress
 
From left to right: Tindemans, Bukman and Santer, former presidents of the EPP
 
Bonn EPP Congress in 2009

According to its website, the EPP is "the family of the political centre-right, whose roots run deep in the history and civilisation of the European continent, and [which] has pioneered the European project from its inception".[11]

The EPP was founded in Luxembourg on 8 July 1976 on the initiative of Jean Seitlinger; Leo Tindemans, then Prime Minister of Belgium, who became the first President of the EPP; and Wilfried Martens, who later became both President of the EPP and Prime Minister of Belgium. It had been preceded by the Secretariat International des partis démocratiques d'inspiration chrétienne, founded in 1925,[12] the Nouvelles Equipes Internationales, founded in 1946[13] (or 1948),[12] and the European Union of Christian Democrats, founded in 1965.[13]

In the late 1990s, the Finnish politician Sauli Niinistö negotiated the merger of the European Democrat Union (EDU), of which he was president, into the EPP. In October 2002 the EDU ceased its activities after being formally absorbed by the EPP at a special event in Estoril, Portugal. In recognition of his efforts, Niinistö was elected Honorary President of the EPP the same year.

The EPP has had seven Presidents:

No. Image Name Tenure Party Member state
1   Leo Tindemans
(1922–2014)
1976–1985 CD&V   Belgium
2   Piet Bukman
(1934–2022)
1985–1987 CDA   Netherlands
3   Jacques Santer
(born 1937)
1987–1990 CSV   Luxembourg
4   Wilfried Martens
(1936–2013)
1990–2013
[Died]
CD&V   Belgium
5   Joseph Daul
(born 1947)
2013–2019 The Republicans   France
6   Donald Tusk
(born 1957)
2019–2022 Civic Platform   Poland
7   Manfred Weber
(born 1972)
2022– CSU   Germany


Platform and manifestoEdit

 
Leo Varadkar, Angela Merkel and Jean-Claude Juncker at an EPP summit in June 2018

Political manifesto and platformEdit

During its Congress in Bucharest in 2012, the EPP updated its political platform after 20 years (since its Congress in Athens in 1992) and approved a political manifesto in which it summarised its main values and policies.[14][failed verification]

The manifesto highlights:

  • Freedom as a central human right, coupled with responsibility
  • Respect for traditions and associations
  • Solidarity to help those in need, who in turn should also make an effort to improve their situation
  • Ensuring solid public finances
  • Preserving a healthy environment
  • Subsidiarity
  • Pluralist democracy and a social market economy

The manifesto also describes the EPP's priorities for the EU, including:

  • European Political Union
  • Direct election of the President of the European Commission
  • Completion of the European Single Market
  • Promotion of the family, improvements in education and health
  • Strengthening of the common immigration and asylum policy, and integrating immigrants
  • Continuation of enlargement of the EU, enhancement of the European Neighbourhood Policy and special relationship frameworks for countries that cannot, or do not want to, join the EU
  • Defining a truly common EU energy policy
  • Strengthening European political parties

Electoral manifestoEdit

As a central part of its campaign for the European elections in 2009, the EPP approved its election manifesto at its Congress in Warsaw in April that year. The manifesto called for:[15]

  • Creation of new jobs, continuing reforms and investment in education, lifelong learning, and employment to create opportunities for everyone.
  • Avoidance of protectionism, and coordination of fiscal and monetary policies.
  • Increased transparency and surveillance in financial markets.
  • Making Europe the market leader in green technology.
  • Increasing the share of renewable energy to at least 20 percent of the energy mix by 2020.
  • Family-friendly flexibility for working parents, better child care and housing, family-friendly fiscal policies, encouragement of parental leave.
  • A new strategy to attract skilled workers from the rest of the world to make Europe's economy more competitive, more dynamic and more knowledge-driven.
 
At its Congress in Warsaw in 2009 the EPP endorsed Barroso for a second term as President of the Commission.

The Fidesz crisisEdit

Concerns that the Hungarian ruling party Fidesz[note 1] and its leader Viktor Orbán were undermining the rule of law in Hungary caused a split in the EPP in the run-up of the 2019 European Parliament election.[19] On one hand, the EPP had been reluctant for years to address Fidesz's stance against the rule of law, expressed by the Article 7 proceedings of the European Parliament. On the other hand, European Commission President Jean-Claude Juncker, a prominent EPP-member, stated "I believe his [Fidesz's] place is not in the European People's Party".[20] Orbán's campaigns targeting billionaire George Soros[21] and Jean-Claude Juncker[22] carried wide reverberations for Europe questioning the EPP's effort to install its lead candidate Manfred Weber as the next President of the European Commission.[23]

After years of deferring a decision about the Fidesz issue,[24] the EPP was eventually compelled to address the problem two months before the 2019 European elections, as 13 outraged member parties requested the Hungarian party's exclusion from the EPP due to its billboard campaign featuring Jean-Claude Juncker. 190 of the 193 EPP delegates supported the common agreement with Fidesz on 20 March 2019 to partially suspend its membership. According to it, Fidesz was "until further notice" excluded from EPP meetings and internal elections, but remained in the European People's Party Group of the European Parliament. Fidesz did not deliver on its earlier promise to leave the EPP in case of a penalty.[25]

In February 2020, the EPP extended the suspension of Fidesz indefinitely.[26]

On 2 April 2020, thirteen parties within the EPP issued a joint statement aimed at Donald Tusk, asking him to expunge Fidesz from the party.[27] Three days before this, the Hungarian Parliament had passed a law, declaring a state of emergency within Hungary, granting Prime Minister Viktor Orbán the right to rule by decree.[28]

On 3 March 2021, Prime Minister Viktor Orbán announced that Fidesz would leave the EPP group after it changed its internal rules (to allow suspension and expulsion of multiple deputies and their groups), although Fidesz remained a suspended member of the EPP itself.[29] On 18 March 2021, Fidesz decided to leave the European People's Party.[30]

MembershipEdit

Within the EPP there are three kinds of member organisations: full members, associate members and observers. Full members are parties from EU states. They have absolute rights to vote in all the EPP's organs and on all matters. Associate members have the same voting rights as full members except for matters concerning the EU's structure or policies. These associate members are parties from EU candidate countries and EFTA countries. Observer parties can participate in all the activities of the EPP, and attend the Congresses and Political Assemblies, but they do not have any voting rights.

Special status of "supporting member" is granted by the Presidency to individuals and associations. Although they do not have voting rights, they can be invited by the President to attend meetings of certain organs of the party.

Full member partiesEdit

Country Party name Abbr. Legislature lower house seats Legislature upper house Seats Status
  Austria Austrian People's Party
Österreichische Volkspartei
ÖVP
71 / 183
22 / 61
Government
  Belgium Christian Democratic and Flemish
Christen-Democratisch en Vlaams
CD&V
12 / 150
5 / 60
Government
The Committed Ones
Les Engagés
LE
5 / 150
2 / 60
Opposition
  Bulgaria Citizens for the European Development of Bulgaria
Граждани за европейско развитие на България
Grazhdani za evropeĭsko razvitie na Bŭlgariya
GERB
59 / 240
Opposition
Democrats for a Strong Bulgaria
Демократи за силна България
Demokrati za silna Bălgarija
DSB
7 / 240
Government
Union of Democratic Forces
Съюз на демократичните сили
Sayuz na demokratichnite sili
SDS
2 / 240
Opposition
Movement "Bulgaria of the Citizens"
Движение „България на гражданите"
Dvizhenie „Bulgariya na grazhdanite"
BCM
0 / 240
Extra-parliamentary
  Croatia Croatian Democratic Union
Hrvatska demokratska zajednica
HDZ
62 / 151
Government
  Cyprus Democratic Rally
Δημοκρατικός Συναγερμός
Dimokratikós Sinagermós
DISY
18 / 56
Government
  Czech Republic Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People's Party
Křesťanská a demokratická unie – Československá strana lidová
KDU–ČSL
23 / 200
12 / 81
Government
TOP 09
14 / 200
5 / 81
Government
  Denmark Conservative People's Party
Det Konservative Folkeparti
C
12 / 179
Opposition
Christian Democrats
Kristendemokraterne
KD
1 / 179
Opposition
  Estonia Isamaa
Isamaa
I
12 / 101
Opposition
  Finland National Coalition Party
Kansallinen Kokoomus
Samlingspartiet
KOK
38 / 200
Opposition
Christian Democrats
Kristillisdemokraatit
Kristdemokraterna
KD
5 / 200
Opposition
  France The Republicans
Les Républicains
LR
104 / 577
148 / 348
Opposition
  Germany Christian Democratic Union of Germany
Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands
CDU
151 / 735
22 / 69
Opposition
Christian Social Union in Bavaria
Christlich-Soziale Union in Bayern
CSU
45 / 735
4 / 69
Opposition
  Greece New Democracy
Νέα Δημοκρατία
Nea Dimokratia
ND
158 / 300
Government
  Hungary Christian Democratic People's Party
Kereszténydemokrata Néppárt
KDNP
17 / 199
Government
  Ireland Fine Gael FG
35 / 160
15 / 60
Government
  Italy Forza Italia FI
45 / 400
18 / 200
Government
South Tyrolean People's Party
Südtiroler Volkspartei
SVP
3 / 400
2 / 200
Opposition
Union of the Centre
Unione di Centro
UdC
1 / 400
1 / 200
Government
Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party
Partito Autonomista Trentino Tirolese
PATT
0 / 400
0 / 200
Extra-parliamentary
Popular Alternative
Alternativa Popolare
AP
0 / 400
0 / 200
Extra-parliamentary
Populars for Italy
Popolari per l'Italia
PpI
0 / 400
0 / 200
Extra-parliamentary
  Latvia Unity
Vienotība
V
9 / 100
Government
  Lithuania Homeland Union – Lithuanian Christian Democrats
Tėvynės sąjunga – Lietuvos krikščionys demokratai
TS-LKD
50 / 141
Government
  Luxembourg Christian Social People's Party
Chrëschtlech Sozial Vollekspartei
Parti populaire chrétien social
Christlich Soziale Volkspartei
CSV/PCS
21 / 60
Opposition
  Malta Nationalist Party
Partit Nazzjonalista
PN
35 / 79
Opposition
  Netherlands Christian Democratic Appeal
Christen-Democratisch Appèl
CDA
15 / 150
9 / 75
Government
  Poland Civic Platform
Platforma Obywatelska
PO
110 / 460
41 / 100
Opposition
Polish People's Party
Polskie Stronnictwo Ludowe
PSL
19 / 460
2 / 100
Opposition
  Portugal Social Democratic Party
Partido Social Democrata
PSD
77 / 230
Opposition
Democratic and Social Centre – People's Party
Centro Democrático e Social – Partido Popular
CDS-PP
0 / 230
Opposition
  Romania National Liberal Party
Partidul Național Liberal
PNL
80 / 330
38 / 136
Government
Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania
Romániai Magyar Demokrata Szövetség
Uniunea Democrată Maghiară din România
UDMR
20 / 330
9 / 136
Government
People's Movement Party
Partidul Mișcarea Populară
PMP
0 / 330
0 / 136
Extra-parliamentary
  Slovakia Christian Democratic Movement
Kresťanskodemokratické hnutie
KDH
0 / 150
Extra-parliamentary
Together – Civic Democracy
SPOLU - Občianska demokracia
SPOLU
0 / 150
Extra-parliamentary
Alliance
Szövetség
Aliancia
Ali
0 / 150
Extra-parliamentary
  Slovenia Slovenian Democratic Party
Slovenska demokratska stranka
SDS
26 / 90
Opposition
Slovenian People's Party
Slovenska ljudska stranka
SLS
0 / 90
Extra-parliamentary
New Slovenia–Christian Democrats
Nova Slovenija – Krščanski demokrati
NSi
7 / 90
Opposition
  Spain People's Party
Partido Popular
PP
88 / 350
97 / 265
Opposition
  Sweden Moderate Party
Moderata samlingspartiet
M
68 / 349
Government
Christian Democrats
Kristdemokraterna
KD
19 / 349
Government

Associate membersEdit

  Albania

  North Macedonia

  Norway

  Serbia

  Switzerland

Observer membersEdit

  Armenia

  Belarus

  Bosnia and Herzegovina

  Georgia

  Kosovo

  Moldova

  Montenegro

  Norway

  San Marino

  Ukraine

Former membersEdit

  Belarus

  France

  Croatia

  Hungary

  Italy

  Romania

  Slovakia

  Spain

  Turkey

  Ukraine

  United Kingdom

GovernanceEdit

The EPP is governed by the EU Regulation No 1141/2014 on European Political Parties and European Political Foundations and its operations are supervised by the EU Authority for European Political Parties and European Political Foundations.

PresidencyEdit

The Presidency is the executive body of the party. It decides on the general political guidelines of the EPP and presides over its Political Assembly. The Presidency is composed of the President, ten Vice-Presidents, the Honorary Presidents, the Secretary General and the Treasurer. The Chairperson of the EPP Group in the European Parliament, the Presidents of the Commission, the Parliament and the Council, and the High Representative (if they are a member of an EPP member party) are all ex officio Vice-Presidents.

 
President of the EPP Manfred Weber

As of 1 June 2022 the Presidency[37] of the EPP is (Vice Presidents in the order of votes received at the EPP Congress in Rotterdam):

EPP Political AssemblyEdit

The Political Assembly defines the political positions of the EPP between Congresses and decides on membership applications, political guidelines and the budget. The Political Assembly is composed of designated delegates from EPP member parties, associated parties, member associations, and other affiliated groups. The Political Assembly meets at least three times a year.

CongressEdit

The Congress is the highest decision-making body of the EPP. It is composed of delegates from member parties, EPP associations, EPP Group MEPs, the EPP Presidency, national heads of party and government, and European Commissioners who belong to a member party, with the numbers of delegates being weighted according to the EPP's share of MEPs, and individual delegates being elected by member parties according to member parties' rules.[38]

Under the EPP's statutes, the Congress must meet once every three years, but it also meets normally during the years of elections for the European Parliament (every five years), and extraordinary Congresses have also been summoned. The Congress elects the EPP Presidency every three years, decides on the main policy documents and electoral programmes, and provides a platform for the EPP's heads of government and party leaders.

Activities within the partyEdit

SummitEdit

EPP leaders meet for the EPP Summit a few hours before each meeting of the European Council in order to formulate common positions. Invitations are sent by the EPP President and attendees include, besides the members of the EPP's presidency, all Presidents and Prime Ministers who are members of the European Council and belong to the EPP; the Presidents of the European Parliament, the European Commission and the European Council, as well as the High Representative for Foreign Affairs, provided that they belong to the EPP; Deputy Prime Ministers or other ministers in those cases where the Prime Minister of a country does not belong to an EPP member party; and, where no EPP member party is part of a government, the leaders of the main EPP opposition party.

 
Reunion Picture at 2011 Summit

Ministerial meetingsEdit

Following the pattern of the EPP Summit the party also organises regular EPP Ministerial meetings before each meeting of the Council of the European Union, with ministers, deputy ministers, secretaries of state and MEPs in the specific policy field attending:

  • General Affairs
  • Foreign Affairs
  • Economy and Finance
  • Home Affairs
  • Justice
  • Defence
  • Employment and Social Affairs
  • Industry
  • Agriculture
  • Energy
  • Environment[39]

Other activitiesEdit

The EPP also organises working groups on different issues on an ad hoc basis, as well as meetings with its affiliated members in the European Commission. It also invites individual Commissioners to the EPP Summit meetings and to EPP Ministerial meetings.

Following amendments to the EU Regulation that governs europarties in 2007, the EPP, like the other European political parties, is responsible for organising a pan-European campaign for the European elections every five years. According to the Lisbon Treaty, the parties must present candidates for President of the European Commission, but the EPP had already done this by endorsing José Manuel Barroso for a second term in April 2009.

The year 2014 saw the first fully-fledged campaign of the EPP ahead of the European elections of that year. The party nominated former Luxembourgish Prime Minister Jean-Claude Juncker as its candidate for President of the European Commission and led a pan-European campaign in coordination with the national campaigns of all its member parties.

Activities within EU institutionsEdit

As of December 2019, the EPP will hold the Presidency of the European Commission with Ursula von der Leyen (CDU).

Overview of the Union's institutionsEdit

Institution Number of seats
  European Parliament
187 / 705
  Committee of the Regions
125 / 350
  European Commission
10 / 27
  European Council
(Heads of State/Government)
7 / 27
  Council of the European Union
(Ministers in State governments)
11 / 27

European CommissionEdit

Following EPP's victory in the 2019 European Parliament election, Ursula von der Leyen was nominated by the EPP as Commission President. She was endorsed by the European Council and elected by an absolute majority in the European Parliament. On 1 December 2019, the von der Leyen Commission officially took office. It includes 10 EPP officeholders out of 27 total Commissioners.

State Commissioner Portfolio Political party Portrait
 
Germany
von der LeyenUrsula von der Leyen President CDU  
 
Latvia
DombrovskisValdis Dombrovskis Executive Vice President – An Economy that Works for the People, Trade Unity  
 
Croatia
ŠuicaDubravka Šuica Vice President – Democracy and Demography HDZ  
 
Greece
SchinasMargaritis Schinas Vice President – Promoting the European Way of Life ND  
 
Austria
HahnJohannes Hahn Commissioner for Budget and Administration ÖVP  
 
Ireland
McGuinnessMairead McGuinness Commissioner for Financial Stability, Financial Services and the Capital Markets Union FG  
 
Bulgaria
GabrielMariya Gabriel Commissioner for Innovation, Research, Culture, Education and Youth GERB  
 
Cyprus
KyriakidesStella Kyriakides Commissioner for Health and Food Safety DISY  
 
Romania
VăleanAdina-Ioana Vălean Commissioner for Transport PNL  
 
Hungary
VárhelyiOlivér Várhelyi Commissioner for Neighbourhood and Enlargement EPP

(Independent on the national level, but affiliated with EPP at the EU level)

 

European ParliamentEdit

The EPP has the largest group in the European Parliament: the EPP Group. It currently has 182 Members in the European Parliament and its chairman is the German MEP Manfred Weber.

In every election for the European Parliament candidates elected on lists of member parties of the EPP are obliged to join the EPP Group in the European Parliament.

The EPP Group holds five of the fourteen vice-presidencies of the European Parliament.

European CouncilEdit

The EPP has 10 out of the 27 EU heads of state or government attending the EPP summit meetings in preparation of the European Council (as of October 2021):

Member state Representative Title Political party Member of the Council since Portrait
  Austria Karl Nehammer Chancellor ÖVP 6 December 2021  
  Croatia Andrej Plenković Prime Minister HDZ 19 October 2016  
  Cyprus Nicos Anastasiades President DISY 28 February 2013  
  Greece Kyriakos Mitsotakis Prime Minister ND 8 July 2019  
  Latvia Arturs Krišjānis Kariņš Prime Minister Unity 23 January 2019  
  Lithuania Ingrida Šimonytė Prime Minister EPP 11 December 2020  
  Romania Klaus Iohannis President PNL 21 December 2014  
  Sweden Ulf Kristersson Prime Minister M 18 October 2022  

National legislaturesEdit

Country Institution Number of seats
  Austria National Council
Lower house
71 / 183
Federal Council
Upper house
22 / 61
  Belgium Chamber of Representatives
Lower house
17 / 150
Senate
Upper house
7 / 60
  Bulgaria National Assembly
83 / 240
  Croatia Sabor
62 / 151
  Cyprus House of Representatives
18 / 56
  Czech Republic Chamber of Deputies
Lower house
70 / 200
Senate
Upper house
34 / 81
  Denmark The Folketing
13 / 179
  Estonia Riigikogu
12 / 101
  Finland Parliament
38 / 200
  France National Assembly
Lower house
104 / 577
Senate
Upper house
148 / 348
  Germany Bundestag
196 / 735
  Greece Parliament
158 / 300
  Hungary Országgyűlés
17 / 199
  Ireland Dáil
Lower house
35 / 160
Seanad
Upper house
15 / 60
  Italy Chamber of Deputies
Lower house
88 / 630
Senate
Upper house
55 / 321
  Latvia Saeima
9 / 100
  Lithuania Seimas
50 / 141
  Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies
21 / 60
  Malta House of Representatives
28 / 67
  Netherlands House of Representatives
Lower house
15 / 150
Senate
Upper house
9 / 75
  Poland Sejm
Lower house
129 / 460
Senate
Upper house
43 / 100
  Portugal Assembly of the Republic
84 / 230
  Romania Chamber of Deputies
Lower house
100 / 330
Senate
Upper house
47 / 136
  Slovakia National Council
53 / 150
  Slovenia National Assembly
33 / 90
  Spain Congress of Deputies
Lower house
88 / 350
Senate
Upper house
97 / 265
  Sweden Riksdag
87 / 349

Activities beyond the European UnionEdit

In third countriesEdit

Through its associate and observer parties the EPP has five head of state or government in non-EU countries:

State Representatives Title Political party In power since Portrait
  Serbia Aleksandar Vučić President SNS 31 May 2017  
  Serbia Ana Brnabić Prime Minister SNS 29 June 2017  
  Bosnia and Herzegovina Šefik Džaferović Bosniak Member of the Presidency SDA 20 November 2018  
  Moldova Maia Sandu President PAS 24 December 2020  
  Moldova Natalia Gavrilița Prime Minister PAS 6 August 2021  

In the Council of EuropeEdit

The Group of the EPP in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe defends freedom of expression and information, as well as freedom of movement of ideas and religious tolerance. It promotes the principle of subsidiarity and local autonomy, as well as the defence of national, social, and other minorities. The EPP/CD Group is led by Aleksander Pociej, a member of the Polish Civic Platform.

The EPP/CD group also includes members from parties that are not related to the EPP itself, including members of the Patriotic Union (Liechtenstein), the Progressive Citizens' Party (Liechtenstein), and the National and Democratic Union (Monaco).[40]

In the Organization for Security and Co-operation in EuropeEdit

The "EPP and like-minded Group" in the Parliamentary Assembly of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the most active political group in that body. The Group meets regularly and promotes the EPP's positions. The members of the EPP Group also participate in the election-monitoring missions of the OSCE.

The Group is chaired by Walburga Habsburg Douglas (Sweden), and its Vice-Presidents are Consiglio Di Nino (Canada), Vilija Aleknaitė Abramikiene (Lithuania), Laura Allegrini (Italy), and George Tsereteli (Georgia).

The Group also includes members of parties not related to the EPP, accounting for the "like-minded" part of its name. Among them are members of the Patriotic Union (Liechtenstein), the Union for the Principality (Monaco), the Conservative Party of the United Kingdom, the Conservative Party of Canada, and the Republican Party of the United States.

In the North Atlantic Treaty OrganizationEdit

The EPP is also present and active in the Parliamentary Assembly of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and forms the "EPP and Associated Members" Group there. It is led by the German CDU politician Karl Lamers, who is also the current President of the Assembly. The Group also included members of the Conservative Party of Canada and the Republican Party of the United States, but now they're members of the Conservative Group

 
From left to right: López-Istúriz, McCain & Martens

Relations with the United StatesEdit

The EPP has close relations with the International Republican Institute (IRI), an organisation funded by the U.S. government especially to promote democracy and democratisation. The EPP and the IRI cooperate within the framework of the European Partnership Initiative.[41]

The EPP's late President, Wilfried Martens, endorsed Senator John McCain, the Republican nominee for president, in the presidential election in 2008.[42] McCain was also Chairman of the IRI. In 2011 Martens and McCain made joint press statements expressing their concern about the state of democracy in Ukraine.[43][44]

Global networksEdit

The EPP is the European wing of two global centre-right organisations, the International Democrat Union (IDU) and the Christian Democrat International (CDI).

Martens CentreEdit

Following the revision in 2007 of the EU Regulation that governs European political parties, allowing the creation of European foundations affiliated to Europarties, the EPP established in the same year its official foundation/think tank, the Centre for European Studies (CES), which was later renamed as the Martens Centre. It includes as members all the major national think tanks and foundations affiliated to EPP member parties: the Konrad Adenauer Foundation (CDU), the Hanns Seidel Foundation (CSU), the Foundation for Analysis and Social Studies (PP), the Constantinos Karamanlis Institute for Democracy (ND), the Jarl Hjalmarson Foundation (MOD), the Political Academy of the Austrian People's Party (ÖVP) and others. During the European Parliament election campaign in 2009, the Centre launched a web-based campaign module, tellbarroso.eu, to support Jose Manuel Barroso, the EPP's candidate for re-election as Commission President.

In 2014, to honour Wilfried Martens – the late President of the EPP who also founded the CES – changed its name to Wilfried Martens Centre for European Studies or simply Martens Centre.

The current President of the Martens Centre is former Slovak Prime Minister Mikuláš Dzurinda.

The Budapest-based Robert Schuman Institute and the Luxembourg-based Robert Schuman Foundation are also affiliated with the European People's Party.[citation needed]

EPP associationsEdit

The EPP is linked to several specific associations that focus on specific groups and organise seminars, forums, publications, and other activities.

Small and Medium Entrepreneurs Europe (SME Europe)Edit

SME Europe is the official business organisation of the EPP and serves as a network for pro-business politicians and political organisations. Its main objective is to shape EU policy in a more SME-friendly way in close cooperation with the SME Circle of the EPP Group in the European Parliament, the DG Enterprise and the pro-business organisations of the EPP's member parties. Its top priorities are to reform the legal framework for SMEs all over Europe and to promote and support the interests of small and medium-sized enterprises. SME Europe was founded in May 2012 by three Members of the European Parliament, Paul Rübig, Nadezhda Neynsky, and Bendt Bendtsen.

European Democrat StudentsEdit

European Democrat Students (EDS) is now the official students' organisation of the EPP, though it was founded in 1961, 15 years before the EPP itself. Led by Virgilio Falco, EDS has 40 member organisations, representing nearly 1,600,000 students and young people[45] in 31 countries, including Belarus and Georgia. Every year EDS hosts Summer and Winter "universities", and several seminars. It also regularly publishes a magazine, Bullseye, and organises topical campaigns.

European Seniors' UnionEdit

Founded in Madrid in 1995 and led by Ann Hermans of the CD&V, the European Seniors' Union (ESU) is the largest political senior citizens' organisation in Europe. The ESU is represented in 26 states with 45 organisations and about 500,000 members.

European Union of Christian Democratic WorkersEdit

The European Union of Christian Democratic Workers (EUCDW) is the labour organisation of the EPP, with 24 member organisations in 18 countries. As the officially recognised EPP association of workers, the EUCDW is led by Elmar Brok, MEP. It aims at the political unification of a democratic Europe, the development of the EPP based on Christian social teaching, and the defence of workers' interests in European policy-making.

Women of the European People's PartyEdit

The Women of the European People's Party (EPP Women) is recognised by the EPP as the official association of women from all like-minded political parties of Europe. EPP Women has more than 40 member organisations from countries of the European Union and beyond. All of them are women's organisations of political parties that are members of the EPP. EPP Women is led by Doris Pack.

Youth of the European People's PartyEdit

The Youth of the European People's Party (YEPP), led by Lídia Pereira, is the EPP's official youth organisation. It has 64 member organisations, bringing together between one and two million young people in 40 countries.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Formally Fidesz is part of a coalition government, together with the KDNP. However, the KDNP is often accused of being in practice no more than a satellite party of Fidesz.[16][17][18]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Macron, Merkel say ready to change EU treaties if needed". www.usatoday.com. 15 May 2017.
  2. ^ "IDC-CDI". Centrist Democrat International. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  3. ^ "Members". International Democrat Union. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  4. ^ a b Nordsieck, Wolfram (2019). "European Union". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  5. ^ Slomp, Hans (26 September 2011). Europe, A Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-313-39182-8. Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  6. ^ a b Maushagen, Peter (4 September 2018). "German conservative seeks to front center-right in EU elections". Reuters. Retrieved 23 September 2018.
  7. ^ José María Magone (2006). The New World Architecture: The Role of the European Union in the Making of Global Governance. New York: Transaction Publishers. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-7658-0279-8.
  8. ^ Vít Hloušek; Lubomír Kopeček (2010). Origin, Ideology and Transformation of Political Parties: East-Central and Western Europe Compared. London: Ashgate Publishing. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-7546-7840-3.
  9. ^ Josep Maria Colomer (2008). "The European Union: A Federal Democratic Empire?". In Josep Maria Colomer (ed.). Comparative European Politics. London: Taylor & Francis. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-415-43755-4.
  10. ^ Karl Magnus Johansson (2009). "The Emergence of Political Parties at European Level: Integration Unaccomplished". In Sverker Gustavsson; Lars Oxelheim; Lars Pehrson (eds.). How Unified Is the European Union?: European Integration Between Visions and Popular Legitimacy. Springer. p. 160. ISBN 978-3-540-95855-0.
  11. ^ "EPP | European People's Party". Epp.eu. Archived from the original on 1 September 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  12. ^ a b "On the Road Towards Transnational Party Cooperation in Europe" by Steven van Hecke[dead link] in "European View", Volume 3, 2006, from the Centre for European Studies Archived 3 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ a b Claey, P. H.; Loeb-Mayer, N. (1979). "Trans-European Party Groupings: Emergence of New and Alignment of Old Parties in the Light of the Direct Elections to the European Parliament". Government and Opposition. 14 (4): 455. doi:10.1111/j.1477-7053.1979.tb00257.x. S2CID 144621927.
  14. ^ "EPP Congress website". Archived from the original on 4 October 2012.
  15. ^ EPP Manifesto – European Elections 2009[dead link]
  16. ^ Makszimov, Vlagyiszlav (4 March 2021). "Fidesz coalition partner MEP stays in EPP Group". EURACTIV. Retrieved 25 March 2021. KDNP is Fidesz's junior coalition partner, considered a satellite party by many.
  17. ^ Herholz, Alexander (26 February 2012). "Sanctions on Hungary: What For and Why Now?". Fair Observer. Retrieved 25 March 2021. With a two-thirds majority, the nationalist conservative party, Fidesz, and its satellite party, KDNP, have complete authority to do anything.
  18. ^ Batory, Agnes (17 June 2010). "Election Briefing No. 51: Europe and the Hungarian parliamentary elections of 2010" (PDF). European Parties Elections and Referendums Network. Retrieved 25 March 2021. Its close ally, perhaps best described as a satellite party, is the Christian Democratic People's Party (KNDP), which ran (as it did in 2006) on a joint list with Fidesz.
  19. ^ List of European conservative parties showing defections, wavering or coming out against Viktor Orbán Retrieved 5 March 2019
  20. ^ Orbán vs Juncker for the EPP's future Retrieved 5 March 2019
  21. ^ Orbán's campaign against George Soros Retrieved 5 March 2019
  22. ^ Juncker: Hungary's ruling Fidesz doesn't belong in EPP Retrieved 5 March 2019
  23. ^ The end of Germany's Orbán affair Retrieved 5 March 2019
  24. ^ How the EPP lost its way Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  25. ^ Fidesz MEPs remain in the EPP for now Retrieved 27 March 2019.
  26. ^ EPP prolongs suspension of Hungary's Fidesz indefinitely Retrieved 7 February 2020.
  27. ^ A Fidesz kizárását kéri a Néppárt 13 tagpártja Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  28. ^ Hungary passes law allowing Viktor Orban to rule by decree Retrieved 2 April 2020.
  29. ^ Crowcroft, Orlando (3 March 2021). "Hungary PM Orban's party quits the largest group in European Parliament".
  30. ^ "Hungary: Viktor Orban's ruling Fidesz party quits European People's Party". DW.COM. 18 March 2021. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  31. ^ The MFF is admitted to the EPP. http://pyx.by. Retrieved on 15 January 2019.
  32. ^ "Європейська народна партія прийняла партію Порошенка". Європейська Правда (in Ukrainian). 10 September 2019. Retrieved 10 September 2019.
  33. ^ "EPP Political Assembly remains committed to Spitzenkandidat process; welcomes new Ukrainian parties". epp.eu. 4 June 2019. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Thomas Jansen; Steven Van Hecke (2011). At Europe's Service: The Origins and Evolution of the European People's Party. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 51. ISBN 978-3-642-19414-6.
  35. ^ "European center right suspends Hungarian PM Orbán". 20 March 2019. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  36. ^ "Hungary: Viktor Orban's ruling Fidesz party quits European People's Party". Deutsche Welle. 18 March 2021.
  37. ^ "EPP Presidency". European People's Party.
  38. ^ Jansen & Van Hecke 2011, p. 109.
  39. ^ "EPP website". Archived from the original on 8 September 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2011.
  40. ^ "PACE website". Archived from the original on 31 August 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
  41. ^ "European Partnership Initiative | International Republican Institute". IRI. Archived from the original on 11 November 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  42. ^ "Financial Times Article Wilfried Martens". Epp.eu. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  43. ^ "United States Senator John McCain:: Press Office". Mccain.senate.gov. 30 August 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  44. ^ "Senator McCain and President Martens urge for the release of Yulia Tymoshenko". Epp.eu. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 11 September 2011.
  45. ^ Students on the Right Way: European Democrat Students 1961–2011 Archived 3 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. thinkingeurope.eu. Retrieved on 7 September 2013.

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit