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The Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) is an astronomical observatory and the world's largest optical/near-infrared extremely large telescope now under construction. Part of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) agency, it is located on top of Cerro Armazones in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. The design comprises a reflecting telescope with a 39.3-metre-diameter (126 foot) segmented primary mirror and a 4.2-metre-diameter secondary mirror, and will be supported by adaptive optics, eight laser guide star units and multiple large science instruments.[1] The observatory aims to gather 100 million times more light than the human eye, 13 times more light than the largest optical telescopes existing in 2014, and be able to correct for atmospheric distortion. It has around 256 times the light gathering area of the Hubble Space Telescope and, according to the ELT's specifications, would provide images 16 times sharper than those from Hubble.[2]

Extremely Large Telescope
The E-ELT.jpg
An artist's impression of the ELT
Alternative names ELT Edit this at Wikidata
Observatory Cerro Armazones Observatory Edit this on Wikidata
Location(s) Cerro Armazones, Chile Edit this at Wikidata
Coordinates 24°35′52″S 70°11′46″W / 24.5978°S 70.1961°W / -24.5978; -70.1961Coordinates: 24°35′52″S 70°11′46″W / 24.5978°S 70.1961°W / -24.5978; -70.1961 Edit this at Wikidata
Organization European Southern Observatory Edit this on Wikidata
Altitude 3,046 m (9,993 ft) Edit this at Wikidata
Observing time 320 nights per year Edit this on Wikidata
Built 19 June 2014– (19 June 2014–) Edit this at Wikidata
First light 2024 Edit this on Wikidata
Telescope style extremely large telescope
infrared telescope
Nasmyth telescope
optical telescope Edit this on Wikidata
Diameter 39.3 m (128 ft 11 in) Edit this at Wikidata
Secondary diameter 4.09 m (13 ft 5 in) Edit this at Wikidata
Tertiary diameter 3.75 m (12 ft 4 in) Edit this at Wikidata
Angular resolution 0.001 arcsecond, 0.65 arcsecond Edit this on Wikidata
Collecting area 978 m2 (10,530 sq ft) Edit this at Wikidata
Focal length 34.5 m (113 ft 2 in) Edit this at Wikidata
Mounting Nasmyth telescope Edit this at Wikidata
Enclosure dome Edit this on Wikidata
Website www.eso.org/public/teles-instr/elt/ Edit this at Wikidata
Extremely Large Telescope is located in Chile
Extremely Large Telescope
Location of Extremely Large Telescope

The ELT is intended to vastly advance astrophysical knowledge by enabling detailed studies of planets around other stars, the first galaxies in the Universe, supermassive black holes, and the nature of the Universe's dark sector, and to detect water and organic molecules in protoplanetary disks around other stars.[3] The facility is expected to take 11 years to construct.[4]

On 11 June 2012, the ESO Council approved the ELT programme's plans to begin civil works at the telescope site, with construction of the telescope itself pending final agreement with governments of some member states.[5] Construction work on the ELT site started in June 2014.[6] By December 2014, ESO had secured over 90% of the total funding and authorized construction of the telescope to start, which will cost around one billion euros for the first construction phase.[7] The first stone of the telescope was ceremoniously laid on 26 May 2017,[8] initiating the construction of the dome’s main structure and telescope. First light is currently planned for 2024.[9]

Contents

HistoryEdit

On 26 April 2010, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Council selected Cerro Armazones, Chile, as the baseline site for the planned ELT.[10] Other sites that were under discussion included Cerro Macon, Salta, in Argentina; Roque de los Muchachos Observatory, on the Canary Islands; and sites in South Africa, Morocco, and Antarctica.[11][12]

Early designs included a segmented primary mirror with a diameter of 42 metres and an area of about 1,300 m2, with a secondary mirror with a diameter of 5.9 m. However, in 2011 a proposal was put forward to reduce its size by 13% to 978 m2, for a 39.3 m diameter primary mirror and a 4.2 m diameter secondary mirror.[1] It reduced projected costs from 1.275 billion to 1.055 billion euros and should allow the telescope to be finished sooner. The smaller secondary is a particularly important change; 4.2 m places it within the capabilities of multiple manufacturers, and the lighter mirror unit avoids the need for high-strength materials in the secondary mirror support spider.[13]:15

 
ESO Council meets at ESO headquarters in Garching, 2012.[14]

ESO's Director General commented in a 2011 press release that "With the new E-ELT design we can still satisfy the bold science goals and also ensure that the construction can be completed in only 10–11 years."[15] The ESO Council endorsed the revised baseline design in June 2011 and expected a construction proposal for approval in December 2011.[15] Funding was subsequently included in the 2012 budget for initial work to begin in early 2012.[16] The project received preliminary approval in June 2012.[5] ESO approved the start of construction in December 2014, with over 90% funding of the nominal budget secured.[7]

The design phase of the 5-mirror anastigmat was fully funded within the ESO budget. With the 2011 changes in the baseline design (such as a reduction in the size of the primary mirror from 42 m to 39.3 m), the construction cost was estimated to be €1.055 billion (including first generation instruments).[17] The start of operations is planned for 2024.[9]

ConstructionEdit

Actual construction began in early 2017.[18]

PlanningEdit

 
Cerro Armazones at night (2010)

ESO focused on the current design after a feasibility study concluded the proposed 100 meter (330 ft) diameter, Overwhelmingly Large Telescope, would cost €1.5 billion (£1 billion), and be too complex. Both current fabrication technology and road transportation constraints limit single mirrors to being roughly 8 metres (26 ft) per piece. The next-largest telescopes currently in use are the Keck Telescopes, the Gran Telescopio Canarias and the Southern African Large Telescope, which each use small hexagonal mirrors fitted together to make a composite mirror more than 10 metres (33 ft) across. The ELT will use a similar design, as well as techniques to work around atmospheric distortion of incoming light, known as adaptive optics.[19]

A 40-metre-class mirror will allow the study of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets.[20] The ELT is the highest priority in the European planning activities for research infrastructures, such as the Astronet Science Vision and Infrastructure Roadmap and the ESFRI Roadmap.[21] The telescope underwent a Phase B study in 2014 that included "contracts with industry to design and manufacture prototypes of key elements like the primary mirror segments, the adaptive fourth mirror or the mechanical structure (...) [and] concept studies for eight instruments.”[22]

DesignEdit

The ELT will use a novel design with a total of five mirrors. The first three mirrors are curved (non-spherical), and form a three mirror anastigmat design for excellent image quality over the 10 arcminute field of view (one third of the width of the full Moon). The fourth and fifth mirrors are (almost) flat, and provide adaptive optics correction for atmospheric distortions (mirror 4), and tip-tilt correction for image stabilisation (mirror 5). The fourth and fifth mirrors also send the light sideways to one of the Nasmyth focal stations at either side of the telescope structure, allowing multiple large instruments to be simultaneously mounted.

ELT mirror and sensors contractsEdit

Primary mirrorEdit

 
The optical system of the ELT showing the location of the mirrors.[23]

The surface of the 39-metre primary mirror will be composed of 798 hexagonal segments, each measuring approximately 1.4 metres across and with 50 mm thickness.[24] Each day, two segments will be re-coated and replaced to ensure the mirror is always clean and highly reflective.

Edge sensors constantly measure the relative positions of the primary mirror segments and their neighbours. 2394 position actuators (3 for each segment) use this information to support the system, keeping the overall surface shape unchanged against deformations caused by external factors such as wind, temperature changes or vibrations.[25]

In January 2017,[26] ESO awarded the contract for the fabrication of the 4608 edge sensors to the FAMES consortium, which is composed of Fogale[27] and Micro-Epsilon.[28] These sensors can measure relative positions to an accuracy of a few nanometres, the most accurate ever used in a telescope.

In May 2017, ESO awarded two additional contracts. One was awarded to Schott AG who will manufacture the blanks of the 798 segments, as well as an additional 133 segments as part of a maintenance set, allowing for the segments to be removed, replaced and cleaned on a rotating basis once the ELT is in operation. The mirror will be cast from the same low-expansion ceramic Zerodur as the existing Very Large Telescope mirrors in Chile.

The other contract was awarded to the French company, Safran Reosc,[29] a subsidiary of Safran Electronics & Defense. They will receive the mirror blanks from Schott, and polish one mirror segment per day to meet the 7-year deadline. During this process, each segment will be polished until it has no surface irregularity greater than 7.5 nm RMS. Afterwards, Safran Reosc will then mount, test, and complete all optical testing before delivery. This is the second largest contract for the ELT construction and the third-largest contract ESO has ever signed.

The segment support system units for the primary mirror are designed and produced by CESA (Spain)[30] and VDL (the Netherlands). The contracts signed with ESO also comprise of the delivery of detailed and complete instructions and engineering drawings for their production. Additionally, they include the development of the procedures required to integrate the supports with the ELT glass segments; to handle and transport the segment assemblies; and to operate and maintain them.[31]

Secondary mirrorEdit

This sequence shows the still very hot blank of the ELT secondary mirror being transported to Schott's annealing facility in Mainz, Germany.

Making the secondary mirror is a major challenge as it is highly convex, and aspheric. It is also very large; at 4.2 metres in diameter and weighing 3.5 tonnes, it will be largest secondary ever employed on a telescope and the largest convex mirror ever produced.

In January 2017,[26] ESO awarded a contract for the mirror blank to Schott, who will manufacture it of Zerodur.

Complex support cells are also necessary to ensure the flexible secondary and tertiary mirrors retain their correct shape and position; these support cells will be provided by SENER.[32]

The pre-formed glass-ceramic blank of the secondary mirror will then be polished, and tested by Safran Reosc.[33][34] The mirror will be shaped and polished to a precision of 15 nanometres (15 millionths of a millimetre) over the optical surface.

Tertiary mirrorEdit

The 3.8-metre concave tertiary mirror, also cast from Zerodur, will be an unusual feature of the telescope. Most current large telescopes, including the VLT and the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, use just two curved mirrors to form an image. In these cases, a small, flat tertiary mirror is sometimes introduced to divert the light to a convenient focus. However, in the ELT the tertiary mirror also has a curved surface, as the use of three mirrors delivers a better final image quality over a larger field of view than would be possible with a two-mirror design.[26]

Quaternary mirrorEdit

The 2.4-metre quaternary mirror is a flat adaptive mirror, and only 2 millimetres thick. With up to 8000 actuators, the surface can be readjusted at very high time frequencies.[35] The deformable mirror will be the largest adaptive mirror ever made,[36] and consists of six component petals, control systems, and voice-coil actuators. The image distortion caused by the turbulence of the Earth’s atmosphere can be corrected in real time, as well as deformations caused by the wind upon the main telescope. The ELT’s adaptive optics system will provide an improvement of about a factor of 500 in the resolution, compared to the best seeing conditions achieved so far without adaptive optics.[36]

The AdOptica consortium,[37] partnered with INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) as subcontractors, are responsible for the design and manufacture of the quaternary mirror, before being shipped to Chile by the end of 2022.[38] Safran Reosc will manufacture the mirror shells, and also polish them.[39]

ELT dome and structureEdit

Dome constructionEdit

 
ELT concept.

The ELT dome will have a height of nearly 74 meters from the ground and a diameter of 86 meters, making it the largest dome ever built for a telescope. The dome will have a total mass of around 5000 tonnes, and the telescope mounting and tube structure will have a total moving mass of more than 3000 tonnes.

For the observing slit, two main designs were under study: one with two sets of nested doors, and the current baseline design, i.e. a single pair of large sliding doors. This pair of doors has a total width of 45.3 m.

ESO signed a contract for its construction,[40] together with the main structure of the telescopes, with the Italian ACe Consortium, consisting of Astaldi and Cimolai[41] and the nominated subcontractor, Italy's EIE Group.[42] The signature ceremony took place on 25 May 2016[43] at ESO’s Headquarters in Garching bei München, Germany.

The dome is to provide needed protection to the telescope in inclement weather and during the day. A number of concepts for the dome were evaluated. The baseline concept for the 40m-class ELT dome is a nearly hemispherical dome, rotating atop a concrete pier, with curved laterally opening doors. This is a re-optimisation from the previous design, aimed at reducing the costs, and it is being revalidated to be ready for construction.[44]

One year after signing the contract, and after the laying of the first stone ceremony in May 2017, the site was handed over to ACe, signifying the beginning of the construction of the dome’s main structure.

Astronomical performanceEdit

In terms of astronomical performance the dome is required to be able to track about the 1-degree zenithal avoidance locus as well as preset to a new target within 5 minutes. This requires the dome to be able to accelerate and move at angular speeds of 2 degrees/sec (the linear speed is approximately 5 km/h).[45]

The dome is designed to allow complete freedom to the telescope so that it can position itself whether it is opened or closed. It will also permit observations from the zenith down to 20 degrees from the horizon.

WindscreenEdit

With such a large opening, the ELT dome requires the presence of a windscreen to protect the telescope's mirrors (apart from the secondary), from direct exposure to the wind. The baseline design of the windscreen minimises the volume required to house it. Two spherical blades, either side of the observing slit doors, slide in front of the telescope aperture to restrict the wind.

Ventilation and air-conditioningEdit

The dome design ensures that the dome provides sufficient ventilation for the telescope not to be limited by dome seeing. For this the dome is also equipped with louvers, whereby the windscreen is designed to allow them to fulfill their function.

Computational fluid dynamic simulations and wind tunnel work are being carried out to study the airflow in and around the dome, as well as the effectiveness of the dome and windscreen in protecting the telescope.

Besides being designed for water-tightness, air-tightness is also one of the requirements as it is critical to minimise the air-conditioning load. The air-conditioning of the dome is necessary not only to thermally prepare the telescope for the forthcoming night but also in order to keep the telescope optics clean.

The air-conditioning of the telescope during the day is critical and the current specifications permit the dome to cool the telescope and internal volume by 10 °C over 12 hours.

Science goalsEdit

This is the official trailer for the ELT. The design for the ELT shown here is preliminary.

The ELT will search for extrasolar planets — planets orbiting other stars. This will include not only the discovery of planets down to Earth-like masses through indirect measurements of the wobbling motion of stars perturbed by the planets that orbit them, but also the direct imaging of larger planets and possibly even the characterisation of their atmospheres.[46] The telescope will attempt to image Earthlike exoplanets, which may be possible.[1]

Furthermore, the ELT's suite of instruments will allow astronomers to probe the earliest stages of the formation of planetary systems and to detect water and organic molecules in protoplanetary discs around stars in the making. Thus, the ELT will answer fundamental questions regarding planet formation and evolution.[3]

By probing the most distant objects the ELT will provide clues to understanding the formation of the first objects that formed: primordial stars, primordial galaxies and black holes and their relationships. Studies of extreme objects like black holes will benefit from the power of the ELT to gain more insight into time-dependent phenomena linked with the various processes at play around compact objects.[46]

The ELT is designed to make detailed studies of the first galaxies and to follow their evolution through cosmic time. Observations of these early galaxies with the ELT will give clues that will help understand how these objects form and evolve. In addition, the ELT will be a unique tool for making an inventory of the changing content of the various elements in the Universe with time, and to understand star formation history in galaxies.[47]

One of the goals of the ELT is the possibility of making a direct measurement of the acceleration of the Universe's expansion. Such a measurement would have a major impact on our understanding of the Universe. The ELT will also search for possible variations in the fundamental physical constants with time. An unambiguous detection of such variations would have far-reaching consequences for our comprehension of the general laws of physics.[47]

InstrumentationEdit

This video shows engineers adjusting the complex support mechanisms that control the shape and positioning of two of the 798 segments that will form the complete primary mirror of the telescope.
 
The First ELT Instruments.[48]

The telescope will have several science instruments. It will be possible to switch from one instrument to another within minutes. The telescope and dome will also be able to change positions on the sky and start a new observation in a very short time.

Eight different instrument concepts and two post-focal adaptive modules are currently being studied, with the aim that two to three will be ready for first light, with the others becoming available at various points over the following decade.[49] The instruments being studied are:

The two post-focal adaptive optics modules currently being studied are:

  • ATLAS: a laser tomography adaptive optics module
  • MAORY: a multi-conjugate adaptive optics module

ComparisonEdit

 
Comparison of nominal sizes of apertures of the Extremely Large Telescope and some notable optical telescopes
 
ELT compared to the VLT and the Colosseum

One of the largest optical telescope operating today is the Gran Telescopio Canarias, with a 10.4 m aperture and a light-collecting area of 74 m2. Other planned extremely large telescopes include the 25 m/368 m2 Giant Magellan Telescope and 30 m/655 m2 Thirty Meter Telescope, which are also targeting the beginning of the 2020 decade for completion. These other two telescopes roughly belong to the same next generation of optical ground-based telescopes.[63][64] Each design is much larger than previous telescopes.[1] Even with the descale to 39.3 m the ELT is significantly larger than both other planned extremely large telescopes.[1] It has the aim of observing the Universe in greater detail than the Hubble Space Telescope by taking images 15 times sharper, although it is designed to be complementary to space telescopes, which typically have very limited observing time available.[20] The ELT's 4.2-meter secondary mirror is the same size as the primary mirror on the William Herschel Telescope, the second largest optical telescope in Europe.

Name Aperture
diameter (m)
Collecting
area (m²)
First light
Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) 39.3 978 2024
Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) 30 655 TBD[65]
Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) 24.5 368 2023[66]
Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) 11.1 × 9.8 79 2005
Keck Telescopes 10.0 76 1990, 1996
Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) 10.4 74 2007
Very Large Telescope (VLT) 8.2   1998–2000
Notes: Future first-light dates are provisional and likely to change.

The ELT under ideal conditions has an angular resolution of 0.005 arcsecond which corresponds to separating two light sources 1 AU apart from 200 pc distance. At 0.03 arcseconds, the contrast is expected to be 108, sufficient to search for exoplanets.[67] The unaided human eye has an angular resolution of 1 arcminute which corresponds to separating two light sources 30 cm apart from 1 km distance.

StillsEdit

The images below show artistic renderings of the ELT and were produced by ESO.

VideoEdit

Comparable instrumentsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Govert Schilling (14 June 2011). "Europe Downscales Monster Telescope to Save Money". Science Insider. Retrieved 17 August 2011. 
  2. ^ ESO. "THE EUROPEAN EXTREMELY LARGE TELESCOPE ("E-ELT") PROJECT". 
  3. ^ a b "ESO – Are We Alone?". Retrieved 15 June 2011. 
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  5. ^ a b Amos, Jonathan (11 June 2012). "European Extremely Large Telescope given go-ahead". BBC News. Retrieved 11 June 2012. 
  6. ^ James Vincent (19 June 2014). "European Extremely Large Telescope to break ground (using dynamite) live later today". The Independent. 
  7. ^ a b "Construction of Extremely Large Telescope Approved". Spaceref. 4 December 2014. 
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  55. ^ Thatte, Niranjan. "HARMONI". University of Oxford. Retrieved 30 November 2012. 
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  66. ^ "GMT's First Giant Mirror Segment Starts Journey South". 25 September 2017. Retrieved 8 October 2017. 
  67. ^ EPICS: direct imagine of exoplanets with the E-ELT
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External linksEdit