Eureka Stockade (1949 film)
Eureka Stockade is a 1949 British film of the story surrounding Irish-Australian rebel Peter Lalor and the gold miners' rebellion of 1854 at the Eureka Stockade in Ballarat, Victoria, in the Australian Western genre. It was produced by Ealing Studios and directed by Harry Watt.
British quad poster by John Minton
|Directed by||Harry Watt|
|Produced by||Michael Balcon|
Leslie Norman (associate)
|Written by||Harry Watt|
Ralph Smart (add. scenes)
|Music by||John Greenwood|
|Edited by||Leslie Norman|
|Distributed by||General Film Distributors|
|26 January 1949 (UK)|
7 May 1949 (Aust)
December 1950 (US)
An introductory montage establishes Australia of a hundred years ago – a place of both wealth and poverty, transformed by the discovery of gold in 1851. This causes a massive drain in manpower which puts a strain on the country. The Victorian governor appoints an army officer, Rede, commissioner of the goldfields and orders him to tax the miners via licences, and to keep law and order.
In 1854 Ballarat, civil engineer Peter Lalor arrives to prospect for gold with his Italian friend Rafaello Carboni. They discover the license fee system is strictly enforced. The miners are upset at the conditions under which they work. Lalor and Carboni befriend a Scottish sailor, Tom, and Lalor meets a school teacher, Alicia, and the two begin a romance.
Governor La Trobe resigns and Governor Hotham arrives, ordering Rede to force people off the gold fields in order to encourage them back to other jobs. Things get militant on the goldfields after the murder of miner James Scobie by James Bentley goes unpunished. The miners riot, despite Lalor's efforts and burn down Bentley's hotel. Governor Hotham sends in the military to keep the peace.
The miners form the Ballarat Reform League and Lalor emerges as their leader. They rally under the Eureka Flag.
Lalor and the miners arm themselves and make camp at the Eureka Stockade. The rebellion is overpowered by the British Army. Many of the miners are killed and Lalor is injured, ultimately having to have his arm amputated. However the reforms wanted by the miners are ultimately pushed through and Lalor is elected to Parliament.
- Chips Rafferty as Peter Lalor
- Jane Barrett as Alicia Dunne
- Jack Lambert as Commissioner Rede
- Peter Illing as Raffaello Carboni
- Gordon Jackson as Tom Kennedy
- Ralph Truman as Governor Charles Hotham
- Sydney Loder as Vern
- John Fernside as sly grog seller
- Grant Taylor as Sergeant Major Milne
- Peter Finch as Humffray
- Alexander Cann as McGill
- Kevin Brennan as Black
- John Fegan as Hayes
- Al Thomas as Scobie
- Ronald Whelan as Bentley
- Dorothy Alison as Mrs Bentley
- Reg Wykeham as Dr Moore
- Betty Ross as Mary O'Rourke
- John Wiltshire as Father Smythe
- Nigel Lovell as Captain Wise
- Charles Tasman as Governor Charles La Trobe
- Mary Ward as Lady Hotham
- John Cazabon as Seekamp
- Nick Yardley as schoolboy
- Paul Delmar as Ross
- Leigh O'Malley as Nelson
- Jean Blue as Ma McGinty
- Marshall Crosby as postmaster
- Rex Dawe as auctioneer
- Adrianna Watton as little girl
- Reg Lye as digger
Following the success of The Overlanders, Ealing announced plans to make one film in Australia a year, the first one to be Eureka Stockade starring Chips Rafferty. It was intended that production of the film would be on a more expensive, organised basis than The Overlanders.
The script was derived from an original research document prepared by Australian writer Rex Rienits, who was later given the credit "research". Watt said this in itself was too long to make a film script and that Australians were not good film script writers, as they were too influenced by radio. Accordingly, Watt brought Walter Greenwood, author of Love on the Dole, out to Australia to work on the script.
Production of the movie triggered inevitable historical controversies. Various historical societies claimed ownership of the original Eureka flag. The design of the flag used in the film differs from the original Eureka flag. Peter Lalor's great-grandson complained about Chips Rafferty's casting, claiming he was nothing like Lalor.
Interiors were shot at Pagewood and Cinesound studios, which were completely refurbished to make the film. A great deal of work in particular had to be done on Pagewood, which had fallen into disrepair during the war. Because the country around Ballarat was no longer suitable, an alternative location was found in a valley near Singleton, New South Wales. A complete township was constructed, including buildings and mineshafts.
Shooting was scheduled to begin in September 1947 but was delayed for two months due to uncertainty about the film's classification as a "British" film. The British government had introduced a tax on film hire revenue earned by foreign films and for a time it was feared that Eureka Stockade would fall under this ambit. Ealing had to import a large number of British cast and crew to ensure its classification as a British film, which caused the budget to increase. It is estimated £20,000 of equipment was imported from England, and over 1,500 people worked on the film.
Shooting began on 19 November 1947. The unit had encountered a great deal of unfavourable weather, particularly rain and intense heat, forcing them to quickly get behind schedule. A member of the crew was involved in a car accident with a retired policeman in which the latter was killed. From 19 December to 4 January the unit moved to Cinesound studios, then returning to Singleton.
During filming Watt was dissatisfied with Chips Rafferty's performance; Leslie Norman suggested they replace him with Peter Finch who had a small support role. Watt ultimately decided not to do this and always regretted it.
Two crew members were married on the location, with Watt giving the bride away. Cast member Cecil Perry was arrested for getting drunk and taking off all his clothes in a public street. Female star Jane Barrett was hospitalised for a few days after an insect bite. A wardrobe assistant on the film, Richard Mason went on to have a successful career in Australian film as a producer.
The final budget of £200,000 was the same amount Ealing had intended to spend on six films shot over two years in Australia. There were rumours that this would be Ealing's swan song. However the studio initially said they were happy with the footage and bought Pagewood Studios off Cinesound Productions with a view of making it a base for their future Australian operations.
Ealing wound back its Australian production plans, including a proposed version of Robbery Under Arms. However, they did make three more movies in the country: Bitter Springs (1950), The Shiralee (1957) and The Siege of Pinchgut (1959).
An abridged version of the film was released in the United States of America under the title, Massacre Hill.
- "Lovely Furs And Frocks at Gala Film Premiere". The Sydney Morning Herald. 7 May 1949. p. 11. Retrieved 21 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- Graham Shirley and Brian Adams, Australian Cinema: The First Eighty Years, Currency Press, 1989 p181
- Lennon, Troy (21 January 2018). "Australian 'meat pie' westerns have been around for more than a century". Daily Telegraph. Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 21 May 2019.
- Monthly Film Bulletin review; February 1949, page 21
- Variety film review; 2 February 1949
- Motion Picture Exhibitor review; 27 September 1950, page 2942
- "BRITISH PRODUCER TO FILM EUREKA STOCKADE". The Argus. Melbourne. 2 November 1946. p. 3. Retrieved 14 February 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "WORLD PLANS FOR NEW FILM". The Sydney Morning Herald. 30 May 1947. p. 9. Retrieved 21 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- Brian McFarlane, An Autobiography of British Cinema, Metheun 1997 p440
- "PLAN TO MAKE ONE FILM YEARLY IN AUSTRALIA". The Mercury. Hobart, Tasmania. 16 November 1946. p. 2. Retrieved 14 February 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Film Director To Use U.S. Script Writer". The Sydney Morning Herald. 25 November 1946. p. 3. Retrieved 14 February 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Eureka Stockade Flag Not Holed By Moths". The Sydney Morning Herald. 2 August 1947. p. 15. Retrieved 21 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "English Critic's Coo-ee To "The Overlanders"". The Worker. Brisbane. 2 December 1946. p. 17. Retrieved 14 February 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "FILM CONTRACTS BANNED". The Advertiser. Adelaide. 18 November 1946. p. 7. Retrieved 14 February 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "AUSTRALIAN FILM PROSPECTS". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 March 1947. p. 4. Retrieved 14 February 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Singletonians Have Chance For Film Parts". Singleton Argus. NSW. 7 November 1947. p. 1. Retrieved 21 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- Andrew Pike and Ross Cooper, Australian Film 1900–1977: A Guide to Feature Film Production, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1998, 206.
- "ENGLISH STARS CHOSEN". The Sydney Morning Herald. 3 November 1947. p. 4. Retrieved 21 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "NO BRITISH TAX ON "EUREKA" FILM". The Argus. Melbourne. 8 January 1948. p. 4. Retrieved 21 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "COMMUNITY SHOCKED GRIEVED BY UNTIMELY DEATH OF POPULAR CITIZEN". Singleton Argus. NSW. 21 November 1947. p. 4. Retrieved 21 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- ""EUREKA STOCKADE" CAST LEAVES FOR SYDNEY". Singleton Argus. NSW. 19 December 1947. p. 4. Retrieved 21 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- Philip Kemp, 'On the Slide: Harry Watt and Ealing's Australian Adventure', Second Take: Australian Filmmakers Talk, Ed Geoff Burton and Raffaele Caputo, Allen & Unwin 1999 p 145-164
- "TWO MEMBERS OF FILM UNIT WED". Singleton Argus. NSW. 19 January 1948. p. 2. Retrieved 21 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "ACTOR BEFORE COURT FOR INDECENT BEHAVIOR". Singleton Argus. NSW. 18 February 1948. p. 2. Retrieved 21 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Star Visits Sick Husband". The Mail. Adelaide. 14 February 1948. p. 3. Retrieved 21 August 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "HOLLYWOOD LETTER HOW WE REBUILT BALLARAT". The Advocate. Burnie, Tasmania. 16 September 1949. p. 12. Retrieved 14 February 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "AUSTRALIAN PRODUCTION GETS CRACKING". The Mail. Adelaide. 28 February 1948. p. 2 Supplement: SUNDAY MAGAZINE. Retrieved 14 February 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "BIG FILM DEAL". The Sydney Morning Herald. 25 October 1948. p. 3. Retrieved 14 February 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Students' Trick at Film Premiere". The Sydney Morning Herald. 7 May 1949. p. 1. Retrieved 14 February 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Critics Say "Eureka" Not Another "Overlanders"". The Sunday Herald. Sydney. 23 January 1949. p. 1. Retrieved 14 February 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- ""Robbery Under Arms" To Be Filmed". The Barrier Miner. Broken Hill, NSW. 9 January 1947. p. 6. Retrieved 14 February 2012 – via National Library of Australia.
- "Eureka Stockade". National Film and Sound Archive. Retrieved 25 May 2009.[permanent dead link]