Eugene Talmadge (September 23, 1884 – December 21, 1946) was an American Dixiecrat politician who served two terms as the 67th Governor of Georgia from 1933 to 1937, and a third term from 1941 to 1943. Elected to a fourth term in November 1946, he died before his inauguration, scheduled for January 1947. Only Talmadge and Joe Brown, in the mid-19th century, have been elected four times as Governor of Georgia. He is well known for actively promoting segregation and white supremacy, and for advocating for racism in the Georgia university system.
Newspaper photo of Talmadge during 1938 U.S. Senate campaign
|67th Governor of Georgia|
January 14, 1941 – January 12, 1943
|Preceded by||Eurith D. Rivers|
|Succeeded by||Ellis Arnall|
January 10, 1933 – January 12, 1937
|Preceded by||Richard Russell, Jr.|
|Succeeded by||Eurith D. Rivers|
|Born||September 23, 1884|
Forsyth, Georgia, United States
|Died||December 21, 1946(aged 62)|
|Alma mater||University of Georgia|
Early life, education and careerEdit
Eugene Talmadge was born in 1883 in Forsyth, Georgia, to Thomas and Carrie (Roberts) Talmadge. He attended the University of Georgia and graduated from the university's law school. While at UGA, he was a member of the Phi Kappa Literary Society and Sigma Nu fraternity.
Talmadge set up a law practice in Telfair County, Georgia. He twice ran for the Georgia state legislature and lost both times. He was elected as state agriculture commissioner in 1926. Talmadge was re-elected commissioner in 1928 and 1930.
As commissioner, Talmadge used the newspaper of his department to give advice to farmers and talk about his political views, extolling the virtues of a laissez-faire economic policy and individual action to improve the well-being of farmers. During his time as agriculture commissioner, Talmadge also developed a reputation for being a corrupt, freewheeling individual who disregarded standard ethics and played by his own set of rules. He maintained widespread support among Georgia’s rural community. He was also an “admitted flogger and racial demagogue who presided over a Klan-ridden regime”.
The State Senate concluded that Talmadge violated a state law requiring that fertilizer fees collected by the department be deposited in the state treasury. He was criticized for paying himself and family members more than $40,000 in salaries and expenses, and using department funds to make trips to the Kentucky Derby. Accused of “stealing” $20,000 in order to raise the price of hogs, Talmadge told one group of farmers, “Sure, I stole it! But I stole it for you.” The State House declined requests to impeach Talmadge but agreed to sue him to recover state funds spent on the hog price manipulation scheme. When Governor Richard B. Russell Jr. referred the suit to the state attorney general, however, the request to sue Talmadge was rejected.
In 1932, Governor Richard B. Russell, Jr. sought a seat in the United States Senate. Talmadge ran for governor, appealing to rural Georgia by idealizing the small farmer, and preaching what he said were the true values of rural America, such as rugged individualism, frugality, governmental economy, segregation, limited government, and low taxes. Talmage won a majority of the county unit votes in the primary, and winning the nomination of the Democratic Party was tantamount to automatic victory in the general election. The County Unit System gave power to the rural counties, which were Talmadge's base. He boasted, “I can carry any county that ain't got street cars.” He made twelve campaign promises, the most controversial of which was to lower the price of an automobile license to 3 dollars, putting them within reach of the poorest farmers. The state legislature intensely debated the $3 license fee issue, but did not pass it. After it adjourned, Talmadge fixed the $3 fee by proclamation.
Talmadge was re-elected in 1934, carrying every county but three in the state's Democratic primary, although he was often tied to both controversy and corruption. When the Public Service Commission, a body elected by the voters, refused to lower utility rates, he appointed a new board to get it done. When the Highway Board resisted his efforts to control it, Talmadge declared martial law and appointed more cooperative members to the board. When the state treasurer and comptroller general refused to cooperate, the governor ordered state police to physically remove them from their offices in the state Capitol. Critics denounced him as a dictator, a demagogue, and a threat to the tranquility of the state. His supporters considered him to be a friend of the “common man” and one of the state's most outstanding governors.
When textile workers went on strike on September 1, 1934, Talmadge declared martial law during the third week of the strike, and directed four thousand National Guard troops to arrest all picketers throughout the state. He ordered the prisoners to be held behind the barbed wire of a former World War I prisoner of war camp for trial by a military tribunal. While the state interned about one hundred or so picketers, the show of force effectively ended picketing throughout most of the state. When Talmadge discovered that one of the employers had hired the notorious strikebreaker Pearl Bergoff, he had Bergoff and his two hundred men deported to New York City.
The Democrat Talmadge governed as a Southern conservative, vehemently attacking the nationalization of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal. He objected to policies favorable to black people (President Roosevelt did not introduce any Civil Rights measures), the farm programs, and relief-work programs such as the Works Progress Administration and Civilian Conservation Corps. Talmadge tried to build a region-wide coalition, making a national speaking tour in preparation for a challenge to FDR in 1936. His ‘Southern Committee to Uphold the Constitution’ organized a convention in Macon, Georgia, in January 1936 that brought together fragments of the old Huey P. Long coalition.
Talmadge pledged to defend the “sovereignty of our states and local self-government” at the upcoming Democratic National Convention. However, Roosevelt, who visited Georgia often because of his past polio, was more popular with the poor farmers. Unable to run for re-election in 1936, Talmadge chose to challenge Senator Russell in the primary, but Russell defeated Talmadge by a landslide and Talmadge's presidential hopes collapsed.[page needed] Talmadge's handpicked candidate for governor, Charles Redwine, lost the 1936 Georgia gubernatorial election to pro-New Deal Democrat Eurith D. Rivers by an overwhelming margin.
In 1936, according to a United Press (UP) article printed in the Atlanta Constitution on August 21, 1936 titled "Gene Selects Hitler as Favorite 'Author'", Talmadge reportedly told a Los Angeles newspaper that while he didn't have time to read many books, he read Adolf Hitler's "My Struggle", or Mein Kampf, seven times. In response, the Nazi publication Die Bewegung reprinted the interview with Talmadge and praised him, stating that "Governor Eugene Talmadge, of Georgia, is obviously a very intelligent man."
In 1938 Talmadge challenged Senator Walter George. Though George had sided with 34 of Roosevelt's 44 New Deal proposals, he refused to support some of the proposals in Roosevelt's second term. The president believed George had now been “put out to pasture.” Roosevelt tried to purge George and campaigned for his own candidate, Lawrence Camp. George, however, refused to criticize Roosevelt during the campaign and blamed the purge on Roosevelt's advisers. Despite the divide among the New Deal vote, George easily won the renomination, securing 141,922 popular votes and a majority of 246 unit votes, while Talmadge won just 102,464 popular votes and 148 unit votes. Talmadge's victory over Roosevelt's candidate Camp, who secured just 78,223 popular votes and 16 unit votes, surprised his critics.
University of GeorgiaEdit
Talmadge returned to the governor's office in 1940, emerging as the leader of racist and segregationist elements in Georgia. Responding to reports that Walter Cocking, a dean at the University of Georgia, had advocated bringing black and white students together in the classroom, he launched an attack on the university, charging elitism, and called for the regents to remove Cocking and purge the university of Communists, "foreigners" (non-Georgians), and subscribers to racial equality. The university board of regents at first refused Talmadge's demands, but after the governor restructured the board, the dismissals took place.
This intervention into academic affairs caused the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to remove accreditation from the Georgia state universities. It also contributed to Talmadge's defeat by Ellis Arnall in 1942.
During Arnall's term, the state legislature lengthened his term to four years and prohibited him from seeking re-election in 1946. Talmadge ran for governor and used the United States Supreme Court's Smith v. Allwright decision, ruling that the closed white primary was unconstitutional, as his main red flag issue. Talmadge promised that if he were to be elected, he would restore the 'Equal Primary.'
Talmadge lost the popular vote in the Democratic primary to James V. Carmichael but won a majority of the "county unit votes". He died in December 1946, before he could be sworn in for his fourth term. His death precipitated the 1947 "Three Governors Controversy" among Arnall, Melvin E. Thompson, and Talmadge's son Herman.
The Talmadge Memorial Bridge in Savannah, Georgia, is named after Eugene Talmadge and connects downtown Savannah, Georgia with the Carolina Low Country via the Savannah River. Renaming of the bridge has been suggested due to the Talmadge's history as a white supremacist.
Notes and referencesEdit
- Kauffman, Johnny (August 25, 2017). "Monuments To White Supremacist Men Dominate Ga. Capitol Grounds". WABE News. WABE News. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
- Bluestein, Greg (June 15, 2007). "Ex-governor investigated in 1946 lynchings". Associated Press. NBC News. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
- Lebos, Jessica Leigh (April 20, 2016). "Name shaming the Talmadge Bridge". Connect Savannah. Connect Savannah. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
- Bynum, Russ (April 19, 2007). "Opera Tells How Georgia Racism Backfired". Washington Post. Retrieved April 13, 2018.
- Anderson 1975, p. 6
- Anderson 1975, pp. 48–49
- Anderson 1975, p. 52
- Anderson 1975, p. 56
- King, Gilbert (2012). Devil in the Grove. Harper Collins. p. 262. ISBN 978-0-06-179228-1.
- Current Biography 1941, pp. 850–52
- Harold P. Henderson (2000). Ernest Vandiver, Governor of Georgia. U of Georgia Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0820322230.
- Anderson 1975, pp. 78–79
- Current Biography 1941, p 851
- Anderson 1975, p. 83
- Galloway, Tammy Harden (Fall 1995). "'Tribune of the Masses and a Champion of the People': Eugene Talmadge and the Three-Dollar Tag". The Georgia Historical Quarterly. 79 (3): 673–84. JSTOR 40583293.
- F. Ray Marshall, Labor in the South, pp. 167–68
- "National Affairs: Black on Blacks". Time Magazine. April 27, 1936. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
- Basso, Hamilton (February 19, 1936). "Our Gene". New Republic. 86 (1107): 35. Retrieved June 21, 2016.
- Telfeyan, Brad (April 22, 2002). The 1938 Georgia Democratic Senatorial Primary: The Repudiation of President Franklin D. Roosevelt's 'Purge Campaign' (PDF) (Thesis). History Department, Vanderbilt University. hdl:1803/183.
- Anderson 1975
- Gene Selects Hitler As Favorite 'Author' The Atlanta Constitution (1881–1945); Aug 21, 1936; ProQuest pg. 1
- Zeigler, Luther Harmon (December 1959). "Senator Walter George's 1938 Campaign". The Georgia Historical Quarterly. 43 (4): 333–52. JSTOR 40577958.
- Glenn Feldman, Politics and religion in the White South (2005) p. 111
- Bailes, Sue (Winter 1969). "Eugene Talmadge and the Board of Regents Controversy". The Georgia Historical Quarterly. 53 (4): 409–23. JSTOR 40579012.
- Belvin, William L., Jr. (Spring 1966). "The Georgia Gubernatorial Primary of 1946". The Georgia Historical Quarterly. 50 (1): 37–53. JSTOR 40578545.
- Bynum, Russ (April 19, 2007). "Opera Tells How Georgia Racism Backfired". Washington Post. Associated Press. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved February 7, 2018.
- "Honorary Degrees Awarded by Oglethorpe University". Oglethorpe University. Archived from the original on March 19, 2015. Retrieved March 18, 2015.
- Anderson, William (1975). The Wild Man from Sugar Creek: The Political Career of Eugene Talmadge. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University.
- Lesseig, Corey T. "Talmadge, Eugene" in American National Biography Online (2000)
- Logue, Cal McLeod. Eugene Talmadge: rhetoric and response (1989)
- Luthin, Reinhard H. (1954). "Gene Talmadge: Georgia". American Demagogues: Twentieth Century. Beacon Press. ASIN B0007DN37C. OCLC 1098334.
- Jarman, Rufus (1942). "Wool-Hat Dictator". Saturday Evening Post. 214 (52): 20. Retrieved June 21, 2016.