Eucalyptus wandoo

Eucalyptus wandoo, commonly known as wandoo, dooto, warrnt or wornt,[2] is a small to medium-sized tree that is endemic to the southwest of Western Australia. It has smooth bark, lance-shaped adult leaves, flower buds in groups of nine to seventeen, white flowers and conical to cylindrical fruit. It is one of a number of similar Eucalyptus species known as wandoo.

Wandoo
Eucalyptus wandoo gnangarra.JPG
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Myrtales
Family: Myrtaceae
Genus: Eucalyptus
Species:
E. wandoo
Binomial name
Eucalyptus wandoo
E. wandoo blossom and capsules
E. wandoo woodland
E. wandoo foliage

DescriptionEdit

Eucalyptus wandoo is a tree that typically grow to a height of 25 m (82 ft) and forms a lignotuber. It has smooth white bark, often with patches of white, grey or light brown. Old layers of bark come off in flakes and it is not uncommon for a few flakes to persist on the trunk for a long time. Young plants and coppice regrowth have stems that are often glaucous, and leaves that are egg-shaped, broadly lance-shaped or D-shaped, 45–150 mm (1.8–5.9 in) long and 25–75 mm (0.98–2.95 in) wide. Adult leaves are the same shade of greyish-green or greyish-blue on both sides, lance-shaped or curved, 75–125 mm (3.0–4.9 in) long and 10–28 mm (0.39–1.10 in) wide on a petiole 10–20 mm (0.39–0.79 in) long. The flower buds are arranged in leaf axils in groups of nine to seventeen on an unbranched peduncle 8–20 mm (0.31–0.79 in) long, the individual buds on pedicels 3–5 mm (0.12–0.20 in) long. Mature buds are spindle-shaped but curved, 8–14 mm (0.31–0.55 in) long and 2–4 mm (0.079–0.157 in) wide with a conical operculum up to twice as long as the floral cup. Flowering occurs from December or January to May and the flowers are white. The fruit is a woody capsule 6–10 mm (0.24–0.39 in) long and 5–6 mm (0.20–0.24 in) wide with the valves near rim level.[3][4][5]

TaxonomyEdit

Eucalyptus wandoo was first described in 1934 by William Faris Blakely in his book A Key to the Eucalypts.[6] The specific epithet "wandoo" comes from the Noongar name for the tree.[3]

In 1991, Ian Brooker and Stephen Hopper described two subspecies and the names have been accepted by the Australian Plant Census:[7]

  • Eucalyptus wandoo subsp. pulverea[8] has powdery bark, glaucous branchlets and larger juvenile leaves than the autonym;[3][7]
  • Eucalyptus wandoo subsp. wandoo[9] has bark that is not powdery, yellow new bark, branchlets that are not glaucous and narrower juvenile leaves than those of subspecies pulverea.[3][7]

Distribution and habitatEdit

Wandoo occurs from Geraldton to the south coast, and from the west coast inland as far as Narembeen. It grows in loamy and stony soils, in undulating terrain.[4][10] Subspecies pulverea is less common and occurs between Cataby and Morawa.

Conservation statusEdit

Both subspecies of E. wandoo are classified as "not threatened" by the Government of Western Australia Department of Parks and Wildlife.[11][12] Decline of the habitat and crown decline of wandoo has been studied.[13][14][15][16]

UsesEdit

The wood of this species is extremely dense, and is used for a range of heavy duty construction purposes, including as railway sleepers and wood flooring. There was once an industry in the extraction of tannin from the bark and wood. These days the wood is not much available, as the wandoo forests are preserved for recreation and watershed protection.[17] Wandoo is also famous for the honey produced from its nectar.[18]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Eucalyptus wandoo". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  2. ^ "Noongar names for plants". kippleonline.net. Archived from the original on 2 August 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d "Eucalyptus wandoo". Euclid: Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  4. ^ a b "Eucalyptus wandoo Blakely". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife.
  5. ^ Chippendale, George M. "Eucalyptus wandoo". Australian Biological Resources Study, Department of the Environment and Energy, Canberra. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  6. ^ "Eucalyptus wandoo". APNI. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  7. ^ a b c Brooker, M. Ian H.; Hopper, Stephen (1991). "A taxonomic revision of Eucalyptus wandoo, E. redunce and allied species (Eucalyptus series Levispermae Maiden - Myrtaceae) in Western Australia". Nuytsia. 8 (1): 37–41. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  8. ^ "Eucalyptus wandoo subsp. pulverea". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  9. ^ "Eucalyptus wandoo subsp. wandoo". Australian Plant Census. Retrieved 19 January 2020.
  10. ^ Dalmaris, Eleftheria; University of Western Australia. School of Plant Biology (2012), Eucalyptus wandoo : tolerance to drought and salinity in relation to provenance and evolutionary history in southwestern Australia, retrieved 23 October 2016
  11. ^ "Eucalyptus wandoo subsp. pulverea". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife.
  12. ^ "Eucalyptus wandoo subsp. wandoo". FloraBase. Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife.
  13. ^ Wandoo Recovery Group (W.A.); Western Australia. Dept. of Environment and Conservation; Western Australia. Wandoo Recovery Group (2006), Wandoo crown decline : action plan, Dept. of Environment and Conservation, retrieved 23 October 2016
  14. ^ Gaynor, Andrea; Western Australia. Dept. of Environment and Conservation; Wandoo Recovery Group (W.A.); Gaynor, Andrea (2008), Wandoo in health and decline : a history, Dept. of Environment and Conservation, retrieved 23 October 2016
  15. ^ Mercer, Jack; Wandoo Recovery Group (W.A.); Western Australia. Dept. of Conservation and Land Management; World Wildlife Fund Australia; Mercer, Jack; Western Australia. Dept. of Environment and Conservation; World Wildlife Fund, Australia (2008), Second survey of Eucalyptus wandoo decline : final report, Dept. of Conservation and Land Management, retrieved 23 October 2016
  16. ^ Hooper, Ryan (2009), The role of stress and factors contributing to the decline of Eucalyptus wandoo (Blakely) in southwestern Australia, retrieved 23 October 2016
  17. ^ Boland, D. J.; et al. (1992). Forest trees of Australia (4th ed.). ISBN 0-643-05423-5.
  18. ^ French, Malcolm. The special Eucalypts of Perth and the south-west. ISBN 0-646-29394-X.

Further readingEdit

  • Hussey, B. M. J; Western Australia. Department of Conservation and Land Management (1999), How to manage your wandoo woodlands, Dept. of Conservation and Land Management, ISBN 978-0-7309-6897-9