The ethmoid sinuses or ethmoid air cells of the ethmoid bone are one of the four paired paranasal sinuses.[1] Unlike the other three pairs of paranasal sinuses which consist of one or two large cavities, the ethmoidal sinuses entail a number of small air-filled cavities ("air cells").[2] The cells are located within the lateral mass (labyrinth) of each ethmoid bone and are variable in both size and number.[1] The cells are grouped into anterior, middle, and posterior groups; the groups differ in their drainage modalities,[2] though all ultimately drain into either the superior or the middle nasal meatus[3] of the lateral wall of the nasal cavity.

Ethmoid sinus
Frontal view of paranasal sinuses
Coronal section of nasal cavities.
Nerveposterior ethmoidal nerve
Latincellulae ethmoidales,
labyrinthi ethmoidales
Anatomical terms of bone

Structure edit

The ethmoid air cells consist of numerous thin-walled cavities in the ethmoidal labyrinth[4] that represent invaginations of the mucous membrane of the nasal wall into the ethmoid bone.[3] They are situated between the superior parts of the nasal cavities and the orbits, and are separated from these cavities by thin bony lamellae.[4]

There are 5-15 air cells in either ethmoid bone in the adult, with a combined volume of 2-3mL.[5]

Development edit

The ethmoidal cells (sinuses) and maxillary sinuses are present at birth.[6] At birth, 3-4 air cells are present, with the number increasing to 5-15 by adulthood.[5]

Drainage edit

Lamellae edit

The ethmoidal labyrinth is divided by multiple obliquely oriented, parallel lamellae. The first lamellae is equivalent to the uncinate process of ethmoid bone, the second corresponds the ethmoid bulla, and the third is the basal lamella, and the fourth is equivalent to the superior nasal concha.[5]

The anterior and posterior ethmoid cells are separated by the basal lamella[7][5] (also known as the ground lamella).[5] It is one of the bony divisions of the ethmoid bone and is mostly contained inside the ethmoid labyrinth. The basal lamella is continuous medially with the bony middle nasal concha.[7] Anteriorly, it vertically inserts into the ethmoid crest; the middle part attaches obliquely into the orbital lamina of ethmoid bone (lamina papyricea) while the posterior part attaches into the orbital lamina horizontally.[5]

Innervation edit

The ethmoidal air cells receive sensory innervation from the anterior and the posterior ethmoidal nerve (which are ultimately derived from the ophthalmic branch (CN V1) of the trigeminal nerve (CN V)),[3] and the orbital branches of the pterygopalatine ganglion, which carry the postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fibers for mucous secretion from the facial nerve.[clarification needed][citation needed]

Haller cells edit

Haller cells are air cells situated beneath the ethmoid bulla along the roof of the maxillary sinus and the most inferior portion of the lamina papyracea, including air cells located within the ethmoid infundibulum.[8] These may arise from the anterior or posterior ethmoidal sinuses.[citation needed]

Onodi cells edit

Also known as a sphenoethmoidal air cell, an Onodi cell is a posterior ethmoidal air cell that lies superolateral to the sphenoid sinus, often extending into the anterior clinoid process.[9] Onodi cells are clinically significant because they lie in close proximity to the optic nerve and internal carotid artery, so surgeons should be aware of their existence when performing surgery on the sphenoid sinus so as not to damage these important structures.

A central Onodi air cell is a variation in which a posterior ethmoid cell lies superior to the sphenoid sinus in a midline position with at least one optic canal bulge.[10]

Clinical significance edit

Acute ethmoiditis in childhood and ethmoidal carcinoma may spread superiorly causing meningitis and cerebrospinal fluid leakage or it may spread laterally into the orbit causing proptosis and diplopia.[11]

Additional images edit

References edit

  This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 154 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918)

  1. ^ a b Illustrated Anatomy of the Head and Neck, Fehrenbach and Herring, Elsevier, 2012, page 64
  2. ^ a b Morton, David A. (2019). The Big Picture: Gross Anatomy. K. Bo Foreman, Kurt H. Albertine (2nd ed.). New York. p. 246. ISBN 978-1-259-86264-9. OCLC 1044772257.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Moore, Keith L.; Dalley, Arthur F.; Agur, Anne M. R. (2017). Essential Clinical Anatomy (6th ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 968. ISBN 978-1496347213.
  4. ^ a b c d Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Anniko, Springer, 2010, page 188
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Cappello, Zachary J.; Minutello, Katrina; Dublin, Arthur B. (2023), "Anatomy, Head and Neck, Nose Paranasal Sinuses", StatPearls, Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing, PMID 29763001, retrieved 2023-07-04
  6. ^ Moore, K.L Et al(2014). Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Baltimore: Page960
  7. ^ a b Hechl, Peter S.; Setliff, Reuben C.; Tschabitscher, Manfred (1997). "The ethmoid bone and middle turbinate". Endoscopic Anatomy of the Paranasal Sinuses. Springer Vienna. pp. 9–28. doi:10.1007/978-3-7091-6536-2_2. ISBN 978-3-7091-7345-9.
  8. ^ Raina, A; Guledgud, M V; Patil, K (May 2012). "Infraorbital ethmoid (Haller's) cells: a panoramic radiographic study". Dentomaxillofacial Radiology. 41 (4): 305–308. doi:10.1259/dmfr/22999207. ISSN 0250-832X. PMC 3728998. PMID 22241882.
  9. ^ Srinivas, C. V.; Kauser, Safina (October 2022). "Anatomy and Variations of Onodi Cells and Haller Cells: A HRCT Cum Clinical Analysis in Sinonasal Disease and Polyposis". Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. 74 (Suppl 2): 1683–1689. doi:10.1007/s12070-021-02828-x. ISSN 2231-3796. PMC 9702225. PMID 36452524.
  10. ^ Cherla, Deepa V.; Tomovic, Senja; Liu, James K.; Eloy, Jean Anderson (2013). "The central Onodi cell: A previously unreported anatomic variation". Allergy & Rhinology. 4 (1): e49–e51. doi:10.2500/ar.2013.4.0047. ISSN 2152-6575. PMC 3679569. PMID 23772328.
  11. ^ Human Anatomy, Jacobs, Elsevier, 2008, page 210

External links edit