Estates of Navarre

The Estates of Navarre (French: États de Navarre, États généraux de Navarre, Cortes de Navarre)[1] were created in 1317 under Philip II. The Estates of Lower Navarre (French: États de Basse-Navarre,[2] Cortes de la Basse-Navarre)[1] were first called into session on 28 August 1523[1][2][3][4] by Henry II after the definitive loss of Upper Navarre,[5]

It was created in the model of the Estates General that already existed in the Court of Pamplona, the Estates General of France, and in Béarn and other provinces.[5] The last meeting of the Estates of Lower Navarre was on 15 June 1789.

CompositionEdit

The Estates of Lower Navarre was composed of deputies from the three Estates: the First Estate (clergy), the Second Estate (nobility) and the Third Estate (commoners), each deputy having one vote.[5]

OperationEdit

The Estates of Navarre guaranteed that high-ranking officials of the Royal Council observed the requirements. On several occasions, the Estates filed complaints regarding the appointment of Royal Council and Chancery members. One complaint referred to the appointment of royal councillors and attorneys with no command of Basque.[7]

A first breach of the regulations and its related grievance referred to the affaire Jean de Laforcade in 1590, following his appointment as attorney general. He hailed from Foix, so his appointment was appealed for failing to meet the birthplace and Basque language requirements. The General Courts (Estates) urged the king to remove him from office.[7][8]

The Estates guaranteed up to 1624 that the language standards remained in place. The Parliament of Navarre with a seat in Pau was then established out of a merger of the Chancery and Council of Navarre with the sovereign Council of Béarn; they ceased to exist. The new Parliament was then composed of a chief chairman, designated by the King, seven presiding deputies, two knights of honour, 46 councillors, two solicitors, and a general attorney.[7]

However, in the run-up to the 1624 dissolution of the Royal Council under Louis II (Louis XIII of France), a reform almost discarded the Basque language requirement citing certain edicts decreed by Henry III (Henry IV of France) which made any person of his choosing eligible for appointment to an office, "without difference of birth or religion", so that the preceptive Navarrese origin was never again mandatory either. The Three Estates accepted the new ruling, while at the same time demanding that Basque be mandatory for the councillors, except for one.[9][10]

Despite the centralizing drive of the French crown, the Estates still kept significant legislating powers until 1748, when a decree by Louis XV of France stripped them off.[11] The archives of the Estates of Navarre for the period 1317–1789 are held at the Archives Départementales des Pyrénées-Atlantiques.[12]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Orpustan (n.d.), p. 9 (in French)
  2. ^ a b Daranatz (1923), Part 1)]
  3. ^ Esarte Muniain (2001), p. 667
  4. ^ AD64, E 564 (in French
  5. ^ a b c d e Lafourcade (2003), p. 608 (in French)
  6. ^ Lafourcade (2003), p. 609 (in French)
  7. ^ a b c Orbea, J.M./Adot, A. (2014), p. 26
  8. ^ "(...) per no estar lo dict de la Forcade natural deu present reaume ni haver la inteligencia deu lengoadge basco, bulgar [customary] en aquel"
  9. ^ Orbea, J.M./Adot, A. (2014), p. 28
  10. ^ The councillors had to be "versez en la langue basque, toutesfois y pourra avoir un conseiller ne sachant la dite langue"
  11. ^ Lafourcade (2003), p. 616
  12. ^ AD64, États de Navarre

ReferencesEdit

  • "All Search Results for États de Navarre". Archives Départementales des Pyrénées-Atlantiques (in French). Retrieved 19 April 2016.
  • Daranatz, Jean-Baptiste (12 December 1923). "Les états de Basse-Navarre au XVIe siècle, 1ère partie : Introduction" [The Estates of Lower Navarre in the 16th century, Part 1: Introduction.]. Gure herria (Notre ville) (in Basque and French). No. Troisième année. Bayonne. pp. 719–732.
  • Daranatz, Jean-Baptiste (2 February 1924). "Les états de Basse-Navarre au XVIe siècle, 2ème partie : Origine des états de Navarre. Composition des états de Basse-Navarre" [The Estates of Lower Navarre in the 16th century, Part 2: Origin of the Estates of Navarre. Composition of the Estates of Lower Navarre.]. Gure herria (Notre ville) (in Basque and French). No. Quatrième année. Bayonne. pp. 80–95.
  • Daranatz, Jean-Baptiste (4 April 1924). "Les états de Basse-Navarre au XVIe siècle, 3ème partie : Ordre général des états de Basse-Navarre" [The Estates of Lower Navarre in the 16th century, Part 3: General Order of the Estates of Lower Navarre.]. Gure herria (Notre ville) (in Basque and French). No. Quatrième année. Bayonne. pp. 210–225.
  • Daranatz, Jean-Baptiste (5 May 1924). "Les états de Basse-Navarre au XVIe siècle, 4ème partie : Ordre général des états de Basse-Navarre (suite)" [The Estates of Lower Navarre in the 16th century, Part 4: General Order of the Estates of Lower Navarre (continued).]. Gure herria (Notre ville) (in Basque and French). No. Quatrième année. Bayonne. pp. 272–283.
  • Daranatz, Jean-Baptiste (6 June 1924). "Les états de Basse-Navarre au XVIe siècle, 5ème partie : Ordre général des états de Basse-Navarre (suite). Procédure des états de Basse-Navarre. Législation des états de Basse-Navarre" [The Estates of Lower Navarre in the 16th century, Part 5: General Order of the Estates of Lower Navarre (continued). Procedures of the Estates of Lower Navarre. Legislation of the Estates of Lower Navarre.]. Gure herria (Notre ville) (in Basque and French). No. Quatrième année. Bayonne. pp. 361–372.
  • Daranatz, Jean-Baptiste (9 September 1924). "Les états de Basse-Navarre au XVIe siècle, 6ème partie : Législation des états de Basse-Navarre [suite]" [The Estates of Lower Navarre in the 16th century, Part 6: Legislation of the Estates of Lower Navarre.]. Gure herria (Notre ville) (in Basque and French). No. Quatrième année. Bayonne. pp. 538–551.
  • Esarte Muniain, Pedro (2001). Navarra, 1512-1530: Conquista, ocupación y sometimiento militar, civil y eclesiástico [Navarra, 1512-1530: conquest, occupation and military, civil and ecclesiastical enslavement.] (in Spanish). Pamplona-Iruña: Pamiela argitaletxea. ISBN 978-8-4768-1825-1.
  • Lafourcade, Prof. Maité (2003). Eusko Ikaskuntza; Société d'études basques (Saint-Sébastien, Spain) (eds.). "Les assemblées provinciales du Pays Basque Français sous l'Ancien Régime" [The provincial assemblies of the French Basque Country in the Ancient Regime.] (pdf). Revista Internacional de los Estudios Vascos = Revue Internationale des Études Basques (in French). No. 48. Paris: Euskomedia Fundazioa. pp. 589–619. ISSN 0212-7016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.