Essonne (French pronunciation: [ɛsɔn] (listen)) is a department of France in the southern Île-de-France region. It is named after the river Essonne. In 2019, it had a population of 1,301,659 across 194 communes.[3]

Essonne
Château de Courances
Flag of Essonne
Coat of arms of Essonne
Location of Essonne in France
Location of Essonne in France
Coordinates: 48°30′N 02°17′E / 48.500°N 2.283°E / 48.500; 2.283Coordinates: 48°30′N 02°17′E / 48.500°N 2.283°E / 48.500; 2.283
CountryFrance
RegionÎle-de-France
PrefectureÉvry-Courcouronnes
SubprefecturesÉtampes
Palaiseau
Government
 • President of the Departmental CouncilFrançois Durovray[1] (LR)
Area
 • Total1,804 km2 (697 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2019)[2]
 • Total1,301,659
 • Rank14th
 • Density720/km2 (1,900/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Department number91
Arrondissements3
Cantons21
Communes194
^1 French Land Register data, which exclude estuaries and lakes, ponds and glaciers larger than 1 km2

Essonne was formed on 1 January 1968 when Seine-et-Oise was split into smaller departments. Its prefecture is Évry-Courcouronnes. Its INSEE and postcode number is 91.

HistoryEdit

The Essonne department was created on 1 January 1968,[why?] from the southern portion of the former department of Seine-et-Oise.

In June 1963, Carrefour S.A. opened the first hypermarket in the Paris region at Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois (although the word "hypermarché" was first used only in 1966). Based on the ideas put forward by the American logistics pioneer Bernardo Trujillo,[4] the centre offered on a single 2,500 m2 (26,909.78 sq ft) site a hitherto unknown combination of wide choice and low prices, supported by 400 car parking spaces.

In 1969, the communes of Châteaufort and Toussus-le-Noble were separated from Essonne and added to the department of Yvelines.

GeographyEdit

Essonne belongs to the region of Île-de-France.

It has borders with the departments of:

All of northern Essonne department belongs to the Parisian agglomeration and is very urbanized. The south remains rural.

Principal townsEdit

The most populous commune is Évry-Courcouronnes, the prefecture. As of 2019, the 5 most populous communes are:[3]

Commune Population (2019)
Évry-Courcouronnes 66,851
Corbeil-Essonnes 51,234
Massy 50,644
Savigny-sur-Orge 36,577
Sainte-Geneviève-des-Bois 35,830

In descending order, the other communes over 25,000 population are: Athis-Mons, Palaiseau, Vigneux-sur-Seine, Viry-Châtillon, Ris-Orangis, Yerres, Draveil, Grigny, Brétigny-sur-Orge, Étampes, Brunoy and Les Ulis.[3] Milly-la-Forêt is a notable example of its more rural communes.

Main sightsEdit

  • The École Polytechnique. Founded in 1794, L'Ecole Polytechnique is one of the most prestigious engineering universities in France. This university was ranked 10th in the world by the Times Higher Education Supplement in 2005. Its campus is in the town of Palaiseau.
  • Paris-Sud University. One of the best public schools in France, it is ranked 52nd by Academic Ranking of World Universities. It is best known for its mathematics department. Located in Orsay, Essonne, about 26,000 students are enrolled.
  • The Headquarters of the Arianespace Company, a major commercial aerospace launcher, servicing companies who wish to launch satellites into space.
  • Château de Montlhéry. Originally having been an ancient fort during Roman times, the first feudal lords began to inhabit the castle around 1000 AD. One major battle was fought in the castle during its lifetime. In 1465, Charles the Rash and French King Louis XI fought in the plains in front of the castle. In 1842, the reconstruction of the castle was started, and currently is being maintained by the local town of Montlhery
  • Château de Courances
  • The Forest of Sénart. Covering 3,500 hectares in area, this forest is very important to the local population. The local government has kept roads and agricultural companies from cutting down parts of this forest. The forest receives between two and three million visitors annually, and the government spends 1.2 million euros a year maintaining it.
  • Telecom Sudparis. Situated in Évry, this is a grande école for engineers

PoliticsEdit

The department's most high-profile political representative has been Manuel Valls, Prime Minister of France from 31 March 2014 to 6 December 2016. He visited its main town Évry to deliver remarks following the Charlie Hebdo massacre of January 2015. The president of the Departmental Council is François Durovray, elected in 2015.

Presidential election, second roundEdit

Election Winning Candidate Party % 2nd Place Candidate Party %
2022[5] Emmanuel Macron LREM 65.43 Marine Le Pen FN 34.57
2017[6] Emmanuel Macron LREM 72.18 Marine Le Pen FN 27.82
2012 François Hollande PS 53.43 Nicolas Sarkozy UMP 46.57
2007 Nicolas Sarkozy UMP 52.08 Ségolène Royal PS 47.92
2002[6] Jacques Chirac RPR 84.96 Jean-Marie Le Pen FN 15.04
1995[7] Jacques Chirac RPR 53.30 Lionel Jospin PS 15.04

Members of the National AssemblyEdit

Constituency Member[8] Party
Essonne's 1st constituency Francis Chouat La République En Marche!
Essonne's 2nd constituency Franck Marlin The Republicans
Essonne's 3rd constituency Laëtitia Romeiro Dias La République En Marche!
Essonne's 4th constituency Marie-Pierre Rixain La République En Marche!
Essonne's 5th constituency Cédric Villani Ecology Democracy Solidarity
Essonne's 6th constituency Amélie de Montchalin La République En Marche!
Essonne's 7th constituency Robin Reda The Republicans
Essonne's 8th constituency Nicolas Dupont-Aignan Debout la France
Essonne's 9th constituency Marie Guévenoux La République En Marche!
Essonne's 10th constituency Pierre-Alain Raphan La République En Marche!

DemographicsEdit

Population development since 1876:

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1876135,911—    
1881140,027+0.60%
1891151,726+0.81%
1901164,617+0.82%
1911177,385+0.75%
1921187,188+0.54%
1931271,094+3.77%
1936286,896+1.14%
1946293,932+0.24%
1954350,987+2.24%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1962478,691+3.96%
1968673,325+5.85%
1975923,063+4.61%
1982988,000+0.98%
19901,084,824+1.18%
19991,134,238+0.50%
20061,198,273+0.79%
20101,215,340+0.35%
20161,287,330+0.96%
source:[9][10]

Place of birth of residentsEdit

Place of birth of residents of Essonne in 1999
Born in metropolitan France Born outside metropolitan France
84.7% 15.3%
Born in
overseas France
Born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth1 EU-15 immigrants2 Non-EU-15 immigrants
1.8% 2.8% 4.0% 6.7%
1 This group is made up largely of former French settlers, such as Pieds-Noirs in Northwest Africa, followed by former colonial citizens who had French citizenship at birth (such as was often the case for the native elite in French colonies), as well as to a lesser extent foreign-born children of French expatriates. Note that a foreign country is understood as a country not part of France in 1999, so a person born for example in 1950 in Algeria, when Algeria was an integral part of France, is nonetheless listed as a person born in a foreign country in French statistics.

2 An immigrant is a person born in a foreign country not having French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still considered an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.

TourismEdit

Sister regionsEdit

Essonne is twinned with:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Répertoire national des élus: les conseillers départementaux". data.gouv.fr, Plateforme ouverte des données publiques françaises (in French). 4 May 2022.
  2. ^ "Téléchargement du fichier d'ensemble des populations légales en 2019". The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. 29 December 2021.
  3. ^ a b c Populations légales 2019: 91 Essonne, INSEE
  4. ^ Soulabail, Yves (2020-09-30). "Bernardo Trujillo, son enseignement lors des séminaires MMM". Carrefour Un combat pour la liberté. (in French). Retrieved 2022-04-28.
  5. ^ "Les résultats du second tour de l'élection présidentielle". France 24 (in French). 2022-04-19. Retrieved 2022-04-28.
  6. ^ a b "Présidentielles". www.interieur.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved 2022-04-28.
  7. ^ "Résultats de l'élection présidentielle de 1995 par département - Politiquemania". www.politiquemania.com. Retrieved 2022-04-28.
  8. ^ Nationale, Assemblée. "Assemblée nationale ~ Les députés, le vote de la loi, le Parlement français". Assemblée nationale.
  9. ^ "Historique de l'Essonne". Le SPLAF.
  10. ^ "Évolution et structure de la population en 2016". INSEE.

External linksEdit