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Batyr Eset Kotibaruli (Kazakh: Есет Көтiбарұлы) (1803—1889) — Leader of the wars against Khiva and Kokand Kingdoms, the head of anti-colonial uprising, the leader of the national liberation movement of Kazakhs.[1]

Contents

OriginEdit

Eset batyr is originally from Shekty-Kabak subdivision of Alimuli tribe of the Lesser Horde.[2] This tribe had nomadic style of life on the territory of modern Aktobe Province of Kazakhstan and Orenburg province of the Russian Federation, as well as between the Ural(Zhaik) and Volga rivers. Eset Batyr was born in 1803 near the Lake Shalkar in Kazakhstan in the family of famous judge and leader Kotibar.[1]

Anti-Khiva uprisingEdit

Kazakhs of Lesser Horde constantly conflicted with Khiva troops due to aggressive attacks into the territory of the Kazakh Steppe by the Khiva Kingdom. Eset Batyr led a large army of Kazakhs and defeated the aggression of Khiva. Eset Batyr also successfully defended his ancestral lands against Kokand Khanate's aggression.[3]

Anti-Colonial UprisingEdit

In 1847–1858 years Eset batyr led a revolt of Kazakhs against the Russian administration.[3] Tsar's administration sent two Cossack detachments and 200 Kazakhs controlled by Sultan Taukin and Major Mikhailov from the Ural division. Also, 600 Kazakhs were sent under the leadership of Elekey Kasymov by the Tsar administration.[2] Eset batyr sent 800 people against Russian troops who were destroyed by people of Eset Batyr.[4] In 1854–1858 years, there was uprising of Kazakhs living in Aral region, due to high taxes of the Tsar administration. At that time, extortion or taxes carried out by camels. For instance, the military campaign of Perovskii in 1853 to conquer city of Akmeshit in Kazakhstan required almost 8 thousand camels.[3] Kazakhs organized an uprising and moved to the territory of the Emba river.[2] The rebels put a number of demands: removal of tax for households, termination of sending of punitive detachments to the Kazakh steppe, allowing usage of pastures and the possibility to move on the banks of rivers Zhem, Mugadzhar, Elek, Kobda, Zhayyk. V.A Perovskiy organized a punitive detachment and sent Baron Wrangel with a large army to suppress the uprisings.[4] Eset Batyr agreed with Baron Wrangel, but the war did not stop and subsequently Eset batyr continued military actions against the military colonial posts and Cossack troops. The newly created punitive detachment under the leadership of Sultan Arslan Zhantorin was defeated by the army of Eset Batyr.[3] Sultan Arslan Zhantorin was killed.

The suppression of uprisingEdit

The suppression of the uprising was accompanied by mass killings of civilian population. Many rebels were executed while others were sent to jail such as Batyr Becket Serkebaeyev. In 1858 uprising was totally suppressed.[2] The Russian Government understood that it would be unsuccessful to continue using force against Eset Batyr and Governor-General Katenin offered peace to Eset Batyr promising to comply with the demands of rebellions. Eset Batyr and the Russian administration reached a peace deal.

Eset batyr in historical essaysEdit

  • AI Dobrosmyslov, "Turgayskaya Oblast - historical sketch" (Orenburg, 1902, pp. 407–409): "The most important Batyrs were Shekti batyrs Dzhankozha Nurmuhamedov and Eset Kotibarov. Our administration quarrelled with Eset Kotibarov and created a dangerous enemy. His influence and importance among people is indisputable… "[4]
  • Chief of General Staff of Defense ministries L. Meyer St. Peterburg in 1865, "Kirgiskaya steppe, Orenburgskogo Office" (65-69 pp.) -: "Eset is a good family man, his dangers were shared with his several brothers and a mother who on hearsay, is the woman of excellent mind and energies… "[4]
  • "Russian art piece" 1858, 1 January 31 issue, "Minor Kirgiz Horde, a nomadic proposes" Ust-Urta ":"… The name of Eset in the Little Orde was also formidable, as of his colleague Keny-Sary, who was killed in the fortieth years … or as the name of the hero Shamil of Caucasus. ".[4]
  • The artist Bronislaw Zaleski, "Journey to the Kazakh Sahara, Paris, in 1865:" I spent one day at Iset Kotibarov's place. For that era it was the most interesting person, very popular in the steppes…… He remained leader and served as a judge. "[3]
  • E. P. Kovalevsky, Head of Department MFA Russian Empire, during the campaign to Khiva in 1839-1840: "… At the crossroads of the steppe I have met Batyr Eset Kotibarov, before he led the anti-colonial movement in priaral region, among some of the Kazakhs of the Lesser Horde. Eset had a body comparable to Hercules, his athletic form, his wild beauty and actions full of courage could impress Europeans and had strong influence among his fellow citizens " (" Explorer by land and seas ", kn.1, str.155).[3]
  • Also uprising of Eset widely reported in Russian publications such as Century 19: "Contemporary" (1851), "World illustration" (1860), "Domestic notes" (1860), "Russian Gazette" (1859), "Russian art piece" (1860), etc.[3]
  • Furthermore, books of Torekhanov Tauman Alybayuly describe in detail about Eset Kotibaruli.[1]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Official website of Tauman Torekhanov". Tauman Torekhanov. Retrieved 18 October 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d Olcott, Martha Brill, The Kazakhs, Hoover Press, 1995, pp. 58-68, ISBN 978-0-8179-9351-1. Retrieved on 18 October 2014
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Torekhanov, Tauman. Dala Herculesi, Almaty: Atamura, 2008, ISBN 9965218048
  4. ^ a b c d e Torekhanov, Tauman. Kanmen Zhazylgan Tagdyrlar, Almaty: Atamura, 1999, ISBN 9965013209