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Escaut ([ɛsko], Dutch: Schelde) was a department of the French First Republic and French First Empire in present-day Belgium and Netherlands. It was named after the river Scheldt (Escô, Schelde), which is called the Escaut in French. It was created on 1 October 1795, when the Austrian Netherlands and the Prince-Bishopric of Liège were officially annexed by the French Republic[3]. Before the reunion with France, its territory was part of the County of Flanders and the Dutch Republic (Staats-Vlaanderen).

Department of Escaut

Département de l'Escaut (fr)
Departement Schelde (nl)
1795–1814
Flag of Escaut
Escaut and other annexed departments
Escaut and other annexed departments
StatusDepartment of the French First Republic and the French First Empire
Chef-lieuGand
51°3′N 3°44′E / 51.050°N 3.733°E / 51.050; 3.733
Official languagesFrench
Common languagesDutch
Historical eraFrench Revolutionary Wars
• Creation
1 October 1795
• Treaty of Paris, disestablished
30 May 1814
Area
18123,570[1] km2 (1,380 sq mi)
Population
• 1789
583,059[2]
• 1799
594,617[2]
• 1800
602,072[2]
• 1812
636,438[1]
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Austrian Netherlands
Dutch Republic
United Kingdom of the Netherlands
Today part of

The Chef-lieu of the department was Gand. The department was subdivided into the following four arrondissements and cantons (as of 1812):[2]

After Napoleon was defeated in 1814, the department became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its territory corresponded with the present Belgian province of East Flanders and the Dutch region of Zeelandic Flanders.

AdministrationEdit

PrefectsEdit

The Prefect was the highest state representative in the department.

Term start Term end Office holder
2 March 1800[4] 18 September 1808 Guillaume Charles Faipoult de Maisoncelles
18 September 1808[5] 12 March 1813 Frédéric Christophe d'Houdetot
12 March 1813[6] 23 March 1813 Jean François Marie Delaître
23 March 1813[7] 30 May 1814 Napoléon Jean-Évangéliste Desmousseaux de Givré

General SecretariesEdit

The General Secretary was the deputy to the Prefect.

Term start Term end Office holder
2 March 1800[8] ?? ?? 1802 Étienne Lehodey de Saultchevreuil
?? ?? 1802 ?? ?? 1805 Claude Joachim Gréban de Saint Germain
?? ?? 1805[9] 30 May 1814 P. Tinel

Subprefects of AndenardeEdit

Term start Term end Office holder
1 May 1800[9] 15 January 1809 Constantin Beyens
15 January 1809[9] 30 May 1814 Joseph Charles Emmanuel Van Ertborn

Subprefects of EcclooEdit

This subprefecture was created in 1803, replacing Sas-de-Gand.

Term start Term end Office holder
24 September 1803[9] 30 May 1814 André Etienne Bazenerye

Subprefects of GandEdit

Until 1811, the Prefect also held the office of Subprefect of Gand.

Term start Term end Office holder
14 January 1811[9] 30 May 1814 Pierre Louis Joseph Servais van Gobbelschroy

Subprefects of Sas-de-GandEdit

This subprefecture was replaced by Eccloo in 1803.

Term start Term end Office holder
1 June 1800[9] 15 September 1800 Aubert
15 September 1800[9] 26 November 1802 Robert
26 November 1802[9] 14 January 1803 François Pierre Eversdyck
14 January 1803[9] 24 September 1803 André Etienne Bazenerye

Subprefects of TermondeEdit

Term start Term end Office holder
1 May 1800[9] 30 May 1814 Alexandre François Devos d’Ersele

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Almanach Impérial. Imprimerie de Sa Majesté. 1812. p. 400.
  2. ^ a b c d Mémoire statistique du département de l'Escaut. Imprimerie de Sa Majesté. 1804.
  3. ^ Duvergier, Jean-Baptiste (1835). Collection complète des lois, décrets, ordonnances, réglemens et avis du Conseil d'état, t. 8. p. 300.
  4. ^ Archives Nationales. "FAIPOULT DE MAISONCELLES, Guillaume Charles". francearchives.fr. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  5. ^ Archives Nationales. "HOUDETOT, Frédéric Christophe d'". francearchives.fr. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  6. ^ Archives Nationales. "DELAITRE, Jean François Marie". francearchives.fr. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  7. ^ Archives Nationales. "DESMOUSSEAUX DE GIVRÉ, Napoléon Jean-Évangéliste Émilien". francearchives.fr. Retrieved 22 June 2019.
  8. ^ BNF. "Étienne Lehodey de Saultchevreuil (1754-1830)". data.bnf.fr. Retrieved 5 July 2019.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Tulard, Jean & Marie-José (2014). Napoléon et 40 millions de sujets: La centralisation et le premier empire. p. 295.