Erode (Tamil: [iːɾoːɽɯ]; īrōṭu), is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. It is located on the banks of the Kaveri river and is surrounded by the Western Ghats. Erode is the seventh largest urban agglomeration in Tamil Nadu. It is the administrative capital of Erode district and is administered by the Erode Municipal Corporation which was established in 2008.
|• Type||Municipal Corporation|
|• Body||Erode Municipal Corporation|
|• Mayor||S. Nagarathinam, DMK|
|• City||109.52 km2 (42.29 sq mi)|
|Elevation||175.3 m (575.1 ft)|
|• Rank||7th in Tamil Nadu|
|• Official||Tamil, English|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Telephone code||91 (424)|
|Vehicle registration||TN 33 (East), TN 86 (West)|
The region was ruled by the Cheras during the Sangam period between the 1st and the 4th centuries CE. The medieval Cholas conquered the region in the 10th century CE. The region was ruled by Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century followed by the Nayaks who introduced the Palayakkarar system. In the later part of the 18th century, the it came under the Kingdom of Mysore and following the Anglo-Mysore Wars, the British East India Company annexed it to the Madras Presidency in 1799. The region played a prominent role in the second Poligar War (1801) when it was the area of operations of Dheeran Chinnamalai.
Post Indian Independence in 1947, Erode was part of Coimbatore district. It was established as the capital of the newly formed Erode district in 1979. Erode is a part of Erode Lok Sabha constituency that elects its member of parliament. Erode is a major agricultural, industrial and educational hub. Erode is among the largest producers of turmeric and Erode Turmeric is recognized as Geographical Indications by the Government of India. The textile boom in the early 20th century and rapid growth due to industrialization has seen Erode becoming a major producer of handloom and knitwear.
There are two theories regarding the origin of the name Erode. It might have its origin in the Tamil phrase Eeru Odai meaning two streams based on the presence of two water courses of Perumpallam and Pichaikaranpallam Canal. Alternatively, it might have been derived from the Tamil phrase Eera Odu meaning 'wet skull' based on Indian mythology.
During Sangam period, the region formed a part of the Kongu Nadu region ruled by Cheras and then by Kalabhras. The region came under the Pandyas around 590 CE. Afterward, it was ruled by Rashtrakutas and by Cholas from the 10th to early 13th century. Erode was annexed by Vijayanagara Empire in 1378 CE till 1559 CE. After the Vijayanagara Empire fell in the 17th century, the Madurai Nayaks established their state as an independent kingdom introducing the Palayakkarar system. Erode became a part of the Hindu Wodeyar-ruled Mysore Kingdom in the early 1700s CE before coming under the control of the British East India Company with Maharaja of Mysore still as a nominal ruler. Erode remained under British Colonial rule until the Indian independence in 1947.
Erode has a semi-arid climate with hot to sweltering temperatures throughout the year and relatively low rainfall. Temperatures range from 80 °F (27 °C) to 96 °F (36 °C) with an average rainfall of 543 millimetres or 21.4 inches. Like the rest of Tamil Nadu, March to June are the hottest and December to January the mildest months of the year. Because the Southwest monsoon (June to August) brings scanty rainfall, the bulk of Erode's rainfall is received during the Northeast monsoon in October and November. The city covers an area of 8.44 km2 (8,440,000 m2).
|Climate data for Erode (1997–2007)|
|Record high °C (°F)||37.0
|Average high °C (°F)||32.7
|Average low °C (°F)||20.4
|Record low °C (°F)||13.0
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||1.6
|Average rainy days||0.2||0.3||0.4||2.3||4.3||1.2||1.8||3.3||4.3||8.3||6.6||2.2||35.0|
|Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST)||56||45||46||49||54||53||57||58||57||65||69||63||56|
|Source: India Meteorological Department|
As of 2011, Erode has 521,776 in population with a sex-ratio of 996, above the national average of 929. A literacy rate of 85% compares favorably to the national average of 73%. The city had 43,184 households, with Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes accounting for 11% and 0.15% of the population respectively. Of its 66,135 workers, 61,382 are classified as other workers and the rest in agriculture and household industries. As of 2001, 52 slums were identified with 33,000 people residing in slums. Per the religious census of 2011, Erode had 83% Hindus, 12% Muslims and 4% Christians. The population had increased 11 times during the 20th century. While Tamil is the main spoken language, English is common as the medium of instruction in educational institutions and in the service sector.
The economy of Erode is dependent majorly on agriculture and textiles. It a textile hub specializing in hand-loom and knitwear. Erode is among the largest producers of turmeric. Erode Turmeric is recognized as Geographical Indications by the Government of India. Erode is one of the largest manufacturers of food products in the state with several food product manufacturers and poultries having established their base in and around the city. It also has one of the largest markets for coconut and coconut oil in South India. Other major industries include leather processing, paper manufacturing and sugarcane processing. There are several small and medium-scale industries like dal mills, cotton mills, vanaspathi manufacturers, wax, screen printing, and printing presses are located in the city.
GDP of Erode district grew at 15.5% in 2008 ahead of the state's GDP growth by 4%. According to Indian Census of 2001, urban workforce participation rate for Erode is 35% with growth in secondary and tertiary sectors and a corresponding decrease in the primary sector. Major employment is provided by textile industry, turmeric industry and oil and rice mills with 69% of its workforce employed in tertiary sector. Nethaji Market is a wholesale, and retail central market for vegetables and fruits with plans to establish a new wholesale market in the outskirts of the city.
Administration and politics edit
|Member of Parliament||A. Ganeshamurthi|
|Member of Legislative Assembly||S. Muthusamy (Erode West)|
|Member of Legislative Assembly||E. V. K. S. Elangovan (Erode East)|
Law and order is maintained by Erode sub division of Tamil Nadu Police headed by a Deputy Superintendent. There are seven law & order police stations located at Karungalpalayam, Bazaar, Surampatti, Veerappanchatram, Rangampalayam, Chithode and Periyar GH Police Station. There are special units like armed reserve, prohibition enforcement, district crime, social justice and human rights, district crime records and a special branch. Erode is the headquarters of Erode District which was bifurcated from Coimbatore District in 1979. The town was constituted as a municipality in 1871, promoted to special-grade during 1980 and upgraded as a corporation in 2008. City's corporation area covers part of Bhavani, Modakurichi, Perundurai and Komarapalayam constituencies. Its functions are devolved into six departments: general administration/personnel, Engineering, Revenue, Public Health, city planning and Information Technology (IT) under the control of a Municipal Commissioner who is the executive head. Erode has 60 wards with an elected councillor. The legislative powers are vested in a body of 60 members, one each from the 60 wards. The legislative body is headed by an elected Chairperson assisted by a Deputy Chairperson. Erode has two state assembly constituencies namely Erode East and Erode West to elect members (MLA) to Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly once every five years and forms part of the parliamentary constituency that elects its member (MP) to the Indian Parliament.
Public services edit
As of 2006, there were 46 public and private schools with four technical institutes. Three types of schools operate in Erode: government run schools, schools funded by the government but run by private trusts (aided schools) and schools funded completely by private trusts. Schools come under the purview of the Erode education district and may follow Tamil Nadu Anglo Indian School Board, Tamil Nadu State Board, Matriculation or CBSE syllabus. There are four playgrounds in the city.
Electricity supply is regulated and distributed by Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB) as the city along with its suburbs forms Erode Electricity Distribution Circle. A Chief Distribution engineer is stationed at the regional headquarters. Water supply is provided by Erode Municipality from river Kaveri through its eight reservoirs. For 2000–01, 14 million litres of water was supplied every day for households in the city. About 110-125 metric tonnes of solid waste were processed by the sanitary department in 2011. As there is no underground drainage system, disposal of sullage is through septic tanks, open drains and public conveniences with its 192 km (119 mi) of storm water drains. Government General Hospital serves as primary center of healthcare with several private hospitals providing supporting care. As of 2011, municipality maintained 4,678 street lamps. The corporation operates two vegetable markets and a textile market.
Erode maintains 102 km (63 mi) of local roads with 5 km (3.1 mi) of concrete and rest bituminous. Additionally, 16.6 km (10.3 mi) of state highways is maintained by State Highways Department. NH 544 connecting Salem and Coimbatore bypasses the city and the National Highway NH 381A and NH 544H pass throught the city. The Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation has a sub-divisional headquarters at Erode (jeeva) under the Coimbatore division. Erode Central Bus Terminus, is the second Largest main bus station complex for Tamil Nadu State Express Transport Corporation and is well connected with the major cities in Tamil Nadu and neighboring states. Private carriers operate long-distance buses connecting to major cities like Chennai, Bangalore etc. The main arterial roads include:
- SH-15: Erode – Gobichettipalayam – Sathy – Mettupalayam – Kotagiri – Ooty
- SH-83A: Erode – Arachalur – Kangeyam – Dharapuram
- SH-79: Erode – Tiruchengode – Rasipuram – Attur
- SH-79A: Erode – Pallipalayam – Sankagiri
- SH-84: Erode – Kodumudi – Karur
- SH-84A: Erode – Modakurichi – Vellakoil – Mulanur
- SH-96: Erode – Perundurai – Chennimalai – Kangeyam – Dharapuram
- SH-20: Erode – Bhavani
Erode Junction railway station is a major rail junction in Salem division of Southern Railway with a diesel locomotive shed and an electric locomotive shed attached. It also serves as a hub for water filling facilities, food provisions and cleaning services for long-distance trains that run via Erode. The following are the lines running from Erode junction:
|Line No.||Towards||Passing Through Station||Type / Track|
|1||Salem Junction||Sankagiri||Broad, Electrified – Double Track|
|2||Coimbatore Junction||Tiruppur||Broad, Electrified – Double Track|
|3||Trichy Junction||Karur||Broad, Electrified - Single Track|
The nearest airport to Erode is Salem Airport at a distance of 84 km (52 mi) which is connected to and from Chennai. The major international airport is Coimbatore International Airport at a distance of 91 km (57 mi) with regular flights to domestic destinations and select international destinations including Sharjah and Singapore.
Places of interest edit
Thindal Murugan Temple, situated 6 km (3.7 mi) from the city, is the most prominent temple in the city. Periya Mariamman Temple, Natadreeswarar Temple, the hillock temple of the Kaveri river, Sangameswarar Temple are prominent religious destinations in the city. While the city is built around a demolished fort, a temple for Arudra Kabaleeswar (Shiva) praising the Saiva and one for Kasthuri Ranganatha Perumal (Vishnu) praising the Vaishnava aspects of Hinduism were built. E.V.R Corporation Museum and Thanthai Periyar Memorial House are memorials depicting the life of Periyar E. V. Ramasamy. Sankagiri Fort and Vellode Bird Sanctuary are other visitor attractions around the city. CSI Brough Memorial Church, located on Meenatchi Sundaranar Road (formerly Brough Road) was consecrated in 1933 by Rev. Antony Watson Brough (1861 -1936), an Australian Missionary.
Notable people edit
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