Arthur Eric Rowton Gill ARA RDI (/ɡɪl/;[1] 22 February 1882 – 17 November 1940) was an English sculptor, typeface designer, and printmaker, who was associated with the Arts and Crafts movement. His religious views and subject matter contrast with his deviant sexual behaviour, including (as described in his own diaries) his sexual abuse of his daughters, sisters, and dog.[2][3]

Eric Gill

Eric Gill - self portrait.jpg
Self-portrait
Born
Arthur Eric Rowton Gill

(1882-02-22)22 February 1882
Brighton, Sussex, England
Died17 November 1940(1940-11-17) (aged 58)
Middlesex, England
Education
Known forSculpture, typography
MovementArts and Crafts movement

Gill was named a Royal Designer for Industry.[4] He was an Associate of the Royal Academy of Arts.[5]

BiographyEdit

Early lifeEdit

Eric Gill was born in 1882 in Hamilton Road, Brighton, the second of the 13 children of the Reverend Arthur Tidman Gill and (Cicely) Rose King (d. 1929), formerly a professional singer of light opera under the name Rose le Roi.[4] Arthur Tidman Gill had left the Congregational church in 1878 over doctrinal disagreements and became a minister of a sect of Calvinist Methodists known as the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion.[6]: 7  Arthur was born in the South Seas, where his father, George Gill, was a Congregational minister and missionary.[6]: 5  Eric Gill was the elder brother of the graphic artist MacDonald "Max" Gill (1884–1947).[4] Two of his other brothers, Romney and Cecil, became Anglican missionaries while their sister, Madeline, became a nun and also undertook missionary work.[6]: 5 

In 1897, the family moved to Chichester, when Arthur Tidman Gill left the Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion, became a mature student at Chichester Theological College and joined the Church of England.[4][6]: 19  Eric Gill studied at Chichester Technical and Art School, where he won a Queen's Prize for perspective drawing and developed a passion for lettering.[6]: 26  Later in his life, Gill cited the Norman and medieval carved stone panels in Chichester Cathedral as a major influence on his sculpture.[7][8] In 1900 Gill became disillusioned with Chichester and moved to London to train as an architect with the practice of W. D. Caröe, specialists in ecclesiastical architecture with a large office close to Westminster Abbey.[4]

London 1900-1907Edit

 
Rubbing of a memorial bronze created by Eric and Max Gill in 1905

Frustrated with his architectural training, Gill took evening classes in stonemasonry at the Westminster Technical Institute and, from 1901, in calligraphy at the Central School of Arts and Crafts while continuing to work at Caröe's.[6]: 42  The calligraphy course was run by Edward Johnston, creator of the London Underground typeface, who became a strong and lasting influence on Gill.[6]: 42  For a year, until 1903, Gill and Johnston shared lodgings at Lincoln's Inn in central London.[6]: 49 

During 1903, Gill gave up training in architecture to become a calligrapher, letter-cutter and monumental mason.[9][10][11] After making a copy of a small stone tablet from Westminster Abbey, Gill's first public inscription was for a stone memorial tablet, to a Percy Joseph Hiscock, in Chichester Cathedral.[6]: 45  Through a contact at the Central School, Gill was employed to cut the inscription for a tombstone at Brookwood Cemetery in Surrey.[6]: 45  Other work quickly followed, including an inscription for Holy Trinity, Sloane Street, plus commissions from architects and private individuals, including Count Kessler.[6]: 93  W.H. Smith & Son employed him to paint the lettering on the fascias of several of their bookshops including, in 1903, their Paris store.[6]: 87  For a time, Gill combined this work with his job at Caröe's but eventually the scale and frequency of these commissions required him to leave the company.[6]: 88  After Gill died, his brother, Evan, compiled an inventory of 762 inscriptions known to have been carved by him.[6]: 45 

In 1904 Gill married Ethel Hester Moore (1878–1961), later known as Mary, the daughter of a plant nursery owner who was also the head verger at Chichester Cathedral.[6]: 31  Gill and Moore would eventually have three daughters (Elizabeth, Petra, and Joanna) and foster a son, Gordian.[4] After a short period in Battersea, the couple moved into 20 Black Lion Lane, Hammersmith in west London, near the (recently married) Johnstons' home on Hammersmith Terrace.[12] A number of artists associated with the Arts and Crafts movement, including Emery Walker and May Morris were already based in the area, as were a number of printing presses, notably the Doves Press.[6]: 61  Gill formed a business partnership with Lawrence Christie and recruited a number of staff, including the 14-year old Joseph Cribb, to work in his studio.[6]: 98  Gill began giving lectures at the Central School and taught courses in monumental masonary and lettering for stone masons at the Paddington Institute.[6]: 102  In 1905 he was elected to the Arts and Crafts Exhibition Society and joined the Fabian Society the following year.[6]: 101 

In his diaries, Gill records two affairs while living at Hammersmith. He had a brief affair with the family maid while his wife was pregnant and then a relationship with Lillian Meacham, who he met through the Fabian Society.[6]: 95  Gill and Meacham visited the Paris Opera and Chartres Cathedral together and when their affair ended, she became an apprentice in Gill's workshop and remained a family friend throughout her life.[6]: 95 

Ditchling Village 1907-1913Edit

In 1907, Gill moved with his family to Sopers, a house in the village of Ditchling in Sussex, which would later become the centre of an artists' community inspired by Gill. Although by April 1908 Gill had established a workshop in Ditchling and dissolved his business partnership with Lawrence Christie, he continued to spend considerable amounts of time in London visiting clients and delivering lectures, while his wife Ethel organised their household and smallholding in Sussex.[6]: 120  In London, Gill would stay at his old lodgings in Lincoln's Inn with his brother Max or with his sister Gladys and Ernest Laughton, her future husband.[6]: 122  Gill continued to concentrate on lettering and inscriptions for stonework and employed a pupil for his signwriting business.[6]: 126  He also began to use wood engraving techniques for his book illustration work, notably for an 1907 edition of Homer for Count Kessler.[6]: 126 

 
Mother and Child, 1910

Late in 1909 Gill decided to become a sculptor.[6]: 126  Gill had always considered himself an artisan craftsman rather than an artist. He rejected the (then) usual method in academic art of creating a model in clay and leaving it to an artisan to have it scaled up to a full-size sculpture, in favour of direct carving of the final figure.[6]: 129  His first sculptures included Madonna and Child (1910), which the art critic Roger Fry described as a depiction of "pathetic animalism",[13] and the almost life-size Ecstasy (1911).[8][14] The models for Ecstasy were Ernest Laughton and Gladys Gill. Gladys and Eric Gill were in an incestuous relationship that continued throughout their adult lives.[8] There is also some evidence, from Gill's own writings, of a incestuous relationship with another of his sisters.[6]

An early admirer of Gill's sculptures was William Rothenstein and he introduced Gill, who was fascinated by Indian temple sculptures, to the Ceylonese philosopher and art historian Ananda Coomaraswamy.[15] Along with his friend and collaborator Jacob Epstein, Gill planned the construction in the Sussex countryside of a colossal, hand-carved monument in imitation of the large-scale structures at Gwalior Fort in Madhya Pradesh.[16] Throughout the second half of 1910 Epstein and Gill would met on an almost daily basis. Earlier in the year they had held long discussions with Rothenstein and other artists, including Augustus John and Ambrose McEvoy, about the formation of a quasi-religious brotherhood uniting artists, craft workers and priests.[6][page needed] At Ditchling, Epstein worked on elements of Oscar Wilde's tomb in Pere Lachaise cemetery for which Gill designed the inscription before sending Joseph Cribb to Paris to carve the lettering.[6]: 135 [17] Cribb had come to Ditchling with Gill in 1907.[18] Other apprentices included David Jones,[19] David Kindersley (who in turn became a successful sculptor and engraver) and his nephew, John Skelton, Laurie Cribb, Donald Potter and Walter Ritchie.[20]

Gill had his first sculpture exhibition in 1911 at the Chenil Gallery in London.[13] Eight works by Gill were included in the Second Post-Impressionism Exhibition organised by Roger Fry at the Grafton Galleries in London during 1912 and 1913.[17]

By 1912, while Gill's main source of income was from gravestone inscriptions, he had also carved a number of Madonna figures and was widely assumed, wrongly, to be a Catholic artist. As such he was invited to an exhibition in Brussels of Catholic art and, on route, stayed for some days at the Benedictine monastery at Mont-Cesar Abbey near Leuven.[6]: 94  Gill's experiences at Leuven, seeing the monks at prayer and hearing plainsong for the first time convinced him to become a Roman Catholic.[6]: 95  In February 1913 Gill and Ethel, after instructions from English Benedictines, were received into the Catholic Church at which point she changed her name to Mary.[6]: 147 

Ditchling Common 1913-1924Edit

 
Westminster Cathedral, Stations of the Cross XIII

In 1913, Gill and his wife became Roman Catholics.[4] They moved to Hopkin's Crank at Ditchling Common, two miles north of Ditchling village.[10] The Common was an arts and crafts community with a chapel at its centre, with an emphasis on manual labour in opposition to modern commerce. There, Gill worked primarily for Catholic clients, notably his 1914 commission for the stations of the cross in Westminster Cathedral.[4][3] He also produced at least one later set of stations of the cross, for St Alban's Church in Oxford.[21]

After World War I, together with Hilary Pepler and Desmond Chute, Gill founded The Guild of St Joseph and St Dominic at Ditchling. There his pupils included the artist and poet David Jones, who was to become engaged for a time to Gill's second daughter, Petra.[22] Gill also became a lay member of the Dominican Order.[4] Hilary Stratton, was an apprentice sculptor between 1919 and 1921.[23]

Gill designed several war memorials after World War I, including the Grade II* listed Trumpington War Memorial,[24] the memorial at Chirk[25] and "the huge lettered wall panel recording 228 names of the fallen in the ante-chapel at New College, Oxford."[4] Commissioned to produce a war memorial for the University of Leeds, Gill produced a frieze depicting Jesus driving the money-changers from the temple, showing contemporary merchants as the money-changers.[26] In doing so, Gill was suggesting that the merchants of Leeds had profited from the war.[26]

Capel-y-ffin 1924-1928Edit

 
St Peter the Apostle in Gorleston, Norfolk (1938–9), Gill's only completed building

In 1924, Gill left both Ditchling and the Guild of Saints Joseph and Dominic, and moved to a monastery at Capel-y-ffin near Llanthony Abbey in Powys, Wales. There he established a new workshop, to be followed by Jones and other disciples. At Capel-y-ffin, he made The Sleeping Christ (1925); Deposition (1925) and a war memorial altarpiece in oak relief for Rossall School (1927). He began printing his own engravings: The Song of Songs (1925), Troilus and Criseyde (1927), The Canterbury Tales (1928), and The Four Gospels (published 1931) for Robert Gibbings's Golden Cockerel Press. It was at Capel too that he designed the typefaces Perpetua (1925), Gill Sans (1927 onwards) and Solus (1929).[4]

Pigotts, Buckinghamshire 1928-1940Edit

In 1928, Gill moved to Pigotts at Speen near High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, where he lived for the rest of his life.[10][4] At Pigotts he set up a printing press and lettering workshop and took on more apprentices.[10] Others in the household included Gill's two sons-in-law, Petra's husband Denis Tegetmeier and Joanna's husband Rene Hague.

In 1928–29, Gill carved three of eight relief sculptures on the theme of winds for Charles Holden's headquarters for the London Electric Railway (now Transport for London) at 55 Broadway, St James's. He also carved a statue of the Virgin and Child for the west door of the chapel at Marlborough College.[27]

In 1932, Gill produced a sculptured group of figures, Prospero and Ariel,[28] and others for the BBC's Broadcasting House in London. In 2010, the BBC broadcast a comedy by Gary Brown about Gill's struggle with the BBC over the sculpture.[29] In January 2022 a man climbed the façade of Broadcasting House and damaged the sculpture with a hammer, while another man shouted about Gill's paedophilia.[30] Nearly 2,500 people had previously signed a petition, at the website of the political action group 38 Degrees, asking for the work to be removed.[31]

The Midland Hotel, Morecambe was built in 1932–33 by the London Midland & Scottish Railway to the Art Deco design of Oliver Hill and included several works by Gill, Marion Dorn, and Eric Ravilious. For the project, Gill produced two seahorses, modelled as Morecambe shrimps, for the outside entrance; a round plaster relief on the ceiling of the circular staircase inside the hotel; a decorative wall map of the north-west of England; and a large stone relief of Odysseus being welcomed from the sea by Nausicaa.[32]

In 1934, Gill visited Jerusalem, where he worked at the Palestine Archaeological Museum (now the Rockefeller Archaeological Museum).[33] He carved a stone bas-relief of the meeting of Asia and Africa above the front entrance, together with 10 stone reliefs illustrating different cultures, and a gargoyle fountain in the inner courtyard. He also carved stone signage throughout the museum in English, Hebrew and Arabic.

 
Relief representing Israelite culture, one of ten bas-reliefs by Gill in the inner courtyard at the Rockefeller Museum, Jerusalem, 1934

Gill was commissioned to produce a sequence of seven bas-relief panels for the façade of The People's Palace, now the Great Hall of Queen Mary University of London, which opened in 1936. In 1937, he designed the background of the first George VI definitive stamp series for the post office.[34][35] In 1938 Gill produced The Creation of Adam, three bas-reliefs in stone for the Palace of Nations, Geneva, the League of Nations building in Switzerland.[3] Gill's only complete work of architecture was St Peter the Apostle Roman Catholic Church in Gorleston-on-Sea, built in 1938–39.[4]

During this period, he was made a Royal Designer for Industry,[4] the highest British award for designers, by the Royal Society of Arts, and became a founder-member of the RSA's Faculty of Royal Designers for Industry when it was established in 1938. In April 1937, Gill was elected an Associate member of the Royal Academy.[5]

Gill died of lung cancer in Harefield Hospital in Middlesex in November 1940 and was buried in Speen's Baptist churchyard.[4] His personal diaries reveal that his religious beliefs did not limit his sexual activity, which included several extramarital affairs.[2]

Sexual abuseEdit

Gill's personal diaries reveal incestuous child sex abuse of his two eldest teenage daughters, incestuous relationships with his sisters, and sexual acts on his dog.[2][8][3] This aspect of Gill's life was little known beyond his family and friends until the publication of the 1989 biography by Fiona MacCarthy. The 1966 biography by Robert Speaight mentioned none of it.[36] Gill's daughter Petra Tegetmeier, who was alive at the time of the MacCarthy biography, described her father as having "endless curiosity about sex" and that "we just took it for granted", and told her friend Patrick Nuttgens she was unembarrassed. The children were educated at home and, according to Tegetmeier, she was then unaware of how her father's behaviour would seem to others.[37][38] Despite the acclaim the book received, and the widespread revulsion towards aspects of Gill's sexual life that followed publication, MacCarthy received some criticism for revealing Gill's incest in his daughter's lifetime.[39][40] MacCarthy commented:

after the initial shock, [...] as Gill's history of adulteries, incest, and experimental connection with his dog became public knowledge in the late 1980s, the consequent reassessment of his life and art left his artistic reputation strengthened. Gill emerged as one of the twentieth century's strangest and most original controversialists, a sometimes infuriating, always arresting spokesman for man's continuing need of God in an increasingly materialistic civilization, and for intellectual vigour in an age of encroaching triviality.[4]

Political viewsEdit

As a young man, Gill was a member of the Fabian Society, but later resigned.[41]

In the 1930s, Gill became a supporter of social credit; later he moved towards a socialist position.[42] In 1934, Gill contributed art to an exhibition mounted by the left-wing Artists' International Association, and defended the exhibition against accusations in The Catholic Herald that its art was "anti-Christian".[43]

Gill was adamantly opposed to fascism, and was one of the few Catholics in Britain to openly support the Spanish Republicans.[42] Gill became a pacifist and helped set up the Catholic peace organisation Pax with E. I. Watkin and Donald Attwater.[44] Later, Gill joined the Peace Pledge Union and supported the British branch of the Fellowship of Reconciliation.[42]

Typefaces and inscriptionsEdit

One of Gill's first independent lettering projects was creating an alphabet for W.H. Smith's sign painters.[45] In 1914, Gill had met the typographer Stanley Morison, who was later to become a typographic consultant for the Monotype Corporation. Commissioned by Morison, he designed the Gill Sans typeface in 1927–30.[46][a] In 1925, he designed the Perpetua typeface for Morison, with the uppercase based upon monumental Roman inscriptions. An in-situ example of Gill's design and personal cutting in the style of Perpetua can be found in the nave of the church in Poling, West Sussex, on a wall plaque commemorating the life of Sir Harry Johnston.[47] In the period 1930–31, Gill designed the typeface Joanna which he used to hand-set his book, An Essay on Typography.

 
Alphabets and Numerals (1909).
Gill carved these for a book, "Manuscript and Inscription Letters for Schools and Classes and for the Use of Craftsmen", compiled by his former teacher, Edward Johnston. He later gave them to the Victoria and Albert Museum so they could be used by students at the Royal College of Art.

Gill's types include:

  • Gill Sans, 1927–30; many variants followed
  • Perpetua (design started c. 1925, first shown around 1929, commercial release 1932)
  • Perpetua Greek (1929)[48]
  • Golden Cockerel Press Type (for the Golden Cockerel Press; 1929)[49] Designed bolder than some of Gill's other typefaces to provide a complement to wood engravings.[50][51][52][53][54]
  • Solus (1929)[55][49]
  • Joanna (based on work by Granjon; 1930–31, not commercially available until 1958)
  • Aries (1932)[49]
  • Floriated Capitals (1932)[49]
  • Bunyan (1934)
  • Pilgrim (recut version of Bunyan; 1953)[49]
  • Jubilee (also known as Cunard; 1934)[49]

These dates are somewhat debatable, since a lengthy period could pass between Gill creating a design and it being finalised by the Monotype drawing office team (who would work out many details such as spacing) and cut into metal.[56] In addition, some designs such as Joanna were released to fine printing use long before they became widely available from Monotype.

One of the most widely used British typefaces, Gill Sans, was used in the classic design system of Penguin Books and by the London and North Eastern Railway and later British Railways, with many additional styles created by Monotype both during and after Gill's lifetime.[56] In the 1990s, the BBC adopted Gill Sans for its wordmark and many of its on-screen television graphics.

The family Gill Facia was created by Colin Banks as an emulation of Gill's stone carving designs, with separate styles for smaller and larger text.[57]

Gill was commissioned to develop a typeface with the number of allographs limited to what could be used on Monotype systems or Linotype machines. The typeface was loosely based on the Arabic Naskh style but was considered unacceptably far from the norms of Arabic script. It was rejected and never cut into type.[58][59][60]

Published worksEdit

 
A Gill woodcut showing Hammersmith, illustrating the book The Devil's devices, or, Control versus Service by Hilary Pepler, 1915

Gill published numerous essays on the relationship between art and religion, and a number of erotic engravings.[61]

Gill's published writings include:

  • Christianity and Art, 1927
  • Art-nonsense and other essays, Cassell 1929 (pocket edition 1934)
  • Clothes: An Essay Upon the Nature and Significance of the Natural and Artificial Integuments Worn by Men and Women, 1931[62]
  • An Essay on Typography, 1931[63]
  • Beauty Looks After Herself, 1933
  • Unemployment, 1933
  • Money and Morals, 1934
  • Art and a Changing Civilization, 1934
  • Work and Leisure, 1935
  • The Necessity of Belief, 1935
  • Work and Property, 1937[64]
  • Work and Culture, Journal of the Royal Society of Arts, 1938
  • Twenty-five nudes, 1938[65]
  • And Who Wants Peace?, 1938
  • Sacred and Secular, 1940
  • Autobiography: Quod Ore Sumpsimus[66]
  • Notes on Postage Stamps[67]
  • Christianity and the Machine Age, 1940.[68]
  • On the Birmingham School of Art, 1940
  • Last Essays, 1943
  • A Holy Tradition of Working: passages from the writings of Eric Gill 1983.[69]

Gill provided woodcuts and illustrations for several books including:

  • Gill, Eric (1925). Song of Songs. Waltham St. Lawrence, Berkshire: Golden Cockerel Press.
  • The Four Gospels. Golden Cockerel Press. 1931. Facsimile edition published by Christopher Skelton at the September Press, Wellingborough, 1987.
  • Chaucer, Geoffrey (1932). Troilus and Criseyde. Translated by Krapp, George Philip. New York: Literary Guild.
  • Shakespeare, William (1939). Henry the Eighth. New York: Limited Editions Club.
  • The Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ, according to the four evangelists. Hague & Gill Printers. 1934 Faber & Faber

ArchiveEdit

Gill's papers and library are archived at the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library at UCLA in California, designated by the Gill family as the repository for his manuscripts and correspondence.[11] Some of the books in his collection have been digitised as part of the Internet Archive.[70] Additional archival and book collections related to Gill and his work reside at the University of Waterloo Library[9] and the University of Notre Dame's Hesburgh Library.[71] Much of Gill's work and memorabilia is held and is on display at the Ditchling Museum of Art and Craft.

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Gill Sans was based on the sans-serif lettering originally designed for the London Underground. Gill had collaborated with Edward Johnston in the early design of the Underground typeface, but dropped out of the project before it was completed.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Olausson, Lena; Sangster, Catherine (2006). Oxford BBC Guide to Pronunciation. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-19-280710-6.
  2. ^ a b c MacCarthy, Fiona (17 October 2009). "Mad about sex". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 October 2009.
  3. ^ a b c d Finlo Roher (5 September 2007). "Can the art of a paedophile be celebrated ?". BBC News. Retrieved 10 August 2008.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p MacCarthy, Fiona (25 September 2014) [23 September 2004]. "Gill, (Arthur) Eric Rowton". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  5. ^ a b "Eric Gill ARA (1882 - 1940)". Royal Academy of Arts. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Fiona MacCarthy (1989). Eric Gill. Faber & Faber. ISBN 0-571-14302-4.
  7. ^ James Williams (27 April 2017). "Eric Gill's fall from grace". Apollo. Retrieved 19 January 2022.
  8. ^ a b c d Fiona MacCarthy (22 July 2006). "Written in stone". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  9. ^ a b "Eric Gill archival and book collection". University of Waterloo Library. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  10. ^ a b c d "Font Designer – Eric Gill". Linotype Corporation. Retrieved 1 January 2009.
  11. ^ a b "Eric Gill Artwork Collection". Online Archive of California. William Andrews Clark Memorial Library. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  12. ^ "Eric Gill in Hammersmith" (PDF). Hammersmith and Fulham Historic Buildings Group Newsletter (33 (Winter 2015)): 6. 2015. Retrieved 13 August 2021.
  13. ^ a b "Madonna and Child". National Museum Wales. Retrieved 23 January 2022.
  14. ^ "Display caption, Catalogue entry: Ecstasy 1910-1". Tate. Retrieved 24 January 2022.
  15. ^ "Video of a Lecture at London University detailing Gill's interest in Indian Sculpture". London University School of Advanced Study. March 2012.
  16. ^ Rupert Richard Arrowsmith (2010). Modernism and the Museum: Asian, African, and Pacific Art and the London Avant-Garde. Oxford University Press. pp. 74–103. ISBN 978-0-19-959369-9.
  17. ^ a b Stephen Stuart-Smith (2003). "Gill, (Arthur) Eric (Rowton)". Grove Art Online. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  18. ^ Historic England. "Ditchling War Memorial (1438295)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  19. ^ Banks, Ariane; Hills, Paul. The Art of David Jones, Vision and Memory. Lund Humphries 2015.
  20. ^ Donald Potter (1980). My Time with Eric Gill: A Memoir. Gamecock Press. ISBN 0-9506205-1-3.
  21. ^ "Stations of the Cross by Eric Gill at St Alban's Church". Ss Mary & John Churchyard. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  22. ^ Rowan Williams (25 March 2017). "Everything is illuminated: Rowan Williams on the art and faith of David Jones". New Statesman. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  23. ^ Sussex Life article by Vida Herbison, Sussex sculptor and stonemason, undated article c 1975
  24. ^ "Trumpington War Memorial". Historic England.
  25. ^ "War Memorials Register: Chirk". Imperial War Museum. Retrieved 3 April 2020.
  26. ^ a b "Eric Gill - Christ driving the Moneychangers from the Temple". University of Leeds.
  27. ^ "Art & Architecture". Marlborough College. 20 July 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
  28. ^ Illustration.
  29. ^ "Gary Brown - Prospero, Ariel, Reith and Gill". BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  30. ^ Waterson, Jim (12 January 2022). "Man uses hammer to attack statue on front of BBC Broadcasting House". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  31. ^ "Man armed with hammer attacks statue at BBC headquarters in London". ITV News. 12 January 2022. Retrieved 28 January 2022.
  32. ^ Guise, Barry; Brook, Pam (2008). The Midland Hotel. Morecambe's White Hope. Lancaster, England: Palatine Books. ISBN 978-1-874181-55-2.
  33. ^ "Eric Gill, 1882–1940". East Meets West: The Story of the Rockefeller Museum. Israel Museum. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  34. ^ Worsfold, Peter (2001). Great Britain King George VI Low Value Definitive Stamps. The Great Britain Philatelic Society. ISBN 0-907630-17-0.
  35. ^ "Eric Gill Postage Stamps by Type Designer". The Offices of Kat Ran Press. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  36. ^ Fiona MacCarthy (24 July 2004). "Baptism by fire". The Guardian. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  37. ^ Nuttgens, Patrick (6 January 1999). "Petra Tegetmeier obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  38. ^ "The Darker Side of Ditchling". Brighton Argus. 9 January 1999. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  39. ^ Hoare, Lottie (9 January 1999). "Petra Tegetmeier obituary". The Independent. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  40. ^ Harrison, Barbara (7 May 1989). "A Lover's Quest for Art and God". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 February 2016.
  41. ^ Ian Britain (1982). Fabianism and culture: a study in British socialism and the arts c.1884–1918. Cambridge University Press. pp. 7, 12. ISBN 0-521-23563-4.
  42. ^ a b c Martin Ceadel (1980). Pacifism in Britain, 1914–1945: The Defining of a Faith. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press. pp. 281, 289–91, 295, 321. ISBN 0-19-821882-6.
  43. ^ Charles Harrison (1981). English Art and Modernism 1900–1939. London: Allen Lane. pp. 251–2. ISBN 0-253-13722-5.
  44. ^ Patrick G. Coy (1988). A Revolution of the Heart: Essays on the Catholic Worker. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. p. 76. ISBN 0-87722-531-1.
  45. ^ "W.H. Smith business archive". The University of Reading. Retrieved 28 March 2021. See also Gill Facia.
  46. ^ Mosley, James (2001). "Review: A Tally of Types". Journal of the Printing History Society. London, England: Printing History Society. 3: 63–67.
  47. ^ "Johnston; Sir; Henry Hamilton (1858-1927); Diplomat and Explorer". The Natural History Museum. Retrieved 28 March 2021.
  48. ^ Harling, Robert (1978). The Letter Forms and Type Designs of Eric Gill. Boston, Massachusetts: D. R. Godine. ISBN 0-87923-200-5.
  49. ^ a b c d e f "Eric Gill (1882-1940), Fonts designed by Eric Gill". Identifont. Archived from the original on 5 October 2021. Retrieved 31 January 2018.
  50. ^ Mosley, James. "Eric Gill and the Cockerel Press". Upper & Lower Case. International Typeface Corporation. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  51. ^ Brignall, Colin. "The Digital Development of ITC Golden Cockerel". International Typeface Corporation. Archived from the original on 14 June 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  52. ^ Carter, Sebastian. "The Golden Cockerel Press, Private Presses and Private Types". International Typeface Corporation. Archived from the original on 21 May 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  53. ^ Dreyfus, John. "Robert Gibbings and the quest for types suitable for illustrated books". International Typeface Corporation. Archived from the original on 21 May 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  54. ^ Yoseloff, Thomas. "A Publisher's Story". International Typeface Corporation. Archived from the original on 20 May 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2017.
  55. ^ Bates, Keith. "The Non Solus Story". K-Type. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
  56. ^ a b Rhatigan, Dan (September 2014). "Gill Sans after Gill" (PDF). Forum. Letter Exchange (28). Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2015. Dan Rhatigan is (or was) Type Director at Monotype.
  57. ^ Banks, Colin. "Gill Facia MT". Fontshop. Monotype. Retrieved 30 August 2015.
  58. ^ Blair, S.S. Islamic Calligraphy. p. 606, Fig. 13.7.
  59. ^ "Eric Gill" (PDF). The Monotype Recorder. 41 (3). 1958. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 16 September 2015.
  60. ^ Graalfs, Gregory (1998). "Gill Sands". Print.
  61. ^ Christopher Skelton (ed.), Eric Gill, The Engravings, Herbert Press, 1990, ISBN 1-871569-15-X.
  62. ^ Gill, Eric (1931). Clothes: An Essay Upon the Nature and Significance of the Natural and Artificial Integuments Worn by Men and Women. Jonathan Cape. OCLC 7320636.
  63. ^ Gill, Eric. (1931). An Essay on Typography ISBN 0-87923-762-7, ISBN 0-87923-950-6 (reprints).
  64. ^ Gill, Eric (1937). Trousers & The Most Precious Ornament. London: Faber and Faber. OCLC 5034115.
  65. ^ Gill, Eric (1951). "Twenty-Five Nudes". J. M. Dent & Sons.
  66. ^ Gill, Eric (1940). Autobiography: Quod Ore Sumpsimus. (published posthumously). Jonathan Cape. ISBN 1-870495-13-6.
  67. ^ Gill, Eric. (2011). Notes on Postage Stamps Kat Ran Press, 2011. ISBN 0-9794342-1-1.
  68. ^ In the series Christian Newsletter Books, The Sheldon Press.
  69. ^ Gill, Eric; Keeble, Brian (1983). A Holy Tradition of Working: passages from the writings of Eric Gill. Ipswich: Golgonooza Press. ISBN 090388030X. (reprinted 2021 by Angelico Press, ISBN 978-1-62138-681-0).
  70. ^ "Gill, Eric, 1882–1940, former owner". Internet Archive. California Digital Library. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
  71. ^ "The Eric Gill Collection". University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries. Rare Books & Special Collections. Retrieved 18 May 2016.

Further readingEdit

  • Attwater, Donald (1969). A Cell of Good Living. London: G. Chapman. ISBN 0-225-48865-5.
  • Bringhurst, Robert (1992). The Elements of Typographic Style. Hartley & Marks. ISBN 0-88179-033-8.
  • Collins, Judith (1998). Eric Gill: The Sculpture. Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press. ISBN 0-87951-830-8.
  • Corey, Steven; MacKenzie, Julia, eds. (1991). Eric Gill: A Bibliography. St Paul's Bibliographies. ISBN 0-906795-53-2.
  • Dodd, Robin (2006). From Gutenberg to OpenType. Hartley & Marks. ISBN 0-88179-210-1.
  • Fiedl, Frederich; Ott, Nicholas; Stein, Bernard (1998). Typography: An Encyclopedic Survey of Type Design and Techniques Through History. Black Dog & Leventhal. ISBN 1-57912-023-7.
  • Fuller, Peter (1985). Essay: Eric Gill,: a Man of Many Parts. Images of God, The Consolations of lost Illusions. Chatto & Windus.
  • Gill, Cecil; Warde, Beatrice; Kindersley, David (1968). The Life and Works of Eric Gill. Papers read at a Clark Library symposium, 22 April 1967. Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, University of California.
  • Peace, David; Gill, Evan, eds. (1994). Eric Gill: the inscriptions; a descriptive catalogue; based on the inscriptional work of Eric Gill. London: Herbert Press. ISBN 9781871569667.
  • Harling, Robert (1976). The letter forms and type designs of Eric Gill. Westerham: Eva Svensson. ISBN 0-903696-04-5.
  • Holliday, Peter (2002). Eric Gill in Ditchling. Oak Knoll Press. ISBN 1-58456-075-4.
  • Kindersley, David (1982) [1967]. Mr. Eric Gill: Further Thoughts by an Apprentice. Cardozo Kindersley Editions. ISBN 0-9501946-5-4.
  • Macmillan, Neil (2006). An A–Z of Type Designers. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-11151-7.
  • Miles, Jonathan (1992). Eric Gill & David Jones at Capel-y-ffin. Bridgend, Mid Glamorgan: Seren Books. ISBN 1-85411-051-9.
  • Pincus, J.W; Turner Berry, W.; Johnson, A. F. (2001). Encyclopædia of Type Faces. London: Cassell Paperback. ISBN 1-84188-139-2.
  • Skelton, Christopher, ed. (1990). Eric Gill: The Engravings. London: Herbert. ISBN 1-871569-15-X.
  • Speaight, Robert (1966). Life of Eric Gill. London: Methuen & Co. ISBN 0416286003.
  • Thorp, Joseph (1929). Eric Gill. London: Jonathan Cape. ASIN B0008B8S9Q.
  • Yorke, Malcolm (1981). Eric Gill: Man of Flesh and Spirit. London: Constable. ISBN 0-09-463740-7.

External linksEdit