Epic Games, Inc. (formerly Potomac Computer Systems and later Epic MegaGames, Inc.) is an American video game and software development company based in Cary, North Carolina. The company was founded by Tim Sweeney as Potomac Computer Systems in 1991, originally located in his parents' house in Potomac, Maryland. Following his first commercial video game release, ZZT (1991), the company became Epic MegaGames in early 1992, and brought on Mark Rein, who is the company's vice president to date. Moving their headquarters to Cary in 1999, the studio's name was simplified to Epic Games.
Epic Games' headquarters in Cary, North Carolina, 2016
|Industry||Video game industry|
|Founded||1991Potomac, Maryland, U.S.in|
Number of employees
Epic Games develops the Unreal Engine, a commercially available game engine which also powers their internally developed video games, such as Fortnite and the Unreal, Gears of War and Infinity Blade series. In 2014, Unreal Engine was named the "most successful videogame engine" by Guinness World Records.
Epic Games owns video game developer Chair Entertainment and cloud-based software developer Cloudgine, and operates eponymous sub-studios in Seattle, England, Berlin, Yokohama and Seoul. Key personnel at Epic Games include chief executive officer Tim Sweeney, lead programmer Steve Polge and art director Chris Perna. Tencent acquired a 48.4% outstanding stake, equating to 40% of total Epic, in the company in 2012, after Epic Games realized that the video game industry was heavily developing towards the games as a service model.
Potomac Computer Systems (1991–1992)
Potomac Computer Systems was founded by Tim Sweeney in 1991. At the time, Sweeney was studying mechanical engineering at the University of Maryland. Though he lived in a dorm located in Potomac, Maryland, he frequently visited his parents, who lived in the same town, where his personal computer, used for both work and leisure, was situated. Out of this location, Sweeney started Potomac Computer Systems as a computer consulting business, but later figured that it would be too much work he would have to put into keeping the business stable, and scrapped the idea.
After finishing his game ZZT in October 1991, Sweeney opted to re-use the Potomac Computer Systems name to release the game to the public. It was only with the unexpected success of ZZT, caused in most part by the easy modifiability of the game using Sweeney's custom ZZT-oop programming language, that made Sweeney consider turning Potomac Computer Systems into a video game company. ZZT was sold through bulletin board systems, while all orders were fulfilled by Sweeney's father, Paul Sweeney. The game sold several thousand copies as of May 2009, and Paul Sweeney still lived at the former Potomac Computer Systems address at the time, fulfilling all orders that eventually came by mail. The final copy of ZZT was shipped by Paul Sweeney in November 2013.
Epic MegaGames (1992–1999)
In early 1992, Sweeney found himself and his new-found video game company in a business where larger studios, such as Apogee Software and id Software, were dominant, and he had to find a more serious name for his. As such, Sweeney came up with "Epic MegaGames", a name which incorporated "Epic" and "Mega" to make it sound like it represented a fairly large company (such as Apogee Software), although he was its only employee. Sweeney soon underwent searching for a business partner, and eventually caught up with Mark Rein, who previously quit his job at id Software and moved to Toronto, Ontario. Rein worked remotely from Toronto, and primarily handled sales, marketing and publishing deals; business development that Sweeney found to have significantly contributed to the company's growth. Some time this season, the company soon had 20 employees consisting of programmers, artists, designers and composers. Among them was the 17-year old Cliff Bleszinski, who joined the company after submitting his game Dare to Dream to Sweeney. The following year, they had over 30 employees.
In 1996, Epic MegaGames produced a shareware isometric shooter called Fire Fight, developed by Polish studio Chaos Works. It was published by Electronic Arts. By 1997, Epic MegaGames had 50 people working for them worldwide. In 1998, Epic MegaGames released Unreal, a 3D first-person shooter co-developed with Digital Extremes, which expanded into a series of Unreal games. The company also began to license the core technology, the Unreal Engine, to other game developers.
Epic Games (1999–present)
Unreal and personal computer gaming (1999–2006)
In February 1999, Epic MegaGames announced that they had moved their headquarters to a new location in Cary, North Carolina, and would henceforth be known as simply Epic Games. Rein explained that "Unreal was first created by developers who were scattered across the world, eventually, the team came together to finish the game and that's when the real magic started. The move to North Carolina centralizes Epic, bringing all of the company's talented developers under one roof." Furthermore, Sweeney stated that the "Mega" part of the name was dropped because they no longer wanted to pretend to be a big company, as was the original intention of the name when it was a one-man team. The follow-up game, Unreal Tournament, shipped to critical acclaim the same year, at which point the studio had 13 employees.
The company launched the Make Something Unreal competition in 2004, aiming to reward video game developers who create mods using the Unreal game engine. Tripwire Interactive won US$80,000 in cash and computer hardware prizes over the course of the contest in the first contest in 2004.
Gears of War and console gaming (2006–2012)
Around 2006, the personal computer video game market was struggling with copyright infringement in the form of software piracy, and it became difficult to make single-player games, elements which had been part of Epic's business model to that point. The company decided to shift focus into developing on console systems, a move which Sweeney called the start of the third major iteration of the company, "Epic 3.0". In 2006, Epic released the Xbox 360 shooter Gears of War, which became a commercial success for the company, grossing about US$100 million off a US$12 million budget. A year later, the company released Unreal Tournament 3 for PC and acquired a majority share in People Can Fly.
In 2008, Epic Games acquired Utah based Chair Entertainment and released Gears of War 2, selling over three million copies within the first month of its release. Summer 2009 saw the launch of Chair Entertainment's Shadow Complex, an adventure game inspired by the Metroid series.
Epic Games released on September 1, 2010 Epic Citadel as a tech demo to demonstrate the Unreal Engine 3 running on Apple iOS, within Adobe Flash Player Stage3D and using HTML5 WebGL technologies. It was also released for Android on January 29, 2013. Epic Games worked on an iOS game, Infinity Blade, which was released on December 9, 2010. The third game in the series, Gears of War 3, came out in 2011.
In June 2012, Epic announced that it is opening up a new studio, Epic Baltimore, made up of members of 38 Studios' Big Huge Games. Epic Baltimore was renamed to Impossible Studios in August 2012. However, the studio ended up closing its doors in February 2013.
Epic alongside People Can Fly made one last game in the Gears of War series that served as a prequel to the other games, Gears of War: Judgement, which was released in 2013. At this point, Epic had considered developing a fourth main title for Gears of War, but estimated that its budget would be at least US$100 million. Additionally, they had suggested the idea of a multiplayer-only version of Gears of War that featured improved versions of maps based on user feedback, similar to the concept behind Unreal Tournament, but Microsoft rejected this idea. Epic recognized the troubles of being held to the business objectives of a publisher, and began to shift the company again.
Games as a Service and Tencent acquisition (2012–2018)
Coupled with their desire to move away from being beholden to a publisher, Epic Games observed that the video game industry was shifting to a games as a service model (GaaS). Sweeney stated "There was an increasing realization that the old model wasn't working anymore and that the new model was looking increasingly like the way to go." In an attempt to gain more GaaS experience, they made an agreement with Chinese Tencent, who had several games under their banner (including Riot Games' League of Legends) operating successfully as games as a service. In exchange for Tencent's help, Tencent acquired approximately 48.4% of Epic then issued share capital, equating to 40% of total Epic — inclusive of both stock and employee stock options, for $330 million in June 2012. Tencent Holdings has the right to nominate directors to the board of Epic Games and thus counts as an associate of the Group. However, Sweeney stated that Tencent otherwise has very little control on the creative output of Epic Games. Sweeney considered the partial acquisition by Tencent as the start of "Epic 4.0", the fourth major iteration of the company, allowing the company to be more agile in the gaming marketplace.
Around this point, Epic had about 200 employees. A number of high-profile staff left the company months after the Tencent deal was announced for various reasons. Some notable departures included:
- Cliff Bleszinski, then the design director, announced he was leaving Epic Games in October 2012 after 20 years with the company. His official reason was "It's time for a much needed break". Bleszinski later stated that he had become "jaded" about the gaming industry in the lead-up to Tencent's involvement. After Tencent's investment, Bleszinski attempted to renegotiate his contract, but failed to come to terms, making him think about retirement instead. He opted to stop coming into work, spending his time at his beach house, eventually leading Sweeney to come down and have a heart-to-heart discussion with Bleszinski on the new direction Epic was going, and asking him to make a firm decision regarding his commitment to Epic. Bleszinski opted to write his resignation letter the next day. After about two years, Bleszinski later started Boss Key Productions in 2014.
- President Mike Capps announced his retirement in December 2013, and cited the reasons as the arrival of a baby boy he was having with his wife and his plans to be a stay-at-home dad. He subsequently announced his departure of his advisory role as well as his affiliation with the company in March 2013.
- Rod Fergusson, who had been a lead developer for the Gears of War series, left Epic in August 2012. Fergusson stated that he had seen the direction that the Tencent acquisition would have taken the company, and was not interested in the free-to-play style of games but instead wanted to continue developing a "AAA, big-narrative, big-story, big-impact game". Fergusson briefly joined Irrational Games, owned by 2K Games, to help complete BioShock Infinite. While there, Fergusson talked with 2K about potentially continuing the Gears of War series, leading to talks between 2K Games, Epic, and Microsoft. As a result, Microsoft acquired the rights to Gears of War on January 27, 2014, eventually assigned those to Microsoft Game Studios; Fergusson moved to Black Tusk Studios, owned by Microsoft Game Studios, to take on lead development for a new Gears title, with the studio being rebranded as The Coalition. The first game since the acquisition, Gears of War 4, was released in October 2016.
- Adrian Chmielarz, the founder of People Can Fly and who joined Epic when his studio was acquired earlier in 2012, decided to leave after Tencent's acquisition, stating that he and other former People Can Fly members did not believe the free-to-play, games as a service direction fit their own personal vision or direction they wanted to go. Chmielarz and these others left Epic in late 2012 to form The Astronauts.
- Lee Perry, a lead designer on both Unreal and Gears of War series, who felt that Epic has started to grow too large to maintain a role as an eccentric game developer. Coupled with the studio's need for more management to support the games as a service model, Perry felt that their creative freedom would become limited. He and five other senior people left Epic to form a new studio, Bitmonster.
Epic continued on its goal to deliver games as a service following these departures. Fortnite was to serve as their testbed for living games, but with the shifts in staff, as well as shifting its engine from Unreal Engine 3 to 4, its release suffered some setback. Epic started additional projects; the free-to-play and community-developed Unreal Tournament, first announced in 2014, and the free-to-play multiplayer online battle arena game Paragon, launched in 2016 for Microsoft Windows and PlayStation 4. Epic also released a remastered version of Shadow Complex for newer consoles and computers in 2015, and their first foray into virtual reality with the release of Robo Recall for the Oculus Rift.
The investment infusion from Tencent allowed Epic Games to relicense the Unreal Engine 4 engine in March 2015 to be free for all users to develop with, with Epic taking 5% royalties on games developed with the engine.
In June 2015, Epic agreed to allow Epic Games Poland depart the company and sold its shares in the studio; the studio reverted to their former name, People Can Fly. The Bulletstorm IP was retained by People Can Fly who has since launched a remastered version called Bulletstorm: Full Clip Edition on April 7, 2017, published by Gearbox Software.
Fortnite success (2018–present)
By July 2017, Fortnite was finally in a state for public play. Epic launched the title through a paid early access then, with a full free-to-play release expected in 2018. Following on the popularity of PlayerUnknown's Battlegrounds, a battle royale game released earlier in 2017, Epic developed a variant of Fortnite called Fortnite Battle Royale, which was released in September 2017 as a free-to-play title across computer, console, and mobile platforms. Fortnite Battle Royale quickly gained an audience, amassing over 125 million players by May 2018 with estimates of having earned over US$1 billion by July 2018 through microtransactions, including its battle pass system. Epic Games, which had been valued at around US$825 million at the time of Tencent's acquisition, was estimated to be worth US$4.5 billion in July 2018 due to Fortnite Battle Royale, and expected to surpass US$8.5 billion by the end of 2018 with projected growth of the game. Player count continued to expand when Epic broke new ground by convincing Sony to change its stance on cross-platform play allowing players on any device to compete with each other in Fortnite Battle Royale. Fortnite has drawn nearly 250 million players as of March 2019.
Fornite's commercial success enabled Epic to make several changes to its other product offerings. In July 2018, it reduced the 30% revenue cut that it took for assets sold on the Unreal Engine Marketplace from 30% to 12%. Epic launched the Epic Games Store digital storefront to compete with services like Steam and GOG.com, not only taking only a 12% cut of revenue compared to the industry standard of 30%, but also eliminated the 5% cut for games using the Unreal engine sold via the storefront. However the company also refocused its development efforts to provide more support for Unreal and Fortnite by ending support for Paragon and Unreal Tournament.
The financial success of Fortnite brought additional investment into Epic Games. Epic Games was one of eleven companies selected to be part of the Disney Accelerator program in 2017, providing Epic equity investment and access to some of Disney's executives, and potential opportunity to work with Disney in the future. Disney had selected both Epic and aXiomatic as potential leads in the growing esports arena. Epic announced in October 2018 that it had acquired US$1.25 billion in investment from seven firms: KKR, ICONIQ Capital, Smash Ventures, aXiomatic, Vulcan Capital, Kleiner Perkins, and Lightspeed Venture Partners. The firms join Tencent, Disney, and Endevour as minority shareholders in Epic, which is still controlled by Sweeney. With the investment, Epic Games was estimated to have a nearly US$15 billion valuation in October 2018.
Besides expanding support for Fortnite and the Epic Games Store, these investments allowed Epic to acquire additional firms. In January 2018, it was announced that Epic had acquired Cloudgine, a developer of cloud-based gaming software. The company also announced the acquisition of Kamu, a firm that offered anti-cheat software, in October 2018. A year later, in January 2019, Epic acquired 3Lateral and Agog Labs. 3Lateral is known for its "digital human" creations, using a combination of digital technology, motion capture, and other tools to create photo-realistic human subjects in real time. Epic plans to add some of 3Lateral's features to the Unreal Engine. Agog had developed SkookumScript, a platform for scripting events in video games; on announcement of this acquisition, Agog stated they will stop development of SkookumScript to work more on Unreal Engine scripting support.
Epic's has used its windfall to support its products. In January 2019, following a dispute between Improbable and Unity Technologies over changes to the acceptable uses of the Unity game engine, Epic announced it was partnering with Improbable to launch a US$25 million fund to help bring developers they believe affected by these changes towards solutions that are more open and would have fewer service compatibilities. Epic launched a US$100 million prize pool in February 2019 for Fortnite-related esports activities that it plans to run from 2019 onward. At the 2019 Game Developers Conference, Epic announced it was launching a US$100 million MegaGrants initiative, allowing anyone to apply for up to US$500,000 in funding to support game development using the Unreal Engine or for any project, even if not directly games-related, that would benefit the Unreal Engine.
Epic Games is known for games such as ZZT developed by founder Tim Sweeney, various shareware titles including Jazz Jackrabbit and Epic Pinball, the Unreal video game series, which is used as a showcase for its Unreal Engine, the Gears of War series which is now owned by The Coalition and Microsoft Game Studios, Infinity Blade, Shadow Complex, Bulletstorm, and Fortnite.
Epic is the proprietor of four successful game engines in the video game industry. Each Unreal Engine has a complete feature set of graphical rendering, sound processing, and physics that can be widely adapted to fit the specific needs of a game developer that does not want to code its own engine from scratch. The four engines Epic has created are the Unreal Engine 1, Unreal Engine 2 (including its 2.5 and 2.X releases), Unreal Engine 3, and Unreal Engine 4. Epic also provides support to the Unreal marketplace, a digital storefront for creators to sell Unreal assets to other developers.
Epic Games Store
Epic announced its own Epic Games Store, an open digital storefront for games, on December 4, 2018, which launched a few days later with The Game Awards 2018 presentation. Differing from Valve's Steam storefront, which takes 30% of revenues (30/70 revenue-sharing agreement) from the sale of a game, the Epic Game Store will take 12%, as well as foregoing the 5% for games developed in the Unreal Engine, anticipating that these lower revenue-sharing agreements will draw developers to it.
Subsidiaries and divisions
|3Lateral||Novi Sad, Serbia||2008||2019|||
|Agog Labs||Vancouver, British Columbia||2013||2019|||
|Chair Entertainment||Salt Lake City, Utah||2005||2008|||
|Epic Games Berlin||Berlin, Germany||2016||N/A|||
|Epic Games China[a]||Shanghai, China||2006|||
|Epic Games Japan||Yokohama, Japan||2010|||
|Epic Games Korea||Seoul, South Korea||2009|||
|Epic Games Montreal||Montreal, Quebec||2018|||
|Epic Games New Zealand/Australia||N/A||2018|||
|Epic Games Seattle||Bellevue, Washington, U.S.||2012|||
|Epic Games Stockholm||Stockholm, Sweden||2018|||
|Epic Games UK[b]||Sunderland, England||2014|||
|Name||HQ location||Founded or acquired||Closed or sold||Ref.|
|Impossible Studios||Baltimore, Maryland||2012||2013|||
|People Can Fly||Warsaw, Poland||2012||2015|||
Litigation with Silicon Knights
On July 19, 2007, Canadian game studio Silicon Knights sued Epic Games for failure to "provide a working game engine", causing the Ontario-based game developer to "experience considerable losses". The suit alleged that Epic Games was "sabotaging" Unreal Engine 3 licensees. Epic's licensing document stated that a working version of the engine would be available within six months of the Xbox 360 developer kits being released. Silicon Knights claimed that Epic not only missed this deadline, but that when a working version of the engine was eventually released, the documentation was insufficient. The game studio also claimed Epic had withheld vital improvements to the game engine, claiming they were "game specific", while also using licensing fees to fund development of its own titles rather than the engine itself.
In August 2007, Epic Games counter-sued Silicon Knights, alleging the studio was aware when it signed on that certain features of Unreal Engine 3 were still in development and that components would continue to be developed and added as Epic completed work on Gears of War. Therefore, in a statement, Epic said that "SK knew when it committed to the licensing agreement that Unreal Engine 3 may not meet its requirements and may not be modified to meet them". Additionally, the counter-suit claimed that Silicon Knights had "made unauthorized use of Epic's Licensed Technology" and had "infringed and otherwise violated Epic's intellectual property rights, including Epic's copyrighted works, trade secrets, know how and confidential information" by incorporating Unreal Engine 3 code into its own engine, the Silicon Knights Engine. Furthermore, Epic asserted the Canadian developer broke the contract when it employed this derivative work in an internal title and a second game with Sega, a partnership for which it never received a license fee.
On May 30, 2012, Epic Games defeated Silicon Knights' lawsuit, and won its counter-suit for $4.45 million on grounds of copyright infringement, misappropriation of trade secrets, and breach of contract, an injury award that was later doubled due to prejudgment interest, attorneys' fees and costs. Consistent with Epic's counterclaims, the presiding judge, James C. Dever III, stated that Silicon Knights had "deliberately and repeatedly copied thousands of lines of Epic Games' copyrighted code, and then attempted to conceal its wrongdoing by removing Epic Games' copyright notices and by disguising Epic Games' copyrighted code as Silicon Knights' own". Dever stated that evidence against Silicon Knights was "overwhelming", as it not only copied functional code but also "non-functional, internal comments Epic Games' programmers had left for themselves".
As a result, on November 7, 2012, Silicon Knights was directed by the court to destroy all game code derived from Unreal Engine 3, all information from licensee-restricted areas of Epic's Unreal Engine documentation website, and to permit Epic Games access to the company's servers and other devices to ensure these items have been removed. In addition, the studio was instructed to recall and destroy all unsold retail copies of games built with Unreal Engine 3 code, including Too Human, X-Men Destiny, The Sandman, The Box/Ritualyst, and Siren in the Maelstrom (the latter three titles were projects never released, or even officially announced).
On May 16, 2014, Silicon Knights filed for bankruptcy and a Certificate of Appointment was issued by the office of the Superintendent of Bankruptcy, with Collins Barrow Toronto Limited being appointed as trustee in bankruptcy.
- Keighley, Geoffrey. "Blinded By Reality: The True Story Behind the Creation of Unreal". GameSpot. Archived from the original on May 19, 2001.
- Berardini, César A. (June 30, 2005). "Everything You Wanted to Know About Unreal". TeamXbox. Archived from the original on July 3, 2005.
- Porter, Will (October 26, 2007). "The Epic tradition". GamesRadar.
- Blancato, Joe (May 13, 2008). "Epic's Rainmakers". The Escapist.
- Edwards, Benj (May 25, 2009). "From The Past To The Future: Tim Sweeney Talks". Gamasutra.
- Totilo, Stephen (December 7, 2011). "The Quiet Tinkerer Who Makes Games Beautiful Finally Gets His Due". Kotaku.
- Plante, Chris (April 2, 2012). "Better with age: A history of Epic Games". Polygon.
- Freeman, Will (August 12, 2013). "Development Legends: An Unreal tale". Develop.
- Crecente, Brian (May 1, 2016). "Their future is Epic: The evolution of a gaming giant". Polygon.
- Huddleston Jr., Tom (August 9, 2018). "'Fortnite' launched battle royale a year ago today — here's how the company behind the billion-dollar game was founded by a college kid". CNBC.
- Edwards, Benj (May 25, 2009). "From The Past To The Future: Tim Sweeney Talks". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on February 4, 2017. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
- Crecente, Brian (July 25, 2018). "How a 2012 Decision Helped 'Fortnite' Make Epic Games a Billion Dollar Company". Variety.
- Crecente, Brian (March 21, 2013). "Tencent's $330M Epic Games investment absorbed 40 percent of developer [Updated]". Polygon. Vox Media. Archived from the original on August 20, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Crecente, Brian (March 29, 2019). "'Fortnite' Creator Sees Epic Games Becoming as Big as Facebook, Google". Variety. Retrieved March 30, 2019.
- "Most successful videogame engine". Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015.
- Gaudiosi, John (September 21, 2011). "Epic Games Founder Tim Sweeney Pushes Unreal Engine 3 Technology Forward". Forbes. Archived from the original on October 7, 2014. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
- Kushner, David (September 10, 2009). "A Turing Test for Computer Game Bots". MIT Technology Review. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
- Miller, Matt (May 26, 2010). "Making Of The Cover: Gears of War 3". Game Informer. Archived from the original on August 3, 2017. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
- Plante, Chris (October 1, 2012). "Better with age: A history of Epic Games". Polygon. Archived from the original on October 4, 2017. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- Pitcher, Jenna (November 21, 2013). "Epic Classics ships last copy of ZZT". Polygon. Archived from the original on May 19, 2016. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- Sweeney, Tim (1992). "Epic MegaGames Newsletter – Spring 1992". Museum of ZZT. Epic MegaGames. Archived from the original on July 18, 2018. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
- Bissell, Tom (November 3, 2008). "The Grammar of Fun". The New Yorker. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on December 24, 2014. Retrieved December 24, 2014.
- Epic MegaGames Catalog – Winter & Spring 1993
- "Kicks Arson". Next Generation. Vol. Two no. 21 (September 1996). p. 154. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
- "Epic MegaGames Author Info Pack". SlideShare. Epic MegaGames. Archived from the original on March 30, 2018. Retrieved March 29, 2018.
- IGN Staff (February 3, 1999). "Epic Sets up Shop". IGN. Archived from the original on July 13, 2017. Retrieved July 13, 2017.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
- "Unreal Tournament". Metacritic. Archived from the original on September 22, 2017. Retrieved October 17, 2017.
- Herz, J.C. (December 2, 1999). "GAME THEORY; For Game Maker, There's Gold in the Code". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 19, 2017. Retrieved March 5, 2018.
- Graves, Lucas (April 2006). "How the Reds Conquered Unreal". Wired. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on May 19, 2013. Retrieved July 7, 2013.
- IGN Staff (April 3, 2008). "Intel and Epic Games Launch '$1 Million Intel Make Something Unreal Contest'". IGN. Ziff Davis Media. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
- Crecente, Brian (May 5, 2016). "The four lives of Epic Games". Polygon. Archived from the original on November 9, 2017. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- Frank, Allegra (May 2, 2016). "Gears of War 4 would have cost over $100M to make — and could have killed Epic Games". Polygon. Archived from the original on July 29, 2017. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
- Foster, Lisa (November 7, 2007). "Unreal Tournament 3 to blast in on November 23rd". MCV. Retrieved July 28, 2017.
- Rea, Jared (August 20, 2007). "Epic believes People Can Fly, acquires majority stake". Engadget. Archived from the original on July 28, 2017. Retrieved July 28, 2017.
- Brandon Boyer (May 20, 2008). "Epic Games Acquires Undertow Developer Chair". GamaSutra. Archived from the original on April 10, 2012. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
- Laughlin, Andrew (October 13, 2008). "Epic's 'Gears Of War 2' goes gold". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on July 29, 2017. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
- Gibson, Ellie (December 9, 2008). "Gears of War 2 sales hit 3 million mark". Eurogamer. Archived from the original on July 29, 2017. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
- McWhertor, Michael (July 28, 2009). "How Shadow Complex Was Inspired By Super Metroid (And Never Looked Back)". Kotaku. Archived from the original on July 29, 2017. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
- Buchanan, Levi (November 2, 2010). "Project Sword Becomes Infinity Blade". IGN. IGN Entertainment. Archived from the original on September 19, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- McWhertor, Michael (September 1, 2010). "Play With The Unreal Engine On Your iPhone With Epic Citadel". Kotaku. Gawker Media. Archived from the original on August 24, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Reilly, Jim (October 1, 2010). "Gears of War 3 Delayed to Fall 2011". IGN. IGN Entertainment. Archived from the original on June 27, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Sliwinski, Alexander (July 5, 2011). "Carbon Games formed by Fat Princess devs". Engadget. AOL Tech. Archived from the original on August 26, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Langshaw, Mark (December 11, 2011). "'Fortnite' revealed by Epic Games". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on September 6, 2017. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
- Sliwinski, Alexander (June 3, 2012). "Big Huge Games members picked up for Epic Baltimore". Engadget. AOL Tech. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Sliwinski, Alexander (August 9, 2012). "Epic Baltimore now Impossible Studios, working on Infinity Blade: Dungeons". Engadget. AOL Tech. Archived from the original on August 17, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Corriea, Alexa Ray (February 8, 2013). "Epic Games is closing Impossible Studios, Infinity Blade Dungeons on hold". Polygon. Vox Media. Archived from the original on April 24, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Moriarty, Colin (February 8, 2013). "Epic Games Closes Its Newest Studio, Impossible Games". IGN. IGN Entertainment. Archived from the original on September 19, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Peel, Jeremey (June 8, 2017). "Why has Fortnite taken so long?". PCGamesN. Archived from the original on December 1, 2017. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Crecente, Brian (July 26, 2018). "How a 2012 Decision Helped 'Fortnite' Make Epic Games a Billion Dollar Company". Variety. Archived from the original on July 25, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- Makuch, Eddie (March 21, 2013). "Chinese Internet company owns 40 percent of Epic Games". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on June 25, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- McWhertor, Michael (October 3, 2012). "'Gears of War' design director Cliff Bleszinski leaves Epic Games". Polygon. Vox Media. Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Crecente, Brian (May 5, 2016). "Epic luminaries on why they left". Polygon. Archived from the original on July 26, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- Makuch, Eddie (December 4, 2012). "Epic Games president retiring". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on February 18, 2014. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Gaston, Martin (March 8, 2013). "Former Epic Games president Mike Capps parts ways with studio". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on September 9, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Crecente, Brian (August 1, 2014). "The fixer: Why Rod Fergusson returned to Gears of War". Polygon. Archived from the original on July 26, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- McWhertor, Michael (January 27, 2014). "Microsoft acquires Gears of War from Epic, hires series producer Rod Fergusson". Polygon. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved July 26, 2018.
- Orland, Kyle (January 27, 2014). "Microsoft buys Gears of War franchise from Epic Games". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Archived from the original on September 23, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Dyer, Mitch (May 8, 2014). "Epic Games Reveals Free, Crowdsourced Unreal Tournament". IGN. IGN Entertainment. Archived from the original on August 21, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Makuch, Eddie (July 25, 2014). "New Unreal Tournament in development, and it'll be absolutely free". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on April 26, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Moscaritolo, Angela (November 4, 2015). "Epic Games Teases New PC Shooter 'Paragon'". PCMag UK. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on September 21, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Romano, Sal (December 3, 2015). "Shadow Complex Remastered announced for PS4, Xbox One, and PC". Gematsu. Archived from the original on July 30, 2017. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
- Shive, Chris (August 9, 2016). "Shadow Complex Gets Physical Release". Hardcore Gamer. Archived from the original on July 29, 2017. Retrieved July 29, 2017.
- Wawro, Alex (October 6, 2016). "Born out of Bullet Train, Epic's first commercial VR game is Robo Recall". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on August 9, 2017. Retrieved July 22, 2017.
- Stapleton, Dan (March 1, 2017). "Robo Recall Review". IGN. Archived from the original on March 17, 2017. Retrieved March 17, 2017.
- Gaudiosi, John (March 3, 2015). "Why Epic Games is giving away its game technology". Fortune. Time Inc. Archived from the original on March 8, 2015. Retrieved March 13, 2015.
- Hall, Charlie (June 24, 2015). "People Can Fly returns, no longer owned by Epic Games (update)". Polygon. Archived from the original on March 18, 2017. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
- Dornbush, Jonathon (December 1, 2016). "Bulletstorm Remastered Edition Revealed, Release Date Announced". IGN. Archived from the original on August 8, 2017. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
- Hall, Charlie (June 8, 2017). "Fortnite announces early access release, hands-on the unfinished game". Polygon. Retrieved July 24, 2017.
- Pendleton, Devon; Palmeri, Christopher (July 24, 2018). "Fortnite Mania Fuels Epic Growth to $8.5 Billion". Bloomberg LP. Archived from the original on July 24, 2018. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
- Plunkett, Luke (September 26, 2018). "Sony Is Finally Allowing Cross-Play On The PS4". Kotaku. Retrieved September 26, 2018.
- Conditt, Jessica (March 20, 2019). "Epic Games has 250 million 'Fortnite' players and a lot of plans". Engadget. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
- Chalk, Andy (July 12, 2018). "Fortnite is making so much money that Epic is giving Unreal Marketplace creators a big raise". PC Gamer. Retrieved July 12, 2018.
- Frank, Allegra (December 4, 2018). "Epic Games is launching its own store, and taking a smaller cut than Steam". Polygon. Retrieved December 7, 2018.
- Schreier, Jason (January 26, 2018). "After Fortnite's Massive Success, Epic Shuts Down Paragon". Kotaku. Archived from the original on January 26, 2018. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
- Makuch, Eddie (December 4, 2018). "Amid Fortnite's Success, New Unreal Tournament Stops Development At Epic Games". GameSpot. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- Garren, Patrick (July 12, 2017). "Disney Accelerator 2017 Includes Investments in aXiomatic and EPIC Games". The Esports Observer. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
- Crecente, Brian (October 26, 2018). "Epic Games Gets $1.25 Billion Investment From KKR, Six Others". Variety. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
- Novy-Williams, Eben; Palmeri, Christopher (October 26, 2018). "Fortnite's Epic Games Gets $1.25 Billion From New Investor Group". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
- Needleman, Sarah; Roof, Katie (October 26, 2018). "Fortnite Creator Epic Games Valued at Nearly $15 Billion". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 26, 2018.
- Kerr, Chris (January 22, 2018). "Epic Games acquires cloud processing tech provider Cloudgine". Gamasutra. Archived from the original on January 23, 2018. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
- Fogel, Stefanie (October 8, 2018). "Epic Games Acquires Anti-Cheat Company Kamu". Variety. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
- Batchelor, James (January 23, 2019). "Epic Games acquires 3Lateral". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- Takahashi, Dean (January 23, 2019). "Epic Games buys scripting tool maker Agog Labs for Unreal Engine 4". Venture Beat. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- Orland, Kyle (January 10, 2019). "Improbable snubs Unity, partners with Epic for $25M "open engine" fund". Ars Technica. Retrieved January 11, 2019.
- Gera, Emily (February 22, 2019). "Epic Breaks Down the 'Fortnite' World Cup $100 Million Prize Pool". Variety. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
- Batchelor, James (March 20, 2019). "Epic Games announces $100m MegaGrants program, launches free Online Services tools". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved March 20, 2019.
- Grubb, Jeff (December 4, 2018). "Fortnite dev launches Epic Games Store that takes just 12% of revenue". Venture Beat. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- Kerr, Chris (December 4, 2018). "Epic Games launching Steam competitor with 88% revenue share for devs". Gamasutra. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- Alexander, Leigh (May 20, 2008). "Epic Snags Undertow Developer Chair Entertainment Group". Kotaku. Gizmodo Media Group. Archived from the original on January 18, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- Sinclair, Brendan (April 12, 2016). "Epic opens Berlin outpost". GamesIndustry.biz. Gamer Network. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- Kerr, Chris (April 12, 2016). "Epic expands European publishing operations with new Berlin office". Gamasutra. UBM TechWeb. Archived from the original on April 23, 2016. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- Martin, Matt (September 25, 2006). "Epic Games forms Shanghai-based outsourcing division". GamesIndustry.biz. Eurogamer. Retrieved January 24, 2019.
- Schramm, Mike (April 12, 2010). "Epic Games planning gala celebration to open Tokyo office". Engadget. AOL Tech. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- Tito, Greg (April 13, 2010). "Epic Games Opens Japan Office". The Escapist. Defy Media. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- "Epic Games". Archived from the original on January 18, 2018. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
- Sinclair, Brendan (June 29, 2009). "Epic Games opens Korean shop". GameSpot. CBS Interactive. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- Ashcraft, Brian (June 30, 2009). "Epic Games In South Korea". Kotaku. Gizmodo Media Group. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- Benessaieh, Karim (November 3, 2018). "Fortnite atterrit à Montréal". La Presse (Canadian newspaper). Retrieved January 28, 2019.
- Kidwell, Emma (October 24, 2018). "Epic Games to establish new office in Australia and New Zealand". Gamasutra. Retrieved October 24, 2018.
- Williams, Mike (September 6, 2012). "Epic Seattle created for Unreal Engine 4 development". GamesIndustry.biz. Gamer Network. Archived from the original on November 14, 2012. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- Peel, Jeremy (September 6, 2012). "Epic Games to launch new Seattle studio, hiring engineers for Unreal Engine 4". PCGamesN. Network N. Archived from the original on March 12, 2017. Retrieved March 11, 2017.
- Jenkins, Brittan (March 28, 2017). "$1 Billion Lincoln Square Expansion in Bellevue is Almost Fully Leased". The Registry. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
- Riis, Jacob (May 18, 2018). "Join Epic Games Stockholm". Nordic Game. Retrieved September 13, 2018.
- Batchelor, James (August 5, 2014). "Epic Games opens UK studio". Develop. Archived from the original on February 23, 2016. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
- "Pitbull Bytes: From humble beginnings". Develop. Archived from the original on June 22, 2015. Retrieved January 22, 2018.
- Ford, Coreena (October 9, 2017). "Computer games firm Epic takes offices in Newcastle city centre". Chronicle Live. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
- Batchelor, James (October 8, 2018). "Epic Games acquires game security and anti-cheat firm Kamu". Gameindustry.biz. Retrieved October 8, 2018.
- Williams, Mike (February 8, 2013). "Epic Games closes Impossible Studios, delays Infinity Blade: Dungeons". GamesIndustry.biz. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
- Hussain, Tamoor (June 24, 2015). "People Can Fly Turns Independent, Buys Bulletstorm IP". GameSpot. Archived from the original on June 27, 2015. Retrieved June 24, 2015.
- Crecente, Brian (July 19, 2007). "Silicon Knights: Epic Sabotaged Us". Kotaku. Archived from the original on September 16, 2009. Retrieved November 15, 2017.
- Carless, Simon (July 19, 2007). "Breaking: Silicon Knights Files Lawsuit Against Epic". Gamasutra. UBM TechWeb. Archived from the original on September 24, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Brightman, James (August 9, 2007). "Mark Rein: Epic Games Did Nothing Wrong; Silicon Knights is Stealing". GameDaily. Archived from the original on November 22, 2007. Retrieved November 9, 2017.
- Sinclair, Brendan (August 9, 2007). "Epic Games countersues Silicon Knights". GameSpot. Archived from the original on September 28, 2017. Retrieved September 28, 2017.
- Graft, Kris (October 31, 2007). "Epic's Motion to Dismiss UE3 Case Denied". Next Generation. Archived from the original on November 3, 2007. Retrieved December 20, 2017.
- Totilo, Stephen (May 30, 2012). "Epic Says Epic Has Won Lawsuit Battle With Silicon Knights [UPDATE: Epic Awarded $4.45 Million]". Kotaku. Gawker Media. Archived from the original on August 24, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Nunneley, Stephany (November 9, 2012). "Epic judgment doubled, Silicon Knights ordered to pay over $9 million". VG247. Videogaming247. Archived from the original on August 8, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Sawyer, D. (November 7, 2012). "Silicon Knights, Inc. v. Epic Games, Inc". Justia. Archived from the original on September 4, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.
- Wong, Brenda (May 16, 2014). "Silicon Knights Inc". Collins Barrow. Archived from the original on April 10, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2016.