Ephraim Katzir (Hebrew: אפרים קציר Efrayim Katsir; 16 May [O.S. 3 May] 1916 – 30 May 2009) was an Israeli biophysicist and Labor Party politician. He was the fourth President of Israel from 1973 until 1978.
|4th President of Israel|
24 May 1973 – 29 May 1978
|Prime Minister||Golda Meir|
|Preceded by||Zalman Shazar|
|Succeeded by||Yitzhak Navon|
|Born||16 May [O.S. 3 May] 1916|
Kiev, Russian Empire (now Ukraine)
|Died||30 May 2009 (aged 93)|
|Political party||Israeli Labor Party|
Efraim Katchalski (later Katzir) was the son of Yudel-Gersh (Yehuda) and Tzilya Katchalski, in Kiev, in the Russian Empire (today in Ukraine). In 1925 (several publications cite 1922), he immigrated to Mandatory Palestine with his family to escape Soviet terror by the newly-elected Joseph Stalin and settled in Jerusalem. In 1932, he graduated from Gymnasia Rehavia. A fellow classmate, Shulamit Laskov, remembers him as the "shining star" of the grade level. He was “an especially tall young man, a little pudgy, whose goodness of heart was splashed across his smiling face.” He excelled in all areas, “even in drawing and in gymnastics, where he was no slouch. He was the first in the class in arithmetic, and later on in mathematics. No one came close to him.”
Like his brother, Aharon, Katzir was interested in science. He studied botany, zoology, chemistry and bacteriology at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In 1938 he received an MSc, and in 1941 he received a PhD degree. In 1939, he graduated from the first Haganah officers course, and became commander of the student unit in the field forces ('Hish). He and his brother worked on development of new explosives. In May 1948, Ephraim was appointed commander of the "Heyl Mada" (HEMED) – scientific research and development corps. His brother, Aharon Katzir, chairman of the Department of Polymer Research at Weizmann Institute, was murdered in the Lod Airport Massacre.
Katzir was married to Nina (née Gottlieb), born in Poland, who died in 1986. As an English teacher, Nina developed a unique method for teaching language. As the president's wife, she introduced the custom of inviting children books' authors and their young readers to the President's Residence. She established the Nurit Katzir Jerusalem Theater Center in 1978 in memory of their deceased daughter, Nurit, who died from accidental carbon monoxide exposure and another daughter, Irit, killed herself. They had a son, Meir, and three grandchildren. Katzir died on 30 May 2009 at his home in Rehovot.
After continuing his studies at the Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, Columbia University and Harvard University, he returned to Israel and became head of the Department of Biophysics at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, an institution he helped to found. In 1966–1968, Katzir was Chief Scientist of the Israel Defense Forces. His initial research centered on simple synthetic protein models, but he also developed a method for binding enzymes, which helped lay the groundwork for what is now called enzyme engineering.
On 10 March 1973, Katzir was elected by the Knesset to serve as the fourth President of Israel. He received 66 votes to 41 cast in favour of his opponent Ephraim Urbach and he assumed office on 24 May 1973. During his appointment, UN approved resolution 3379 which condemned "Zionism as Racism". He had to involve in the dispute between Mexico (where the resolution was initially promoted during the World Conference on Women, 1975) and the US Jewish community because of a touristic boycott directed from the later to that country.
In November 1977, he hosted President Anwar Sadat of Egypt in the first ever official visit of an Arab head of state. In 1978, he declined to stand for a second term due to his wife's illness, and was succeeded by Yitzhak Navon. After stepping down as President, he returned to his scientific work.
Awards and recognitionEdit
- In 1959, Katzir was awarded the Israel Prize in life sciences.
- In 1966, he was elected to the American Philosophical Society
- In 1966, he was elected to the United States National Academy of Sciences
- In 1972, he was awarded the Sir Hans Krebs Medal of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies
- In 1976, he was elected to the American Philosophical Society
- In 1977, he was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS)
- In 1985, he was awarded the Japan Prize.
- In 2000, the Rashi Foundation established the Katzir Scholarship Program in honor of Katzir, one of the first members of its board of directors.
- He is also a recipient of the Tchernichovsky Prize for exemplary translation.
- Запис про народження 3 травня (ст. ст.) 1916 року Ефраїма Качальського в метричній книзі київського рабинату // ЦДІАК України. Ф. 1164. Оп. 1. Спр. 158 (колишній номер — 514). Арк. 337зв.–338. (ru) (uk)
- Arnon, Ruth; Sela, Michael; Shindler, Colin (2016). "Ephraim Katchalski-Katzir. 16 May 1916 – 30 May 2009". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 62: 267–275. doi:10.1098/rsbm.2016.0015.
- KUnderground group's explosives maker who became president. Theage.com.au. Retrieved on 9 September 2011.
- "Israel's fourth president, Ephraim Katzir, dies". The Times of India Bennett Coleman & Co. Ltd. 31 May 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2009.
- Memoir / A History of Her Own, Haaretz
- Katzir bio. Zionism-israel.com. Retrieved on 9 September 2011.
- Nurit Katzir Jerusalem Theater Center Archived 17 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Jerusalem.muni.il. Retrieved on 9 September 2011.
- Israel's fourth president Ephraim Katzir dies at 93 Haaretz, 31 May 2009
- Katz Gugenheim, Ariela (2019). Boicot. El pleito de Echeverría con Israel (in Spanish). Mexico: Universidad Iberoamericana/Cal y Arena. ISBN 978-607-8564-17-0.
- "Israel Prize recipients in 1959 (in Hebrew)". Israel Prize Official Site. Archived from the original on 7 March 2012.
- "Ephraim Katzir". American Academy of Arts & Sciences. Retrieved 25 July 2022.
- "Ephraim Katchalski-Katzir". www.nasonline.org. Retrieved 25 July 2022.
- The International Who's Who 2004. p. 859.
- "APS Member History". search.amphilsoc.org. Retrieved 25 July 2022.
- "Katzir Scholarship Program". Archived from the original on 23 October 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2009.