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Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture

Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture (Chinese: 恩施土家族苗族自治州; pinyin: Ēnshī Tǔjiāzú Miáozú Zìzhìzhōu) is located in the mountainous southwestern corner of Hubei province, People's Republic of China. It forms Hubei's southwestern "panhandle", bordering on Hunan in the south and Chongqing Municipality in the west and northwest. The Yangtze River crosses the prefecture's northeastern corner in Badong County.

Enshi Prefecture

恩施州

Enshih
恩施土家族苗族自治州

Enrshiv bifzivkar befkar zifzifzoux(Tujia)

Entshil tutjadcul maolcul zibzhibzhoud(Miao)
Enshi Tusi Imperial City
Enshi Tusi Imperial City
Location of Enshi Prefecture in Hubei
Location of Enshi Prefecture in Hubei
Coordinates: 30°17′N 109°29′E / 30.283°N 109.483°E / 30.283; 109.483Coordinates: 30°17′N 109°29′E / 30.283°N 109.483°E / 30.283; 109.483
CountryPeople's Republic of China
ProvinceHubei
Prefecture seatEnshi City
Area
 • Total24,061 km2 (9,290 sq mi)
Population
 (2010)[1]
 • Total3,290,294
 • Density140/km2 (350/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
445000
Area code(s)0718
ISO 3166 codeCN-HB-28
Websiteenshi.gov.cn
Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture
Chinese恩施土家族苗族自治州
Alternative Chinese name
Chinese恩施
PostalEnshih
Second alternative Chinese name
Chinese施南 (former)
PostalShihnan

Contents

AdministrationEdit

GeographyEdit

Enshi Prefecture is located in the mountainous belt separating Hubei's Jianghan Plain from the Sichuan Basin.

There are karst phenomena in the region. The most famous of them is perhaps the Tenglong Cave near Lichuan. A 290-meter deep karst sinkhole, located near the village of Luoquanyan (锣圈岩村) in Xuan'en County, is described as possessing its own unique ecosystem.[4][5]

Enshi Grand Canyon (恩施大峡谷) is also a well-known scenic area.

ClimateEdit

Enshi City has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa), with short, cool winters, hot, humid summers, and high humidity year-round. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from 5.0 °C (41.0 °F) in January to 26.7 °C (80.1 °F) in August, while the annual mean is 16.18 °C (61.1 °F). More than two-thirds of the annual precipitation of 1,470 millimetres (58 in) occurs from May to September. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 12% in January to 50% in August, the prefecture seat receives only 1,212 hours of bright sunshine annually; winter is especially overcast while July thru September is the sunniest period of the year.

Climate data for Enshi City (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 8.3
(46.9)
10.3
(50.5)
14.9
(58.8)
21.6
(70.9)
25.9
(78.6)
28.8
(83.8)
31.6
(88.9)
32.5
(90.5)
27.3
(81.1)
21.6
(70.9)
15.9
(60.6)
10.4
(50.7)
20.8
(69.4)
Average low °C (°F) 2.6
(36.7)
4.0
(39.2)
7.5
(45.5)
12.6
(54.7)
16.8
(62.2)
20.2
(68.4)
22.8
(73.0)
22.6
(72.7)
18.8
(65.8)
13.9
(57.0)
9.0
(48.2)
4.3
(39.7)
12.9
(55.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 29.0
(1.14)
34.2
(1.35)
61.1
(2.41)
127.5
(5.02)
186.2
(7.33)
237.1
(9.33)
257.5
(10.14)
162.0
(6.38)
163.3
(6.43)
119.0
(4.69)
64.3
(2.53)
29.2
(1.15)
1,470.4
(57.9)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 11.5 11.4 15.1 15.9 16.3 16.6 16.3 12.8 12.6 14.4 11.9 11.2 166.0
Average relative humidity (%) 84 80 80 79 79 81 81 76 80 84 85 85 81
Mean monthly sunshine hours 37.9 44.6 63.1 105.7 124.8 124.4 166.5 204.1 125.7 96.5 69.4 49.2 1,211.9
Percent possible sunshine 12 14 17 27 30 30 39 50 34 27 22 16 27.3
Source: "China Meteorological Administration". Retrieved 2010-10-10.


DemographicsEdit

The total area is 24,000 square kilometres (9,300 sq mi), and the population is 3,800,000. 52.6% of the population belong to the Tujia and Miao nationalities. Enshi is the only autonomous prefecture in Hubei province.

Enshi is also the only part of Hubei which has been included in the Chinese government's Western exploration programme and over the next 5–10 years they will put 50 billion RMB into its development.

TransportationEdit

 
The Sidu River Bridge in southern Badong County, the world's highest bridge

The prefecture has only a small amount of Yangtze River frontage, but Badong, in the prefecture's northeast, has a Yangtze River port.

The Qing River in the central part of the prefecture, with its cascade of reservoirs, is an important waterway as well.

Due to the mountainous terrain, until recently the prefecture had no railways, and even the highways were of doubtful quality.[6]

The Yichang−Wanzhou Railway, completed in December 2010, crosses the prefecture from east to west, providing a more direct connection between Hubei and Sichuan than was previously available.[7] In addition, the Chongqing−Lichuan Railway from the Lichuan Railway Station on the Yiwan line connects the cities. A single line now connects Enshi with Beijing and Wuhan as well as many additional cities. The train between Beijing and Enshi takes approximately 24 hours and includes many stops along the way.

The G42 Shanghai–Chengdu Expressway, routed along the same Yichang-Wanzhou corridor, is under construction. The Sidu River Bridge on that road has become the world's highest bridge.

 
The Yangtze passes through Enshi Prefecture's Badong County.
 
A China Eastern Airlines aircraft in a special livery for promotion of tourism in the prefecture,

EconomyEdit

The soil in Enshi is rich in selenium. Enshi is known as the "selenium capital of China" and is the world's sole independent selenium deposit. Selenium Square in the city is named after this rare element.

The countryside has a diverse range of flora and fauna, including many Chinese herbs. Much of the mountain landscape is covered in virgin forest and is home to pangolins.

Enshi locals are especially proud of their potato crops and consider the potato and tea crops to be the region's agricultural specialties.

Enshi Prefecture possesses significant hydroelectric resources. Among major hydroelectric dams already completed, or under construction, within the prefecture are:

HistoryEdit

ImperialEdit

"Endless green mountains to walk on, endless clear water going away" (by a poet of the Tang dynasty)

RepublicanEdit

Republic of China's Hubei provincial government was relocated to Enshi during the 1937-45 resistance war (against Japanese invasion and occupation).

The Roman Catholic Church had the Diocese of Shinan on the territory of today's Enshi Prefecture.

People's Republic of ChinaEdit

Badong County was the site of the Deng Yujiao incident.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c 恩施土家族苗族自治州历史沿革 [Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture Historical Development] (in Chinese). XZQH.org. 6 August 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2018. 全州面积24061平方千米,{...}2010年第六次人口普查,恩施州常住总人口3290294人,其中:恩施市749574人,利川市654094人,建始县412038人,巴东县420840人,宣恩县310368人,咸丰县300618人,来凤县242870人,鹤峰县199892人。
  2. ^ 恩施州情概况(3) 行政区划 [Enshi Prefecture Overview 3 Administrative Divisions] (in Chinese). Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture People's Government. 20 November 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2018. 恩施自治州下辖恩施、利川2个县级市;建始、巴东、宣恩、咸丰、来凤、鹤峰6个县。
  3. ^ 2017年统计用区划代码和城乡划分代码:恩施土家族苗族自治州 [2017 Statistical Area Numbers and Rural-Urban Area Numbers: Enshi Tujia and Miao Autonomous Prefecture] (in Chinese). National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. 2017. Retrieved 27 December 2018. 统计用区划代码 名称 422801000000 恩施市 422802000000 利川市 422822000000 建始县 422823000000 巴东县 422825000000 宣恩县 422826000000 咸丰县 422827000000 来凤县 422828000000 鹤峰县
  4. ^ "湖北290米深天坑藏动植物王国. 燕子筑巢昆虫飞翔" [A plant and animal kingdom preserved inside a 290-meter deep Hubei sinkhole]. 淮海晚报 (in Chinese). 2015-05-22.
  5. ^ "Photos: See the Chinese Sinkhole That Developed Its Own Ecosystem". The Wall Street Journal Blog. 2015-05-22.
  6. ^ See, e.g., the characterization of the China National Highway 318 and China National Highway 209 as "unstable and unsafe" in Yichang-Wanzhou Railway (SEIA) Archived 2009-08-07 at the Wayback Machine (Asian Development Bank, June 2003), p. 6
  7. ^ "Yichang-Wanzhou Railway Project" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-12-11. Retrieved 2009-11-04. Cite uses deprecated parameter |dead-url= (help)

External linksEdit