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Wind farm in Turkey

Turkey consumes over 6 exajoules of primary energy per year,[1] over 20 megawatt hours (MW/h) per person. 88% of energy is fossil fuels[2] and the energy policy of Turkey includes reducing fossil fuel imports, which are a quarter of import costs.[3] As of 2016 greenhouse gas emissions by Turkey were 6.3 tons/person year,[4] more than the global average.[5]

Contents

OverviewEdit

Since 1990 annual primary energy consumption has almost tripled to 1700 TW/h[note 1] in 2016; including 31% oil, 28% gas and 27% coal;[6] and CO2 emissions from fuel combustion have risen from 130 megatonnes (Mt) to 340 Mt.[7]

Although Turkey produces its own lignite (brown coal), the Sankey diagram of Turkey's energy balance shows that half the country's coal and almost all other fossil fuel is imported, and that renewables contribute little.[8] Turkey's energy policy prioritises reducing imports, but has been criticised by the OECD for lacking carbon pricing,[9] subsidizing fossil fuels[10] and not taking more advantage of the country's abundant wind and sunshine.[11]

The diagram of final consumption shows that most oil products are used for road transport and that homes and industry consume energy in various forms.[8] Electricity is generated mainly from coal, gas (about a third each) and hydro (about a quarter) with a small but growing amount from other renewables such as wind and solar.[12] A nuclear power plant is under construction.

SourcesEdit

CoalEdit

Turkey produces a lot of lignite, almost all of which is burnt in power stations,[13] which churns out large amounts of carbon dioxide with a comparably low level of efficiency. Government subsidises coal-fired power stations despite the environmental impact of the coal industry and would like more to be built.

GasEdit

Annual gas demand is 50bcm[14], over 30% of Turkey’s total energy demand, and over half of which is supplied by Russia.[15] All 81 provinces in Turkey are supplied with natural gas,[16] which supplies most of the heat.[17]

Most gas from Russia comes via the Blue Stream pipeline, but TurkStream is expected to start operating in 2019. Iranian gas comes through the Tabriz–Ankara pipeline. Azerbaijan supplies Turkey through the Trans-Anatolian gas pipeline (which they claim is the cheapest that Turkey buys[18]) and South Caucasus Pipeline. Iraq may also supply gas in future, through the Southern Gas Corridor[19] and gas from the Eastern Mediterranean is also a possibility.[15]

Also 16.5% of gas is imported as LNG, which together with storage is important for meeting the winter demand peak.[15]

As of 2019 only a small proportion of gas imports are re-exported to the EU. However Turkey aims to become a gas trading hub[20] and re-export more.[14] State-owned BOTAŞ controls 80% of the market.[21] 91 mt of CO2 were emitted by burning natural gas in 2015,[22] however subsidies to gas-fired power stations are being reduced in 2019 and 2020, so older less efficient plants may reduce generation.[23]

OilEdit

Almost all oil is imported: mostly from Iraq, Russia and Kazakhstan[24][25] and oil also transits from Azerbaijan.[26] 92 mt of CO
2
were emitted by burning oil in 2015.[22]

NuclearEdit

Turkey has no operational nuclear reactors, but it is building a nuclear power plant at Akkuyu, with expected operation in 2023.

Renewable energyEdit

Hydroelectricity in Turkey is the largest renewable source of electricity and in 2018 was 9% of primary energy with other renewables at 6%.[27]

Geothermal power in Turkey is used mainly for heating. By massively increasing production of Turkey's solar power in the south and Turkey's wind power in the west the country's entire energy demand could be met from renewable sources.[28]

ElectricityEdit

Each year about 300 TWh of electricity is used in Turkey, which is almost a fifth of the amount of primary energy in Turkey. As the electricity sector in Turkey burns a lot of local and imported coal the largest source of greenhouse gas emissions by Turkey is the country's coal-fired power stations, many of which are subsidized. Imports of gas, mostly for power stations in Turkey, is the main import cost for the economy of Turkey. However solar power in Turkey and wind power in Turkey are being increased and balanced by the country's existing hydropower.

ConservationEdit

According to the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources, Turkey has the potential to cut 15 to 20 percent of total consumption through energy conservation.[29]

StorageEdit

With the increase in electricity generated by solar panels storage may become more important.

Thermal energy storageEdit

Testing in Ankara suggested a payback time between 18 months and 3 years for adding ice thermal storage to hypermarket cooling systems.[30]

TransmissionEdit

Turkey could generate 20% of its total electricity from wind and solar by 2026 without extra transmission system costs.[31]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Production + imports - exports from top right of IEA table in the citation. 1 Mtoe = 11.63 TWh

SourcesEdit

  • "OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Turkey 2019". OECD. February 2019.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Turkstat report (2019), p. 71
  2. ^ OECD (2019), section 1.
  3. ^ "Turkey's energy import bill up 2.7 pct in Feb. 2019". Anadolu. 29 March 2019.
  4. ^ "Turkey's greenhouse gas emissions up 4.4% in 2016". Anadolu.
  5. ^ "Who emits more than their share of CO₂ emissions?".
  6. ^ "Total Primary Energy Supply (TPES) by source:Turkey". IEA. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  7. ^ "CO2 emissions Turkey". IEA. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  8. ^ a b "General Directorate of Energy Affairs - Sankey Diagrams". eigm.gov.tr. Retrieved 2019-06-13.
  9. ^ OECD (2019), page 117
  10. ^ OECD (2019), pages 115,116
  11. ^ OECD (2019), page 65
  12. ^ "Electricity generation by fuel: Turkey". IEA. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  13. ^ "Overview of coal in Turkey and environmental precautions" (PDF). TKI. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
  14. ^ a b "From A Pipeline Nation To An Energy Trading Hub". Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  15. ^ a b c "TURKSTREAM IMPACT ON TURKEY'S ECONOMY AND ENERGY SECURITY" (PDF). "Istanbul Economics" & "The Center for Economics and Foreign Policy" - EDAM. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  16. ^ "Natural Gas Distribution". Gazbir. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  17. ^ "Turkey: Electricity and heat for 2016". IEA. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  18. ^ "TANAP gas to provide cheapest among Turkey's imports". Daily Sabah. 30 May 2018.
  19. ^ "Azerbaijan offers Iraq access to Europe gas pipelines". Agence France Presse.
  20. ^ "EXIST To Open Spot Natural Gas Market At End Of Year".
  21. ^ "Turkish households consumed cheapest natural gas in Europe in 2017". Daily Sabah. 12 August 2018.
  22. ^ a b "CO2 emissions from fuel combustion" (PDF). International Energy Agency. Retrieved 26 October 2018.
  23. ^ "Outlook 2019: Turkish natural gas market set for potential 'de-liberalization' in 2019". Platts. S & P Global. 27 December 2018.
  24. ^ "Turkey's crude oil imports from Iran down by more than 70 pct in June". 19 August 2018.
  25. ^ "Despite rhetoric, Turkey complies with U.S. oil sanctions on Iran". Reuters. 2019-05-21. Retrieved 2019-05-31.
  26. ^ "Turkish energy sector hit by lira depreciation: MUFG research". S & P Global. 7 August 2018.
  27. ^ BP (2019), p. 9
  28. ^ Kilickaplan, Anil; Bogdanov, Dmitrii; Peker, Onur; Caldera, Upeksha; Aghahosseini, Arman; Breyer, Christian (2017-12-01). "An energy transition pathway for Turkey to achieve 100% renewable energy powered electricity, desalination and non-energetic industrial gas demand sectors by 2050". Solar Energy. 158: 218–235. doi:10.1016/j.solener.2017.09.030. ISSN 0038-092X.
  29. ^ "Turkey Promotes Energy Conservation".
  30. ^ Erdemir, Dogan; Altuntop, Necdet (12 January 2018). "Effect of encapsulated ice thermal storage system on cooling cost for a hypermarket". International Journal of Energy Research.
  31. ^ Shura2018, page 6

External linksEdit