Endoxa (Greek: ἔνδοξα) is the plural of endoxon,[1] deriving from the word doxa (δόξα, meaning "Belief", "opinion"). Plato referred to doxa as the level of apprehension attained when a mind's activity is directed to ta onta or "things" and that the process[clarification needed] is independent of perception.[2] Whereas Plato condemned doxa as a starting point from which to attain truth, Aristotle used the term endoxa – in the sense of "commonplace", "everyday", "consensus" – to identify a group or population's beliefs that had previously withstood debate and argument (and were, thereby, more stable than doxa).

In Aristotle's conceptualization, endoxa are opinions that one can agree with after a careful examination of arguments both for and against it, with the former emerging stronger.[3] In the philosopher's explanation of the term in Topics I.1, endoxa was described as having five types: 1) the views of everyone; 2) the views of the preponderant majority; 3) the views of the recognized experts; 4) the views of all the experts; and, 5) the views of the most famous.[4] It is said that endoxa may be plausible but this does not mean that they are true.[3]

Aside from those found in the Topics[5] of the Organon, examples of Aristotle's use of endoxa may also be found in his Rhetoric.[6] Otfried Höffe, translated by Christine Salazar, offers a detailed discussion of the topic in "Aristotle" (2003; pp. 35–42).

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, ε , ἐνδοι-αστός , ἔνδοξ-ος".
  2. ^ Gulley, Norman (2013). Plato's Theory of Knowledge (Routledge Revivals). London: Methuen & Co Ltd. p. 87. ISBN 9781136200601.
  3. ^ a b Cellucci, Carlo (2013). Rethinking Logic: Logic in Relation to Mathematics, Evolution, and Method. Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media. p. 82. ISBN 9789400760905.
  4. ^ Shields, Christopher (2008). The Blackwell Guide to Ancient Philosophy. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 157-158. ISBN 978-0631222149.
  5. ^ Book I 1 100b18 Loeb Classical Library #391 p. 273
  6. ^ Aristotle. Rhetoric. pp. Book A.1.11.