Ende language (Indonesia)

Ende is an Austronesian language spoken in the central part of Flores, one of the Lesser Sunda Islands in the eastern half of Indonesia.[3] It belongs to the Central Flores subgroup.[4]

Native toIndonesia
Regioncentral Flores
Native speakers
110,000 (2009)[1]
Lota script
Language codes
ISO 639-3end
Ende is located in Indonesia
Coordinates: 8°43′S 121°34′E / 8.71°S 121.56°E / -8.71; 121.56


Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive voiceless p t k ʔ
voiced b d ɡ
prenasalized ᵐb ⁿd ᵑɡ
ejective ɓ ɗ
Affricate d͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless f s (h)
voiced ɣ
Nasal m n ŋ
Trill r
Lateral l
Approximant w ɹ

Following general Indonesian spelling conventions, /d͡ʒ/, /ŋ/, /ɣ/, /ʔ/ are written j, ng, gh and '. The prenasalized stops are written as mb, nd, ngg, the ejectives as bh and dh. /ɹ/ is represented by rh.


Like all Central Flores languages, Ende has a highly isolating structure.[5]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Ende at Ethnologue (22nd ed., 2019)
  2. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Ende". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  3. ^ a b McDonnell, Bradley (2009). "A Preliminary Description of Ende Phonology" (PDF). Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society. 2: 195–226.
  4. ^ Elias, Alexander (2019). Lio and the Central Flores languages (M.A. thesis). Leiden University. hdl:1887/69452.
  5. ^ Elias, Alexander (2020). "Are the Central Flores languages really typologically unusual?". Berkeley: University of California.