Empress Xiaogongren

Empress Xiaogongren (28 April 1660 – 25 June 1723), of the Manchu Plain Yellow Banner Uya clan, was a posthumous name bestowed to the consort of Xuanye, the Kangxi Emperor and mother of Yinzhen, the Yongzheng Emperor. She was honoured as Empress Dowager Renshou during the reign of her son and posthumously honoured as empress, although she never held the rank of empress consort during her lifetime.

Empress Xiaogongren
Empress Dowager Renshou
Empress dowager of the Qing dynasty
Tenure20 December 1722 – 25 June 1723
PredecessorEmpress Xiaohuizhang
Successor Empress Dowager Chongqing
Born(1660-04-28)28 April 1660
(順治十七年 三月 十九日)
Died25 June 1723(1723-06-25) (aged 63)
(雍正元年 五月 二十三日)
Yonghe Palace, Forbidden City
Jing Mausoleum, Eastern Qing tombs
(died 1722)
IssueYongzheng Emperor
Seventh daughter
Princess Wenxian of the First Rank
12th daughter
Yunti, Prince Xunqin of the Second Rank
Posthumous name
Empress Xiaogong Xuanhui Wensu Dingyu Cichun Qinmu Zantian Chengsheng Ren
HouseUya (烏雅)
MotherLady Saiheli
Empress Xiaogongren
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese孝恭仁皇后
Simplified Chinese孝恭仁皇后
Manchu name
Manchu scriptᡥᡳᠶᠣᠣᡧᡠᠩᡤᠠ
Romanizationhiyoošungga gungnecuke gosin hūwangheo


Family backgroundEdit

Empress Xiaogongren's personal name was not recorded in history. She was a Booi Aha of the Plain Yellow Banner by birth.

  • Father: Weiwu (威武), served as a third rank military official (護軍參領), and held the title of a first class duke (一等公)
    • Paternal grandfather: Esen (額森)
  • Mother: Lady Saiheli
  • Elder sister: wife of Alingga

Shunzhi eraEdit

The future Empress Xiaogongren was born on the 19th day of the third lunar month in the 17th year of the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor, which translates to 28 April 1660 in the Gregorian calendar.

Kangxi eraEdit

In February or March 1673, Lady Uya entered the Forbidden City and became a lady-in-waiting of the Kangxi Emperor. On 13 December 1678, she gave birth to the emperor's fourth son, Yinzhen. On 15 November 1679, she was granted the title "Concubine De". On 5 March 1680, she gave birth to the emperor's sixth son, Yinzuo, who would die prematurely on 15 June 1685.

On 28 January 1682, she was elevated to "Consort De". She gave birth on 5 July 1682 to the emperor's seventh daughter, who would die prematurely in September 1682, on 10 November 1683 to his ninth daughter, Princess Wenxian of the First Rank, on 14 June 1686 to his 12th daughter, who would die prematurely in February or March 1697, and on 10 February 1688 to his 14th son, Yunti.

Yongzheng eraEdit

The Kangxi Emperor died on 20 December 1722 and was succeeded by Yinzhen, who was enthroned as the Yongzheng Emperor. As the mother of the reigning emperor, Consort De was honoured as "Empress Dowager Renshou".

Empress Dowager Renshou died of illness on 25 June 1723. Some sources claimed that she wished to commit suicide to join her husband but her son refused to let her do so. She fell ill shortly afterwards and died after refusing medical treatment.[1] She was interred in the Jing Mausoleum of the Eastern Qing tombs. She was granted the posthumous title "Empress Xiaogongren" by the Yongzheng Emperor.


  • During the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor (r. 1643–1661):
    • Lady Uya (from 28 April 1660)
  • During the reign of the Kangxi Emperor (r. 1661–1722):
    • Concubine De (德嬪; from 15 November 1679[2]), fifth rank consort
    • Consort De (德妃; from 28 January 1682[3]), fourth rank consort
  • During the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor (r. 1722–1735):
    • Empress Dowager Renshou (仁壽皇太后; from 20 December 1722[4])
    • Empress Xiaogongren (孝恭仁皇后; from August/September 1723[5])


  • As a mistress:
    • Yinzhen (胤禛; 13 December 1678 – 8 October 1735), the Kangxi Emperor's 11th (fourth) son, enthroned on 27 December 1722 as the Yongzheng Emperor
  • As Concubine De:
    • Yinzuo (胤祚; 5 March 1680 – 15 June 1685), the Kangxi Emperor's 14th (sixth) son
  • As Consort De:
    • The Kangxi Emperor's seventh daughter (5 July 1682 – September 1682)
    • Princess Wenxian of the First Rank (固倫溫憲公主; 10 November 1683 – August/September 1702), the Kangxi Emperor's ninth daughter
      • Married Shun'anyan (舜安顏; d. 1724) of the Manchu Tunggiya clan in October/November 1700
    • The Kangxi Emperor's 12th daughter (14 June 1686 – February/March 1697)
    • Yunti (允禵; 10 February 1688 – 16 February 1755), the Kangxi Emperor's 23rd (14th) son, granted the title Prince Xun of the Second Rank in 1748, posthumously honoured as Prince Xunqin of the Second Rank

In fiction and popular cultureEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Wu (1979), pp. 14-15, 195-96.
  2. ^ 康熙十八年 十月 十三日
  3. ^ 康熙二十年 十二月 二十日
  4. ^ 康熙六十一年 十一月 十三日
  5. ^ 雍正元年 八月


  • Hummel, Arthur W. Sr., ed. (1943). "Hsiao-kung Jên Huang-hou" . Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period. United States Government Printing Office.
  • Ropp, Paul Stanley; Zamperini, Paola; Zurndorfer, Harriet Thelma (2001). Passionate Women: Female Suicide in Late Imperial China (Reprint ed.). BRILL. ISBN 9004120181.
  • Wan, Yi; Shuqing, Wang; Yanzhen, Lu; Scott, Rosemary E. (1988). Daily Life in the Forbidden City: The Qing Dynasty, 1644-1912 (Illustrated ed.). Viking. ISBN 0670811645.
  • Wu, Silas H. L. (1979). Passage to power: K'ang-hsi and his heir apparent, 1661-1722 (Illustrated ed.). Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674656253.
  • Zhao, Erxun (1928). Draft History of Qing (Qing Shi Gao) (in Chinese).
Empress Xiaogongren
House of Uya
Chinese royalty
Preceded by Empress dowager of China
20 December 1722 – 25 June 1723
Succeeded by