Emperor Shengzong of Liao

Emperor Shengzong of Liao (16 January 972 – 25 June 1031), personal name Wenshunu, sinicised name Yelü Longxu, was the sixth emperor of the Khitan-led Chinese Liao dynasty and its longest reigning monarch.

Emperor Shengzong of Liao
遼聖宗
6th Emperor of Liao Dynasty
Reign14 October 982 – 25 June 1031
PredecessorEmperor Jingzong
SuccessorEmperor Xingzong
BornWenshunu (Khitan name)
Yelü Longxu (sinicised name)
16 January 972
Died25 June 1031(1031-06-25) (aged 59)
EmpressXiao Pusage
ConcubineXiao Noujin
Consort Puwei
Consort Jiang
Consort Xiao
Consort Xiao
Consort Ma
Consort Da
Consort Bai
Consort Li
Consort Ai
Consort Sun
IssueSons:
Yelü Zongzhen
Yelü Zhongyuan
Yelü Biegute
Yelü Wuge
Yelü Gou'er
Yelü Hougu
Daughters:
Yelü Yange
Yelü Yanmu
Yelü Shuogu
Yelü Cuiba
Yelü Taoge
Yelü Dianni
Yelü Jiuge
Yelü Changshou
Yelü Bage
Yelü Shige
Yelü Boshi
Yelü Taige
Yelü Saige
Yelü Xingge
Era dates
Qianheng (乾亨; 982)
Tonghe (統和; 983-1012)
Kaitai (開泰; 1012-1021)
Taiping (太平; 1021-1031)
Regnal name
Emperor Tianfu (天辅皇帝)
Posthumous name
Emperor Wenwu Daxiao Xuan
(文武大孝宣皇帝)
Temple name
Shengzong (聖宗)
FatherEmperor Jingzong
MotherXiao Chuo
Emperor Shengzong of Liao
Traditional Chinese遼聖宗
Simplified Chinese辽圣宗
Wenshunu (Khitan name)
Chinese文殊奴
Yelü Longxu (sinicised name)
Traditional Chinese耶律隆緒
Simplified Chinese耶律隆绪

Conflict with the Northern Song dynastyEdit

Emperor Shengzong succeeded his father, Emperor Jingzong, at the age of 12 in 982. As he was too young to rule at the time, his mother, Empress Dowager Xiao, became the regent.

Emperor Taizong of the Northern Song dynasty sought to take advantage of the situation by launching an invasion on the Liao dynasty's southern capital (present-day Beijing) in the contentious Sixteen Prefectures in 986. Three large Song armies were sent to three different strategic locations on the approach to the southern capital. While initially successful, the young Emperor Shengzong, along with Empress Dowager Xiao, led an army of Liao cavalry to counter the enemy and defeated the Song forces at the Battle of the Qigou Pass in June.[1] Empress Dowager Xiao appointed Yelü Xiuge as her senior general to continue attacks on the Song dynasty in retaliation until the following year.

In 1004, the Liao dynasty carried out a large-scale invasion of Song territory, camping out in the town of Shanyuan, about 100 miles north of the Song capital of Kaifeng. This resulted in the Treaty of Shanyuan, signed in mid-January 1005. According to this treaty, the Song dynasty would pay an annual tribute of 200,000 bolts of silk and 100,000 taels of silver to the Liao dynasty in exchange for peace.[2] This arrangement would remain in place with modifications until the end of the Liao dynasty, and in fact, the Jurchens could continue this arrangement with the Song dynasty with the founding of their Jin dynasty.

Examination systemEdit

Emperor Shengzong also institutionalised state examinations for the selection of officials, which was done in 988, based on models used by the Han Chinese-led Tang and Song dynasties. Despite the importance of the return of the examination system, it initially only opened the road for very small numbers, as only three to five were awarded initially, and the number only increased to between 30 and 130 candidates passing the triennial exams by 1014.

Most jinshi degree holders were not even appointed to office, as Khitan aristocrats were far more likely to receive appointments. Khitan people receiving appointments did so specifically through patronage, as they were expressly prohibited from taking the examinations.[3]

Spread of BuddhismEdit

Emperor Shengzong began the active patronage of Buddhism, rebuilding temples such as the Monastery of Solitary Joy. Within a century of his reign, an estimated 10% of the Liao population were Buddhist monks or nuns, though this figure may have been exaggerated.[citation needed] While the Khitans did not associate Buddhism with the Chinese people because it was seen more as a Uyghur religion and thus not the religion of the Chinese, whom they saw as inferior, what is not clear is the extent that Buddhism penetrated the Khitan population, as the bulk of Buddhist shrines and temples were located in the southern part of the domains of the Liao where the largely Chinese sedentary population resided. There is evidence to suggest that the Khitan populace maintained their animistic belief systems along with their rituals.[4]

InnovationsEdit

During the rule of Emperor Shengzong, the Liao dynasty instituted feudal reform, spurring its economy. Prior to this, it had depended on territorial expansion, slavery and thievery. Under Emperor Shengzong's rule, most slaves were liberated, becoming normal members of society. The most important parts of the economy from then on were animal husbandry, particularly horse and sheep raising, as well as agriculture and fishing. During Emperor Shengzong's reign, the Liao dynasty enjoyed peace and prosperity, so it is widely praised that Emperor Shengzong's reign was a golden age of the Liao dynasty

Goryeo-Khitan WarsEdit

HaremEdit

  • Empress Xiao, of the Xiao clan (萧氏), demoted to Noble Consort (贵妃)
  • Xiao Pusage, Empress of the Xiao clan (萧氏皇后 萧菩萨哥; 983–1032), a niece of Empress Ruizhi
    • Second Son
    • Third son
  • Xiao Noujin, Empress Qin'ai of the Xiao clan (钦哀皇后 萧耨斤; d. 1057)
    • Yelü Zongzhen, Emperor Xingzong of Liao (耶律宗真; 1016–1055), 4th son
    • Yelü Zongyuan (耶律宗元; 1021–1063), 6th son
    • Yelü Yanmuqin (耶律岩母堇), Princess Zhangguo of Qin (秦国长公主), 2nd daughter
      • Married Xiao Zhuobu (萧浞卜)
      • Married Xiao Haili (萧海里)
      • Married Xiao Hudu (萧胡覩)
      • Married Xiao Hui (萧惠) and had issue (one son)
    • Yelü Shuogu (耶律槊古), Princess Yueguo (越国公主), 3rd daughter
      • Married Xiao Xiaozhong (萧孝忠) and had issue (Xiao Guanyin)
  • Noble Consort Xiao, of the Xiao clan (贵妃 萧氏; 970–993), daughther of Xiao Pai (萧排)
    • Unknown Son
    • Unknown Daughter
    • Yelü Yange (耶律燕哥; b. 990), Princess of Qin (秦国公主), 1st daughter
      • Married Xiao Pili (萧匹里) in 1012 and had issue (five sons and six daughters).[5]
  • Virtuous Consort Xiao, of the Xiao clan (德妃 萧氏; d. 1017)
  • Lady of Warm Ceremony, of the Geng clan (淑仪 耿氏)
    • Yelü Zongyuan (耶律宗愿; 1008–1072), 10th son
  • Concubine Xiao, of the Xiao clan (萧氏)
    • Yelü Cuiba (耶律崔八; d. 1030), Princess Nanyang (南阳公主), 4th daughter
      • married Xiao Xiaoxian (萧孝先)
    • Yelü Taoge (耶律陶哥), Princess Zhangning (长宁公主), 5th daughter
      • married Xiao Yangliu (萧杨六)
  • Concubine Xiao , of the Xiao clan (萧氏)
    • Yelü Dianni (耶律钿匿), Princess of Jingguo (荆国公主), 6th daughter
      • married Ciao Shuanggu (萧双古)
  • Concubine Ma, of the Ma clan (马氏)
    • Yelü Jiuge (耶律九哥), Princess Xunyang (浔阳公主), 7th daughter
      • married Xiao Lian (萧琏) in 1017
  • Concubine Da, of the Da clan (大氏)
    • Yelü Changshou (耶律长寿), Princess Linhai (临海县主), 8th daughter
      • married Dali Qiu (大力秋) of Bohai
      • married Xiao Gu (萧古)
  • Concubine Bai, of the Bai clan (白氏)
    • Yelü Bage (耶律八哥), Princess Tongchang (同昌公主), 9th daughter
      • married Liu Sangu (刘三嘏)
    • Yelü Shige (耶律十哥),Princess Sanhe (三河郡主), 10th daughter
      • married Xiao Gaojiu (萧高九)
    • Yelü Baishi (耶律擘失), Princess Renshou (仁寿县主), 11th daughter
      • married Liu Siduan (刘四端)
    • Yelü Taige (耶律泰哥), 12th daughter
      • married Xiao Hulie (萧忽烈)
  • Concubine Li, of the Li clan (李氏)
    • Yelü Saige (耶律赛哥), Princess Jinxiang (金乡郡主), 13th daughter
      • married Xiao Tuyu (萧图玉)
  • Concubine Ai, of the Ai clan (艾氏)
    • Yelü Xingge (耶律兴哥), 14th daughter
      • married Xiao Wangliu (萧王六)
  • Concubine, of the Puhai clan (仆槐氏)
    • Yelü Zongxun (耶律宗训), 8th son
    • Yelü Zongwei (耶律宗伟), 9th son
  • Unknown
    • Yelu Fubaonu (耶律佛宝奴b. 988), 1st son
    • Yelu Shusi (耶律属思b.1017), 5th son
    • Yelü Zongjian (耶律宗简; d. 1050), 7th son

AncestryEdit

Yelü Abaoji (872–926)
Yelü Bei (899–937)
Shulü Ping (879–953)
Emperor Shizong of Liao (919–951)
Empress Rouzhen (d. 951)
Emperor Jingzong of Liao (948–982)
Shulü Pogu
Xiao Aguzhi
Lady Yelü
Xiao Sagezhi (d. 951)
Emperor Shengzong of Liao (972–1031)
Xiao Humeili
Xiao Siwen (d. 970)
Xiao Chuo (953–1009)
Yelü Abaoji (872–926)
Emperor Taizong of Liao (902–947)
Shulü Ping (879–953)
Yelü Lübugu

In popular cultureEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ [Mote p. 68-71]
  2. ^ [Mote p. 68-71, 115–116]
  3. ^ [Mote p. 76-81]
  4. ^ [Mote p. 81-86]
  5. ^ "辽代《萧绍宗墓志铭》和《耶律燕哥墓志铭》考释_爱学术". www.ixueshu.com. Retrieved 2021-09-25.

ReferencesEdit

Emperor Shengzong of Liao
House of Yelü (916–1125)
Born: 972 Died: 1031
Regnal titles
Preceded by Emperor of the Liao Dynasty
982–1031
Succeeded by