Emiliano Zapata, Morelos

Emiliano Zapata is a city in the west-central part of the Mexican state of Morelos. It stands at 18°52′N 99°09′W / 18.867°N 99.150°W / 18.867; -99.150. The city serves as the county seat (sede municipal) for the surrounding municipality of the same name. The city is the sixth largest in the state of Morelos, with a 2005 census population of 39,702 inhabitants. The municipality reported 69,064 inhabitants and has an area of 64.983 km² (25.09 sq mi). The city was previously known as both San Francisco Zacualpan and San Vicente Zacualpan. It was renamed in honor of Mexican Revolutionary Emiliano Zapata. inafed.gob.mx/enciclopedia/mor/emilianozapata Dec 11, 2018

Subsidiary county seats (ayudantias) are: Tres de Mayo, (population 17,966);[1] known principally for its ceramic), Tezoyuca (population 4,555);[2] where a cement factory and a water park are located), Tepetzingo, (population 2,104)[3] and Tetecalita (population 3,055).[4]

HistoryEdit

Prehispanic HistoryEdit

Oral tradition states that the founders of Tzacualpan were originally from Tejalpa, Tepoztlán, and Xitepeptl, (Jiutepec). It is said that an ambitious peasant fell in love with a royal princess, much to the rage of her father. The young man was forced to pay high tributes and he was forced to move elsewhere, finally settling on a plain between a bald hill and a hill of the gods. With time this area became a part of a powerful lord who fought against the Lord of Cuauhnahuac in 1389.[5]

Colonial PeriodEdit

After the conquest in 1521, Hernan Cortes was named Marqués de Oaxaca; his lands included present-day Morelos. In 1534 the territory of Morelos fell under the jurisdiction of the Province of Mexico City. The territory that today makes up the municipality of Emiliano Zapata was known as Tzacualpan, and the Spanish added a saint's name. Since it was near the Franciscan monastery of Santiago de Xiutepec, this area came to be called San Francisco Tzacualpan.

In 1618 Don Diego de Alarcón was granted 170 hectares of land, where he established a sugar cane hacienda. This became the center of the town, as the lord employed a large number of workers.[5]

19th CenturyEdit

In 1840, the town was renamed San Vicente Zacualpan in honor of the hacienda owner, Vicente de Eguia. In 1856, the hacienda of San Vicente changed hands, and it was owned by Don Pío Bermejillo and administered by his brother, Nicolás. Not far, near the Hill of Sayula, was the Hacienda of Dolores, which was dependent on San Vicente.

The cattle of Trinidad Carrillo, who rented land from Hacienda Dolores, damaged some of the sugar cane of Hacienda Dolores. Nicolás Bermejillo kicked Carrillo off the land, and the latter vowed revenge. Enlisting the aid of Nicolás Leite and Matías Navarrete, on December 18, 1856, they attacked San Vicente and killed four high-ranking men. Luckily, Don Pío Bermejillo was not present. In September 1858, the killers were tried for assault, robbery, and murder at the haciendas of Chiconcuac and San Vicente.[5]

20th and 21st CenturiesEdit

President Álvaro Obregón made a historic visit in 1922.

In 1930, the government of Mexico decreed that no municipality could be named for a saint, so San Vicente Zacualpan was renamed Emiliano Zapata in honor of the Revolutionary general. On December 15, 1932, Governor Vicente Estrada Cajigal established two new municipalities: Atlatlahucan and Emiliano Zapata with the town of Zapata designated the capital. The villages of Tezoyuca, Tepetzingo, and Tetecalita were part of the municipality.[5]

Ana Olivia Albarran Salazar of PVEM (Green Party) was elected Presidente Municipal (mayor) in the July 1, 2018 election.[6]

GeographyEdit

Location, area, and land useEdit

Emiliano Zapata is one of 36 municipalities the state of Morelos, located in the center of the state at 18°50′12″N 99°10′55″W / 18.83667°N 99.18194°W / 18.83667; -99.18194[7] Emiliano Zapata borders the municipalities of Temixco and Jiutepec to the north; Jiutepec, Yautepec, and Tlaltizapán to the east; Tlaltizapán and Xochitepec to the south; Xochitepec and Temixco to the west. It has an area of 68.37 km2, 1.4% of the total territory of Morelos. 3,362 hectares are used for agriculture, 1,196 hectares for livestock, 930 hectares for forests and 16 hectares for industrial use. 3,168 hectares are ejido property, 508 hectares are communal property, and 466 private hectares are privately owned.[5]

ClimateEdit

Emiliano Zapata has a tropical climate, Aw according to the Köppen climate classification. Summers have much more rain than winters. The temperature averages 23.2°C (°F) and rainfall averages 917 mm per year. May is the hottest month and January is the coldest.[8]

Relief and waterwaysEdit

The municipality is located between two hills: Montenegro on the east and Texcal on the west. The highest elevation is Cueva del Aire hill with an altitude of 1,650 meters (5,413 ft.) above sea level. Sierra Madre del Sur has an altitude of 1,240 meters.

Las Fuentes River and a branch of the Apatlaco River flow from north to south. The Agua Salada River and the Yautepec River also cross the municipality. Other streams are Palo Blanco, La Rosa and Roque. There are five large wells.[5]

EcosystemsEdit

Vegetation is mostly low deciduous forest of warm climate; higuerilla, black amate (acacia), guaje, jarilla, cactus, and carriage. Jacaranda, tabachin], casahuate, ceiba, and bougainvillea are common.

Mammals include skunk, rabbit, hare, cacomixtle, opossum, bat, badger, armadillo, and coyote. These last three in danger of extinction. Birds include flag bird, chachalaca, magpie, buzzard, crow, and owl.[5]

Natural resourcesEdit

Limestone serves as raw material for lime and cement factories.[5]

EconomyEdit

Emiliano Zapata is largely agricultural with 1,282 hectares of irrigated land and 120 hectares of rainfed agriculture. The most important crops are sugarcane, rice, corn, beans, peanuts, squash, alfalfa, floriculture, and greenhouses. Another sector that contributes to the economy is livestock through the production of cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, and horses. The industrial sector developed in recent years, making a large part of the municipal territory is considered an important area for trade and services. Given this, it must be said that the construction industry has shown outstanding growth in Emiliano Zapata, which is due to the development of subdivisions and condominiums of medium and residential type.

There are more than 400 wineries and commercial premises of all kinds that offer services, such as grocery stores, furniture stores, pharmacies, clothing, hardware stores, materials for construction, stationery, food, restaurants, hotels, and more. The tourism sector is small, but ceramics and handicrafts are sold.[9]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://mexico.pueblosamerica.com/i/tres-de-mayo-15/ accessed Dec 27, 2018
  2. ^ https://en.mexico.pueblosamerica.com/i/tezoyuca-2/ accessed Dec 27, 2018
  3. ^ https://en.mexico.pueblosamerica.com/i/tepetzingo/ accessed Dec 27, 2018
  4. ^ https://en.mexico.pueblosamerica.com/i/tetecalita/ accessed Dec 27, 2018
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h "Emiliano Zapata, Morelos" [Emiliano Zapata, Morelos] (in Spanish). Enciclopedia de los Municipios y Delegaciones de Mexico. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
  6. ^ http://impepac.mx/wp-content/uploads/2018/07/Candidatos-electos-2018.pdf Retrieved Dec 14, 2018
  7. ^ "GPS COORDINATES OF EMILIANO ZAPATA, MEXICO". Latitude. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
  8. ^ "CLIMA EMILIANO ZAPATA" [Climate Emiliano Zapata] (in Spanish). Climate-Data.org. Retrieved March 1, 2019.
  9. ^ "Emiliano Zapata, Morelos" [Emiliano Zapata, Morelos] (in Spanish). Municipios.mx. Retrieved March 1, 2019.

External linksEdit