Emiliano Chamorro Vargas

Emiliano Chamorro Vargas (11 May 1871 – 26 February 1966) was the President of Nicaragua from 1 January 1917 to 1 January 1921 and again from 14 March 1926 to 11 November 1926.[1]

Emiliano Chamorro Vargas
Emiliano Chamorro Vargas.jpg
President of Nicaragua
In office
14 March 1926 – 11 November 1926
Preceded byCarlos José Solórzano
Succeeded bySebastián Uriza
In office
1 January 1917 – 1 January 1921
Vice PresidentNemesio Martínez
Preceded byAdolfo Díaz
Succeeded byDiego Manuel Chamorro Bolaños
Personal details
Born(1871-05-11)11 May 1871
Acoyapa, Nicaragua
Died26 February 1966(1966-02-26) (aged 94)
Managua, Nicaragua
Political partyConservative Party
RelationsPedro Joaquín Chamorro Alfaro (granduncle)
Fruto Chamorro Pérez (half-granduncle)

He was the son of Salvador Chamorro Oreamuno and wife Gregoria Vargas Báez, paternal grandson of Dionisio Chamorro Alfaro and wife Mercedes Oreamuno ..., grand-nephew of Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Alfaro, 39th President of Nicaragua, and Fernando Chamorro Alfaro and half-grand-nephew of Fruto Chamorro Pérez, 30th and 31st President of Nicaragua.

Chamorro's first foray into politics came in 1893, when he participated in the failed revolution to topple President José Santos Zelaya. When Zelaya was finally removed in a 1909 coup led by Juan José Estrada, Chamorro became Chairman of the Constituent Assembly and leader of the country's Conservative Party.

In reward for his assistance in defeating the revolt against President Adolfo Díaz, Chamorro was appointed Nicaragua's Minister to the United States. In 1914, he negotiated the Bryan-Chamorro Treaty with the United States, by which Nicaragua agreed to allow the construction of a canal across the country, linking the Caribbean with the Pacific Ocean (a canal which has not been constructed).

He returned to Nicaragua in 1916, and was elected president. His Conservative Party received United States assistance in attaining power, and Chamorro later partnered with the U.S.[2] During his term in office he made a concentrated effort to pay off the country's creditors. Running again for office in 1923, he was defeated by Carlos José Solórzano. In 1926, he led a successful coup to overthrow Solórzano, but his new government failed to win American support, faced a civil war, and he eventually resigned in favor of Adolfo Díaz.

In the following years, Chamorro served as Nicaragua's minister to several European states. Originally opposed to the dictatorship of Anastasio Somoza García, he eventually reached a compromise in 1950 (The Pact of the Generals[1]), whereby the Conservative Party was granted a number of seats in the Congress. This, however, cost him the support of many radical members of the Conservative Party.

GenealogyEdit

Emiliano Chamorro Vargas comes from a very influential family in Nicaragua, both politically as well as economically.

His ancestors were:

  • Diego Chamorro de Sotomayor y Murga b. 1711 Sevilla, Spain, d. 1785 Nicaragua and Gregoria Gertrudis Lacayo de Briones y Pomar b. 1716 Granada, Nicaragua d. 1784 Granada, Nicaragua
  • Fernando Chamorro Lacayo b. 1751 Granada, Nicaragua d. 1793 Granada, Nicaragua and Barbara Nicolasa Arguello del Castillo b. 1756 Granada, Nicaragua d. 1785 Granada, Nicaragua
  • Pedro José Chamorro Argüello b. 29 Dec 1782 Granada, Nicaragua, d. 31 May 1824 Granada, army general, and Josefa Margarita Alfaro Jimenez-Monterroso b. 1794 Granada, Nicaragua, d. 1884 Granada, Nicaragua
  • Dionisio Chamorro Alfaro b. ABT 1817 Granada, Nicaragua, d. 3 July 1889 Granada, and Mercedes Antonia Oreamuno Abaunza b. 9 June 1834 Masaya, Nicaragua, d. 3 July 1889 Granada, Nicaragua
  • Salvador Chamorro Oreamuno and Gregoria Vargas Baez b.. 1853 Juigalpa, Chontales, d. 1936 Juigalpa, Chontales

He is nephew of President Rosendo Chamorro Oreamuno, half-grand nephew of President Frutos Chamorro Perez, nephew of President Diego Manuel Chamorro Bolaños and grand nephew of Presidents Fernando Chamorro Alfaro and Pedro Joaquín Chamorro Alfaro.

Emiliano is the only child of Salvador Chamorro Oreamuno and Gregoria Vargas Baez. His mother remarried to Evaristo de la Rosa Enriquez and had nine other children, half siblings of Emiliano. Evaristo Enríquez was brother to Emiliano´s father in law, Ceferino Enríquez.

Emiliano Chamorro Vargas married Lastenia Enriquez Bermudez, b. abt 1875 Comalapa, Chontales d. 7 April 1952 Managua, daughter of Ceferino Enríquez and Isabel Bermudez. Emiliano later Mercedes Rodriguez Urbina. He did not have children and inherited all his fortune to his nephews both from the Chamorro and the Enriquez family.

In popular cultureEdit

The portrait of President Emiliano Chamorro Vargas appears in the novel "Spalovač mrtvol", written by Czech novelist Ladislav Fuks and published in 1967, and in the film adaptation Spalovač mrtvol, directed by Juraj Herz and released in 1969.[3]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Gobernantes de Nicaragua". Ministerio de Educación. 9 December 2012. Archived from the original on 9 October 2012.
  2. ^ Kinzer, Stephen (2013). The Brothers: John Foster Dulles, Allen Dulles, and Their Secret World War. New York: Times Books.
  3. ^ http://www.vernonjohns.org/snuffy1186/cremator.html

External linksEdit

Political offices
Preceded by
Adolfo Díaz
President of Nicaragua
1917–1921
Succeeded by
Diego Manuel Chamorro
Preceded by
Carlos José Solórzano
President of Nicaragua
1926
Succeeded by
Sebastián Uriza